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  • Ws859n748?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: An emperor kneels and kisses the pope's right foot, while cardinals, clerics, a monk, and others observe. The pope carries the keys of his office in his right hand. In an insert at the pope's right, a jester kneels and points upward at the pope with one hand and downward at a chained monkey with the other. The damage to the OSU copy of this illustration (pictured here) results from a reader having defaced the woodcut in an apparent act of censorship. The image is the fourth in the "Proud Primacy of Popes" series and appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/27. JPEG file (4.49 MB).
  • Pz50h3388?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Emperor Henry VI kneels before Pope Celestine III, who crowns the emperor with his foot. Cardinals, bishops, monks, and others observe. The pope carries the keys of his office in his left hand. The title of this image inaccurately identifies the pope as Celestine IV, who died in 1241, just fifteen days after becoming pope. Celestine III reigned from 1191-98 and crowned Emperor Henry VI, whose reign spanned the same dates. This woodcut is the fifth in the "Proud Primacy of Popes" series and appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/28. JPEG file (4.32 MB).
  • 1544bw07c?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: King John of England kneels and yields his crown to Pandulphus, the papal legate, who sits in a presence chamber on a slightly raised dais. Bishops and monks observe with approval, but others (presumably laity) do so with suspicion. A cityscape is visible beyond a colonnade. This woodcut is the eighth in the "Proud Primacy of Popes" series and appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/30. JPEG file (4.4 MB).
  • Hd76s5678?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: In this iconoclastic woodcut allegory of the English Reformation, King Henry VIII sits enthroned on a raised dais over Pope Clement VII ("P. Clem" [Pope Clement]), whose tiara lies discarded before him. John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester ("B. Fisher" [Bishop Fisher]) bends over the pope, while Cardinal Reginald Pole ("Pole D" [Doctor Pole]) looks up at Henry from the king's left. Thomas Cromwell ("Cromwe" [Cromwell]), Henry's vicegerent for religious affairs, and Thomas Cranmer ("Cranmer"), Archbishop of Canterbury, receive the English Bible from Henry, who holds a sword that symbolizes his temporal authority over the church. The presence of the sword and the book in this image echoes similar designs that appear on title pages of vernacular English Bibles, which were published with crown approval in the 1530s. Alarmed, the Catholic clergy mourn Clement's fall, while other courtiers observe from both sides of the throne. The Royal Arms above Henry's head accentuates the king's newfound primacy over the Church of Rome. This woodcut appears in the second (1570) and third (1576) editions at Foxe's discussion of the Act of Supremacy (1534), which legalized Henry's authority as Supreme Head of the Church of England. The image appears in the fourth edition (1583) at the opening of Foxe's discussion of Henry's entire reign, replacing "King Henry VIII sits in his council chamber with advisers" in that location. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/48. JPEG file (3.98 MB).
  • 8w32rc41z?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Nightingall, whom Foxe identifies as a Roman Catholic parson at Crondall in Kent, falls from his pulpit and into his congregation. The death supposedly occurs while the tonsured Nightingall had preached that the pope has authority to pardon sins. According to Foxe, his death demonstrates providential disapproval of papal authority. Individual members of Nightingall's congregation hold rosary beads. (See also the lower right panel on the title page woodcut in this collection.) This woodcut appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/65. JPEG file (4.05 MB).
  • 3484zp92f?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: This woodcut image depicts selected reforms of the English church that transpired during the reign of King Edward VI. Priests and tonsured friars carry censing bells, mass books, crucifixes, and other allegedly dangerous objects of Roman Catholic devotion from a church ("The Temple well purged") and load them onto a waiting ship ("The ship of the Romish Church" ["The ship of the Roman Church"]; "Shippe ouer your trinkets and be packing ye Papistes" ["Ship over your trinkets and be packing you papists"]; "The Papistes packing away their paultrye" ["The papists packing away their paltry"]). Iconoclasts burn images ("Burning of Images") and pull statues from the church wall in the background. In the lower left, King Edward carries a sword that symbolizes his authority as Supreme Head of the Church of England, a title first assumed by Henry VIII. Edward delivers a Bible ("Biblia" [Bible]) to his attendants, an action which alludes to the royal support of vernacular Bible reading that appears in "King Edward VI receives a book" and "King Henry VIII sits enthroned over Pope Clement VII" in this collection. The initials "E[dwardus] 6. R[ex]" ["King Edward VI"] appear on Edward's throne. In the lower right, a preacher delivers a sermon to a congregation of men and women, who read from open Bibles. Nearby rest a communion table ("The Co[m]munion Table") and a baptismal font, which is in use. These objects symbolize the Edwardian church's rejection of the other five Roman Catholic sacraments. This portion of the image echoes a similar portrayal on the title page woodcut of the Book of Martyrs. "English Reformation under King Edward VI" introduces Foxe's discussion of Edward's reign in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/57. JPEG file (3.78 MB).
  • X633f689z?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: James Bainham stands barefoot on a raised platform and undergoes penance before a congregation at St. Paul's Cathedral in London. He carries a bundle of wood and a lit candle, and a tonsured priest gestures to the congregants from behind him. This woodcut appears once in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/45. JPEG file (3.84 MB).
  • 8g84mt362?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: An ecclesiastical official ("Officiall" ["Official"]) removes Wycliffe's bones from his coffin [identified xylographically as "Wycklyfes Bons" ["Wycliffe's bones"], and a "Sum[m]oner" ["Summoner"] and an archdeacon ("Arch. De." ["Archdeacon"]) burn them. A second official ("Comissari." ["Commissary"]) pours the ashes into the River Swift ("The ashes of Wickleffe cast into the riuer." ["The ashes of Wycliffe cast into the river"]), while a crowd observes. The scene transpires before the church at Lutterworth (identified xylographically), where Wycliffe was rector. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/4, 11223/4. JPEG file (992 KB).
  • Xs55mj51m?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: As Burton sits backward on an ass, soldiers lead him through a town and a friar gestures at him. Burton wears garments that are decorated with devils. He burns at the stake in an upper insert, where soldiers supervise the execution and a crowd observes. Burton receives martyrdom at the hands of Spaniards. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/53, 11223/104. JPEG file (1.03 MB).
  • K3569997n?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: "The description of ye [the] poysoning [poisoning] of King Iohn [John] by a Monke of Swinsted Abby [Swinstead Abbey] in Lincolne Shiere [Lincolnshire]." Six scenes tell the story: upper left -- "The Monke absolved to poyson [poison] King John. Ego absolvo te & c [I absolve you];" upper right -- "The Monke tempereth [tempers] his poyson [poison] into a Cup to give ye [the] King;" middle left--“The Monke presenteth King John with his cup of poyson [poison] begining [beginning] himselfse [himself] to ye [the] King" as he says, “Wassail my liege;" middle right-- "King John lieth here dead of poyson [poison];" lower left-- "The Monke lieth here dead of ye [the] poyson [poison] that he dranke to ye [the] King;" lower right--"A perpetuall Masse [mass] sung daily in Swinsted [Swinstead] for ye [the] Monke that Poysoned [poisoned] King John." The single-page insert is tipped in vertically with the scenes moving left to right, which differs from the double-page presentation and sequencing of scenes of the woodcut in the early editions. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/3 and 11223/3. JPEG file (1.46 MB).
  • Xp68kp45f?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: "The order and manner of taking up ye [the] body of John Wycliffe, and burning his bones 41. years after his death." Wycliffe's bones are removed from his coffin by an “officiall [official]"; a “somner [summoner]" and “arch de [archdeacon]" cast the bones into the burning fire; and a “commissari [commissary]" disposes of the ashes into the river while a crowd of people observe. The burning of Wycliffe's bones takes place near Lutterworth and is a revised version of the woodcuts that appear in all four early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/4, 11223/4. JPEG file (433 KB).
  • Vq27zt76m?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Pope Alexander III treads on the neck of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. A conversation takes place between them in Latin in which the Pope says: "Super aspidem & basiliscum ambulabis, & conculcabis leonem & draconem [You will walk over the asp and basilisk and trample underfoot the lion and the dragon]". (This statement is derived from Psalm 91:13.) A cartouche in the lower right gives Frederick’s response: "Non tibi, sed Petro [Not to you, but Peter]", and the Pope’s reply: “Et Mihi & Petro" [Both me and Peter]." Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/2 and 11223/2, which appear in all four of the early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). JPEG file (483 KB).
  • Gq67jz11k?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: “The order and manner of the burning of the constant Martyr of Christ, John Lambert.” John Lambert, naked and chained to a stake, stands with both arms outstretched upward and says "None but Christ, none but Christ." Men from either side of Lambert poke the fire while a richly dressed man sits and watches on horseback and a crowd of clergy and soldiers stand nearby. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/19 and 11223/50, which appear in all four early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). JPEG file (460 KB).
  • 6q182s19p?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: John Bradford (“Bradford”), holding a book in his hand, is watched closely by the jailer (“Iailor”) as he talks with three Spanish friars. The one closest to Bradford (“Alphonsus”) is speaking as the men behind him (“Confessor” and one un-named man) listen. Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/33 and 11223/71 which appear in all four early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). JPEG file (469 KB).
  • Xk81js01v?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Three separate scenes portray selected events of the Reformation under Edward VI and the elimination of Roman Catholic traditions; in the first one, "The temple purged," men are carrying various Roman Catholic icons out of the temple to a burning pile, labeled "Burning of Images." The scene in the lower left-hand corner of the image depicts Edward VI (Ed 6) on his throne presenting a Bible to various prelates that surround him. In the final scene, appearing in the bottom right-hand corner of the image, a preacher is delivering a sermon to a congregation and stands next to a Communion table, labeled "The Communion Table." Heavily revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/57, which first appears in the second (1570) early English edition and continues into the third (1576) and fourth (1583) editions. JPEG file (321 KB).
  • Z603r453f?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Flanked by angels, Christ the Judge presides at the top of this title page woodcut. The lower panels depict the opposition between the "true" Protestant and "false" Roman Catholic churches. The lower left illustrates a Protestant preacher delivering a sermon to a congregation, the members of which read open books that symbolize Bibles. Protestants worship God, who appears as the Hebrew Tetragrammaton. In the next panel, Protestant martyrs burn and ascend to heaven in an upward movement, carrying palm fronds that signify their martyrdoms. The lower right depicts a Roman Catholic priest instructing a congregation. Members of this audience hold beads, which symbolize the Catholic devotional practices attacked by Foxe and other English Protestants. A procession progresses behind, evoking celebrations such as the Feast of Corpus Christi that Foxe and his co-religionists rejected. In an upper panel, monks and priests honor the elevated host and demons are driven from heaven in a downward movement that indicates divine disapproval for Roman Catholic doctrine and devotion. The complete title reads, "Actes and Monuments of these latter and perillous dayes, touching matters of the Church, wherein ar comprehended and described the great persecutions & horrible troubles, that have bene wrought and practiced by the Romishe Prelates, speciallye in this Realme of England and Scotlande, from the yeare of our Lorde a thousande, unto the tyme nowe present. Gathered and collected according to the true copies & wrytinges certificatorie, as wel of the parties them selves that suffered, as also out of the Bishops Registers, which wer the doers therof, by John Foxe, Imprinted at London by John Day, dwellyng over Aldersgate. Cum privilegio Regi[a]e Majestatis [i.e., With the prerogative of the Queen's majesty]." This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). In the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions, it illustrates the opening of volumes one and two of the work. The phrase "Come ye blessed, Go ye cursed" appears on the image in the second edition (1570), where it corresponds to "The Image of the persecuted Church" and "The Image of the persecuting Church." No Luborsky and Ingram #. JPEG file (2.7 MB).
  • Pz50h323n?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Foxe replaces the traditional Saints' calendar with this iconoclastic calendar, which celebrates the deaths of Protestant and proto-Protestant martyrs. He includes columns for the year and day of each martyr's death. The calendar is printed in red and black ink and appears only in the first (1563) and fourth (1583) editions. No Luborsky and Ingram #. JPEG file (1.38 MB).
  • 6q182s11g?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: An executioner lowers Gardiner by chain from a gallows into a blaze. A crowd of soldiers and civilians observes, and a friar and a priest on horseback jeer. The stumps of Gardiner's bleeding wrists indicate that his hands have been cut off. According to Foxe, the execution occurs in Lisbon at the hands of Spaniards. The OSU copy of the 1563 version of the illustration (pictured here) contains the manuscript inscription, "I Suffer for the Truth," written in the blank banderole extending from Gardiner's mouth. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/22, 11223/58. JPEG file (981 KB).
  • 7w62ff86f?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: A barebacked man carries a burning taper in his left hand, while Bishop Edmund Bonner ("Bon[n]er") flogs him from behind. A crowd observes. This woodcut appears twice in the third edition (1576) to illustrate the penance of John Florence (sig. II6v [right], p. 636) and Tho. Pye and John Mendham (sig. KK2v, p. 640). Luborsky and Ingram 11223/15. JPEG file (3.57 MB).
  • Ht24wr726?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: A barebacked man carries a burning taper in his left hand, while Bishop Edmund Bonner ("Bon[n]er") flogs him from behind. A crowd observes. This woodcut appears once in the second edition (1570) to illustrate the penance of John Florence. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/15. JPEG file (3.57 MB).
  • Tm70n247c?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Acts and Monuments of MATTERS most Special and Memorable, Happening in the CHURCH: WITH AN Universal History Of the same. Wherein is set forth at Large, the whole Race and Course of the CHURCH, from the Primitive Age to these later Times of Ours, with the Bloody Times, Horrible Troubles, and Great Persecutions against the true MARTYRS of Christ, Sought and Wrought as well by Heathen Emperors, as now lately practised by Romish Prelates, especially in this realm of England and Scotland. Now again, as it was Recognized, Perused, and Recommended to the Studious Reader, by the Author, Mr. John Fox. Whereunto are annexed certain Additions of like PERSECUTIONS which have happened in these Later Times. To which also is added the LIFE of the AUTHOR both in Latine and English. The Ninth Edition. Apoc. 7. Salus Sedenti Super Thronum & Agno. London: Printed for the Company of Stationers, MDClXXXIV. Printed with black and red ink; original illustrated title page border has vanished. JPEG file (0.97 MB).
  • W3763d59b?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Foxe lists the names and death dates of Protestant and proto-Protestant martyrs for the months of January and February. JPEG file (1.14 MB).
  • 6m311v937?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Foxe lists the names and death dates of Protestant and proto-Protestant martyrs for the months of March and April. JPEG file (1.28 MB).
  • 9s161c89p?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Foxe lists the names and death dates of Protestant and proto-Protestant martyrs for the months of May and June. JPEG file (1.04 MB).
  • Rb68xj68s?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: “The description of the Popes Councell holden [held] at Rome, in which appeared a monstrous Owle, to the utter defacing of the Pope, and all his Clergie [Clergy].” The Pope, bishops, friars, and other clergy gather for the Pope's Council in Rome and are struck with awe at the sight of a giant owl sitting in the rafters. Others in the crowd try to remove the owl by throwing sticks and poking at it. This engraving is slightly revised from the woodcut that appears in the second, third, and fourth early English editions (1570, 1576, 1583). Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/9. JPEG file (464 KB).
  • 2f75rg109?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: "THE THIRD VOLUME OF THE ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY CONTAINING THE Acts and Monuments OF MARTYRS: WITH A General Discourse of these later Persecutions, horrible Troubles, and Tumults, stirred up by ROMISH PRELATES IN THE CHURCH. WITH Divers other Things incident, especially to this Realm of England and Scotland, as partly also to all other Forein [Foreign] Nations appertaining; From the Time of Queen MARIES entring [entering] upon the Crown, to the Reign of our late Gracious Sovereign Queen ELIZABETH, of Blessed Memory. Recognized and Enlarged by the Author, MR. JOHN FOX. Whereunto are annexed certain Additions, unto the time of our late Sovereign Lord King CHARLES of Blessed Memory. LONDON, Printed for the Company of STATIONERS, MDCLXXXIV." Printed, original illustrated page border has vanished. JPEG file (306 KB).
  • M900p156r?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: “The description of a Popish Priest, who when he had taken away the Glory and office of Christ, fell down suddenly, and died." Nightingall, the priest, falls from the pulpit into the congregation below him while delivering a sermon. As he falls, he says: "I am cleansed from my Sins." Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/65, which appears in each of the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) early English editions. JPEG file (438 KB).
  • H989r986f?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Foxe lists the names and death dates of Protestant and proto-Protestant martyrs for the months of November and December. JPEG file (1.17 MB).
  • Vt150q892?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Justice stands blindfolded on a pedestal in this iconoclastic Protestant allegory. She grasps a sword in her right hand and scales in her left, which symbolize her authority and her impartiality. On the left side of the image, Christ (designated by a nimbus) and his followers, all of whom are barefoot, talk among themselves and gesture at the Bible ("Verbum Dei" ["Word of God"]) that weighs down their side of the scale. The pope, a cardinal, a bishop, friars, clerics, and others frantically load the opposite side with a crucifix, Mass wafers, Decretal books ("Decretalis"), chalices, rosary beads, and other objects associated with Roman Catholic doctrine and devotional practices. A devil clings to the bottom of the Catholic side, but all of this fails to overturn the weight of scripture. A town is visible in the distance. The image articulates the bibliocentrism of many Protestant reformers and demonstrates those elements of the Roman Catholic faith that many Protestants rejected. See also "English Reformation under King Edward VI" and the title page woodcut in this collection. The image appears in the third (1576) and fourth (1583) editions, but first appears in The whole works of W[illiam] Tyndale, John Frith, and Doct[or] Barnes (London: John Day, 1573). Luborsky and Ingram 11224/2, 24436/3. JPEG file (3.9 MB).
  • Ns064c61r?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: A jailor ("Gaoler" ["Jailor"]) guards Bradford ("Bradford."), while Spanish friars question him in his cell. One friar ("Alphon.") questions Bradford directly, and a second friar ("confessor.") and a priest stand behind the first friar. Bradford carries a book, which symbolizes a Bible, in his right hand. Xylographic labels identify all but one of the five individuals in the image. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/33, 11223/71. JPEG file (1.01 MB).
  • Xw42nf84d?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: A jailor guards Bradford, while three bishops question him in his cell. Xylographic labels identify Bradford and his guard ("Bradford" and "keper." ["keeper"]). Bradford carries a book, which symbolizes a Bible, in his right hand. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/32, 11223/70. JPEG file (1.01 MB).
  • S7526k23x?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: While executioners prod him from either side, Lambert ("None but Christ, none but Christ") burns at the stake. A richly dressed man supervises the execution from horseback, and alarmed observers and others stand by. Lambert perishes following his conviction on charges that he denied the real presence of Christ in the eucharist. King Henry VIII himself presided over Lambert's trial, which produced embarrassment among Protestants who wanted to claim King Henry as a champion for the Protestant faith. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/19, 11223/50. JPEG file (1.02 MB).
  • K0698f67w?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: "The manner of the popish Spaniards in carrying Nicholas Burton a blessed martyr of Christ, after most spitefull sort to the burning" Nicholas Burton sits backward on an ass and is wearing garments that depict devils. He also wears a hat that is similar to a bishop’s which is also decorated with Satanic figures. According to the text surrounding the image, Burton is wearing a "Canvas coat and hat decorated with three Divels [Devils] that are used to commit his sould [soul] unto the Devil." The text also indicates that Burton’s tongue was forced out with a cloven stick fastened upon it so he could not utter his conscience and faith to the people. The ass is led by a group of soldiers who are identified as “Popish Spaniards” in the caption. A friar follows Burton and appears to be gesturing toward him and possibly having a conversation with the condemned martyr. In the upper right hand corner of the image is a depiction of the burning of Burton while a crowd of soldiers observes. Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/53 and 11223/104, which appear in all four early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). JPEG file (497 KB).
  • J098zj096?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: John Florence, in 1424, is barebacked and bleeding, barefooted while carrying a long-stemmed taper. He walks while being flogged by a man marked as "Somner [Summoner? Bonner?]." Other men observe. A similar image appears only once in the second edition (1570), where it is clear that Bishop Edmund Bonner is the man displing [disciplining] Florence. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/15. JPEG file (476 KB).
  • Nv935901q?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: This composite, full-page woodcut insert illustrates the poisoning of John, King of England. In the upper right, a Swinstead Abbey monk ("Ego absoluo te &c." ["I absolve you, etc."]) absolves another monk, in advance, of the guilt he will incur when he poisons the king. In the lower right, the monk prepares the poison ("Here the Monk tempereth his poyson." ["Here the monk tempers his poison."]). In the lower center, the monk delivers the poison to the king ("King Iohn presented with a cup of poyson by a Monk drinking unto him." ["King John presented with a cup of poison by a monk drinking unto him"]), saying "Wassail mylige." ["Wassail, my liege?"]. John forces the monk to drink first, and the deaths of both follow: in the upper center, "King Iohn ded of poiso[n]." ["King John dead of poison."]; in the upper left, "The Monk dead of the poyson he drank to the king." ["The monk dead of the poison he drank to the king."]. In the lower left, the monk's fellows commemorate his death with a Mass held in his honor: "A perpetual masse sung daylye in Swinstead for the Monk, that poysoned the King." ["A perpetual Mass sung daily in Swinstead for the monk that poisoned the king"]. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/3, 11223/3. JPEG file (2.33 MB).
  • Bg257m403?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: A crowned Emperor Frederick Barbarossa receives a rebuke from Pope Adrian IV for mishandling the papal stirrup. Adrian rides a richly caparisoned horse and carries the keys of his office in his left hand as he delivers the rebuke. Cardinals carry an awning over the pope, bishops and friars observe, and others kneel in submission. This woodcut is the tenth in the "Proud Primacy of Popes" series and appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/32. JPEG file (4.44 MB).
  • Qb98mm938?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: The pope rides through a street on a richly caparisoned horse. The Holy Roman Emperor walks beside him as a subordinate who holds his bridle. Crowned kings precede the pope and carry orbs, which symbolize their authority. Bishops and cardinals follow him, and others kneel in the lower right foreground. The pope carries the keys of his office in his left hand. This woodcut is the eleventh in the "Proud Primacy of Popes" series and appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/33. JPEG file (4.35 MB).
  • Rx913w644?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Henry IV, King of Germany and future Holy Roman Emperor, awaits Pope Gregory VII (Hildebrand) before the closed gates of Canosa in January 1077. He stands barefoot with his wife and son who also stand barefoot. Clerics and monks mock the king from above, while Gregory dallies with a woman. This woodcut appears once in the first edition (1563), as a paste-in, but twice in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Its second use in those editions forms the sixth illustration in the "Proud Primacy of Popes" woodcut series, which functions as an appendix to volume one of the work from the second edition onward. Luborsky and Ingram 11222/1, 11223/1. JPEG file (4.58 MB).
  • 6m311v805?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Foxe replaces the traditional Saints' calendar with this iconoclastic calendar, which celebrates the deaths of Protestant and proto-Protestant martyrs. He includes columns for the year and day of each martyr's death. The calendar is printed in red and black ink and appears only in the first (1563) and fourth (1583) editions. No Luborsky and Ingram #. JPEG file (1.42 MB).
  • 5d86p613d?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Foxe replaces the traditional Saints' calendar with this iconoclastic calendar, which celebrates the deaths of Protestant and proto-Protestant martyrs. He includes columns for the year and day of each martyr's death. The calendar is printed in red and black ink and appears only in the first (1563) and fourth (1583) editions. No Luborsky and Ingram #. JPEG file (1.45 MB).
  • 3x816t07v?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Foxe replaces the traditional Saints' calendar with this iconoclastic calendar, which celebrates the deaths of Protestant and proto-Protestant martyrs. He includes columns for the year and day of each martyr's death. The calendar is printed in red and black ink and appears only in the first (1563) and fourth (1583) editions. No Luborsky and Ingram #. JPEG file (1.37 MB).
  • Sq87c181b?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Foxe replaces the traditional Saints' calendar with this iconoclastic calendar, which celebrates the deaths of Protestant and proto-Protestant martyrs. He includes columns for the year and day of each martyr's death. The calendar is printed in red and black ink and appears only in the first (1563) and fourth (1583) editions. No Luborsky and Ingram #. JPEG file (1.42 MB).
  • Ns064c65v?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Pope Alexander III stands with his right foot pressed down upon the emperor's neck. A serpentine tongue extends from his mouth, while a bishop and cardinal look on. A cartouche in the lower right displays a conversation between the emperor ("Non tibi, sed Petro." ["Not to you, but to Peter"]) and the pope ("Et mihi, & Petro." ["Both to me and to Peter"]). A second cartouche sarcastically records the comments of the observers ("Super aspidem & basiliscum ambulabis, & conculcabis leonem & draconem." ["You will walk over the asp and basilisk and trample the lion and the dragon."]). This statement, which derives from Psalm 91:13, functions as a key to Foxe's text. The woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583) and is based on an illustration from Robert Barnes, Bapsttrew Hadriani iiii. und Alexanders iii. gegen keyser Friderichen Barbarossa geübt (Wittenberg, 1545). It appears in the first edition (1563) as a paste-in. Luborsky and Ingram 11222/2, 11223/2. JPEG file (3.52 MB).
  • Nk322m31g?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: An angry priest flogs Pye and Mendham, who carry tapers, are dressed in loincloth, and walk barefoot with their heads bowed. This woodcut appears only in the second edition (1570). In the third (1576) and fourth (1583) editions, it is replaced by "Bishop Bonner scourges a penitent" in this collection. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/17. JPEG file (3.9 MB).
  • Vq27zt785?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: James Bainham undergoes public penance by standing barefoot on a platform in St. Paul's Cathedral in London and carrying a long taper and a bundle of wood. A priest stands behind him and a man in the crowd raises his hand. Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/45, which appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) early English editions. JPEG file (449 KB).
  • T148fp77d?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: The burning of the books and bones of both Martin Bucer and Paul Fagius in the town square of Cambridge. At the top of the image, officials are casting both the bones and the books into a large burning pyre. A large procession of civilians begins at the left of the image and circles the burning pyre. This large group of civilians carries with them tapers and banners while others kneel before the burning pyre. Friars and clerics lead this procession and give several orders to those who follow: "Salue festa dies [Hail thee, festival day]," "On afore, On afore," and "Hold up your torches for [from] dropping". Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/47 and 11223/94, which appear in all four early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). JPEG file (449 KB).
  • 00000527f?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: As attendants carry him through a town in a decorated, open-air litter, the pope gestures to kneeling figures at the lower right and left of the image. Crowned kings precede him, carrying orbs that symbolize their authority, and a train of cardinals, bishops, and friars follows. The pope carries the keys of his office in his left hand. This woodcut is the twelfth and final illustration in the "Proud Primacy of Popes" series and appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/34. JPEG file (4.35 MB).
  • C821gr85j?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: King Henry III of England kneels to kiss the knee of a cardinal, who arrives as papal legate. A train of bishops and friars follows the legate, and others kneel behind Henry to offer homage. Some observe from a rooftop above. This woodcut is the ninth in the "Proud Primacy of Popes" series and appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/31. JPEG file (4.44 MB).
  • Wh2470015?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: The SECOND VOLUME OF THE ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY: CONTAINING THE Acts and Monuments of MARTYRS: WITH A General Discourse of the later Persecutions, horrible Troubles and Tumults, stirred up by ROMISH PRELATES in the CHURCH WITH Divers other Things incident to this Realm of ENGLAND and SCOTLAND. Recognized and Enlarged by the Author Mr. John Fox. London: Printed for the Company of Stationers, MDCLXXXIV. Printed; original illustrated title page border not available. JPEG file (287 KB).
  • M039kb668?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Henry IV, King of Germany and future Holy Roman Emperor, surrenders his crown to Pope Gregory VII (Hildebrand), who sits enthroned. Henry's wife and son kneel beside him, and cardinals and bishops observe with approval. The pope carries the keys of his office in his right hand. The events in this image occur immediately following those illustrated by "Henry IV awaits the pope outside Canosa" in this collection. This woodcut is the seventh in the "Proud Primacy of Popes" series and appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/29. JPEG file (4.42 MB).
  • Jh3440756?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: A barebacked man carries a burning taper in his left hand, while Bishop Edmund Bonner ("Bon[n]er") flogs him from behind. A crowd observes. This woodcut appears twice in the fourth edition (1583) to illustrate the penance of John Florence (sig. LL6r [right], p. 659) and Tho. Pye and John Mendham (sig. MM2r, p. 663). Luborsky and Ingram 11223/15. JPEG file (3.57 MB).
  • Z603r440c?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Friars forcibly remove Bilney from his pulpit outside Saint George's Church in Ipswich ("Friers pulling Bilney out of the pulpit." ["Friars pulling Bilney out of the pulpit"]; "Saint Georges churche in Ipswich." ["Saint George's church in Ipswich"]). The congregation of men, women, and children sits and stands nearby. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/14, 11223/43. JPEG file (1 MB).
  • 2v23w1534?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Foxe replaces the traditional Saints' calendar with this iconoclastic calendar, which celebrates the deaths of Protestant and proto-Protestant martyrs. He includes columns for the year and day of each martyr's death. The calendar is printed in red and black ink and appears only in the first (1563) and fourth (1583) editions. No Luborsky and Ingram #. JPEG file (1.33 MB).
  • 7d279084t?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: The pope sits enthroned in a cathedral on a raised dais, surrounded by friars, cardinals, and bishops. Clergy and others stand below. All look upward in alarm at an oversized owl perched in the rafters, and some attempt to remove it. This woodcut appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/9. JPEG file (4.4 MB).
  • G445ck97c?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Martin Bucer and Paul Fagius were continental Protestant theologians who migrated to England during the reign of Edward VI in order to escape Catholic persecution in Europe. Both died during the period of Edward's rule, at Cambridge, but religious authorities under Queen Mary exhumed their remains and burned them, along with their books, in order to combat their alleged heresies. This full-page woodcut insert records these events. In the upper center of this illustration, smoke rises from a burning pyre ("How M. Bucers and Paulus Phagius bones, were put into two new Coffins, and so bound to a Stake." ["How Martin Bucer's and Paul Fagius's bones were put into two new coffins and so bound to a stake"]). These coffins burn in a fire fueled by the books. A ring of civilians and officials surrounds the burning pyre, and a procession circles the event. A priest or friar carries a consecrated host under a canopy, in the lower right corner of the image, in a manner similar to the procession illustrated by the title page woodcut in this collection. Individuals carry banners and tapers at the front of the train. Friars ("Salue festa dies" / ["Hail, festival day"]) follow, carrying liturgical books that would likely have been written in Latin, a language inaccessible to most lay people at the time. The use of these sanctioned books affords a contrast to the heterodox books of Bucer and Fagius that burn nearby. Xylographic labels ("On afore, On afore," and "Hold up your torches for [i.e., from] dropping") convey orders given to the front of the procession. In an expression of conservative religious devotion, many individuals follow behind, and some kneel beside. The scene occurs in the town square at Cambridge. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/47, 11223/94. JPEG file (3.11 MB).
  • 3n204474x?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: “Henricus [Henry IV] the Emperor with his wife and child waiting barefoot and barelegd [barelegged], three days and three nights, at the gates of Carnusium [Carnosa].” Clerics and monks mock the king from above, while Pope Gregory VII (Hildebrand) dallies with a woman. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/1 and 11223/1, which appear in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) early English editions. JPEG file (2.05 MB).
  • Mc87px14j?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Foxe lists the names and death dates of Protestant and proto-Protestant martyrs for the months of July and August. JPEG file (1.22 MB).
  • Hd76s564f?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Foxe lists the names and death dates of martyrs for the months of September and October. JPEG file (1.14 MB).
  • 1257b0214?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Twelve scenes that illustrate "The Proud Primacy of Popes described in order of their rising up from faithfull Bishops & Martyrs to become Lords & Governors over Kings & Kingdoms" are engraved on this two-page tipped-in fold-out. Each engraving depicts a particular scene, beginning in the upper left corner: "Variety of Tortures exercised on Christians;" "Constantine the Emperor embracing Christian Bishops;" “Bishops of Rome advanced by emperors;" “An Emperor kissing the Popes feet;" “Pope Celestine crowning Henry 6 Emperor with his foot;" "Henry & Emperor waiting 3 dayes and nights in frost and snow for Pope Gregory admittance;" "King John offering his Crown to Pandulphus the Popes Legate;" “Henry & Emperor surrendering his crown to the Pope;" "King Henry kissing the knee of the Popes Legate;" "Frederick Emperor holding y Popes stirrup on y wrong side;" "The Pope Riding the Emperor or holding the Bridle, Kings walking before him;" "The Pope carried on mens shoulders." Each of these is a revised design of the twelve woodcuts that comprise the "Proud Primacy of Popes" series from the second early English edition (1570) forward. No Luborsky and Ingram #. JPEG file (869 KB).
  • Cc08hn59f?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: King Henry VIII sits enthroned on a raised dais over Pope Clement VII ("P. Cleme [Pope Clement]"), whose tiara lies discarded before him. John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester ("B. Fisher [Bishop Fisher]") bends over the Pope, while Cardinal Reginald Pole ("OLE") looks up at Henry from the king's left. Thomas Cromwell ("Cromwell"), Henry's vicegerent for religious affairs, and Thomas Cranmer ("Cranmer"), Archbishop of Canterbury, receive the English Bible from Henry, who also holds a sword. Other courtiers observe, some with seeming dismay on their countenances. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/48, which appears only in the fourth (1583) early English edtion. JPEG file (414 KB).