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  • Ws859n748?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: An emperor kneels and kisses the pope's right foot, while cardinals, clerics, a monk, and others observe. The pope carries the keys of his office in his right hand. In an insert at the pope's right, a jester kneels and points upward at the pope with one hand and downward at a chained monkey with the other. The damage to the OSU copy of this illustration (pictured here) results from a reader having defaced the woodcut in an apparent act of censorship. The image is the fourth in the "Proud Primacy of Popes" series and appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/27. JPEG file (4.49 MB).
  • Pz50h3388?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Emperor Henry VI kneels before Pope Celestine III, who crowns the emperor with his foot. Cardinals, bishops, monks, and others observe. The pope carries the keys of his office in his left hand. The title of this image inaccurately identifies the pope as Celestine IV, who died in 1241, just fifteen days after becoming pope. Celestine III reigned from 1191-98 and crowned Emperor Henry VI, whose reign spanned the same dates. This woodcut is the fifth in the "Proud Primacy of Popes" series and appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/28. JPEG file (4.32 MB).
  • B2774267n?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: In the backdrop behind this ornamental capital "E," an enthroned King Edward VI holds a sword in his right hand as a symbol of his authority. As attendants observe, the king receives a book from a kneeling courtier. The image echoes portrayals of King Henry VIII delivering the vernacular Bible to his subjects on the title pages of works such as the Coverdale (1535) and Great (1539) Bibles, as well as "King Henry VIII sits enthroned over Pope Clement VII" in this collection. The illustration also evokes the figure of John Bale, a radical English Protestant antiquarian and polemicist who oversaw the placement of a similar picture in his bibliography of British writers, the Illustrium Maioris Britanniae Scriptorum . . . Summarium [Summary of Illustrious Writers of Great Britain] (1548). Bale hoped that the image would earn him patronage under Edward. He shared exile with Foxe during the reign of Mary I. This woodcut appears only in the first edition (1563); "English Reformation under King Edward VI" replaces it in subsequent editions, beginning with the second (1570). The image also appears in folio Bibles that John Day published during Edward's reign. No Luborsky and Ingram #. JPEG file (185 KB).
  • Rb68xj68s?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: “The description of the Popes Councell holden [held] at Rome, in which appeared a monstrous Owle, to the utter defacing of the Pope, and all his Clergie [Clergy].” The Pope, bishops, friars, and other clergy gather for the Pope's Council in Rome and are struck with awe at the sight of a giant owl sitting in the rafters. Others in the crowd try to remove the owl by throwing sticks and poking at it. This engraving is slightly revised from the woodcut that appears in the second, third, and fourth early English editions (1570, 1576, 1583). Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/9. JPEG file (464 KB).
  • 3n204473n?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: In these Arms of Pope Julius II, the papal tiara rests behind two crossed papal keys of office. A shield sits before these keys and contains an oak tree bearing acorns. The shield also displays tassels. This woodcut appears in the fourth edition (1583) to illustrate Foxe's printing of Pope Clement VII's bull of sentence against Henry VIII, who had tried to obtain from the papacy a divorce from his wife, Catharine of Aragon. Pope Julius II reigned from 1503-13. At the time of Henry's marriage to Catharine, English and Spanish authorities sought a dispensation from Julius that would allow the match, since Catharine had previously been married to Henry's older brother, Arthur. In the 1583 edition, these Arms replace "Coat of Arms of Pope Clement VII," which appears in this location in 1570. Neither woodcut appears in the first (1563) or third (1576) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11225/1. JPEG file (843 KB).
  • X346db38f?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: The cartouche surrounding these crowned Arms contains the motto of the Order of the Garter and English Arms, "Honi soit qui mal y pence" ["Shame to him who thinks evil of it"]. "Vivat Re[gina]." ["Long live the queen"] in flag above; "E.R." ["Elizabetha Regina" / "Elizabeth, queen"] flanking beside; "I.D." ["John Day"] on the shields on the pillars. This woodcut underwent modification for use in publications during the reigns of Edward VI, Mary I, and Elizabeth I. The woodcut appears in certain copies of the second edition (1570) of the Book of Martyrs. No Luborsky and Ingram #. JPEG file (4.11 MB).
  • 1544bv94h?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: This tipped-in fold-out illustrates five separate scenes that took place at Windsor Castle. A cartouche spanning the top of the foldout states: "The description of Windsor Castle. The condemning of Anthony Person, Marbecke, Testwood, and Filmer; with y [the] burning of the said Person Testwood, and Filmer, under the Castle of Windsor, here lively described. Marbecke saved by the Kings [King's] Pardon." Images of the Royal Arms flank this title and above it is a directive to the printer to “Place this between Fol. 468 and 469 in the 2d Volume.” Below the heading is a panoramic view of the castle itself which includes a scene in the far left in which a boy sits in a tree and observes the burning of three men. A scene in the lower left-hand corner has the heading: "Anthony Person, Marbecke, Testwood and Filmer, condemned by Doctor Capon, Bishop of Sarnum: Facel giving judgment." The heading for the scene in the lower center states: "D. London and Simons riding about the Market place with papers on their heads, for perjury, and secret practising [practicing] against certaine [certain] of the privy Chamber." And in the lower right-hand scene: "Robert Ockam standing in the Pillory in the Towne of Newberry, where he was borne for the licke offence [like offense]." Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11224/4, which appears in the third (1576) and fourth (1583) early English editions. JPEG file (1.54 MB).
  • St74cx55s?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: The pope and an emperor (whom Foxe identifies generically as "Constantine, Theodosius, etc.") sit side by side on a wide throne, and their attendants observe. The pope holds a book in his right hand, and the emperor holds the rod of his office in his right hand. The damage to the OSU copy of this illustration (pictured here) results from a reader having defaced the woodcut that appears on the verso side of this leaf. This woodcut is the third in the "Proud Primacy of Popes" series and appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/26. JPEG file (4.21 MB).
  • 5x21tm98m?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: King Henry VIII sits enthroned, under a cloth of state, in a richly decorated council chamber and gestures to his right. Twenty-five councilors sit on draped benches, which form two semicircles around the king, and talk among themselves. Ornamental mermaids and a child's face adorn the lower portion of the illustration. The initials "IF" ("J[akob] F[aber]") appear in the lower right corner of the image and provide a clue to its designer. This image opens Foxe's analysis of the reign of King Henry in the second (1570) and third (1576) editions. In the fourth edition (1583), it is replaced by "King Henry VIII sits enthroned over Pope Clement VII" in this collection. This illustration first appears in Edward Hall's The union of the two noble and illustrious families of Lancaster & York (London: Richard Grafton, 1548). Luborsky and Ingram 11223/35, 11224/3, 12721/1, 17300/1. JPEG file (3.44 MB).
  • Qb98mm938?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: The pope rides through a street on a richly caparisoned horse. The Holy Roman Emperor walks beside him as a subordinate who holds his bridle. Crowned kings precede the pope and carry orbs, which symbolize their authority. Bishops and cardinals follow him, and others kneel in the lower right foreground. The pope carries the keys of his office in his left hand. This woodcut is the eleventh in the "Proud Primacy of Popes" series and appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/33. JPEG file (4.35 MB).
  • S4655p42w?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: After a series of protracted negotiations, Pope Clement VII denied King Henry VIII a legal divorce from his wife, Catharine of Aragon. These Arms appear at Foxe's printing of Pope Clement's bull of sentence against Henry. The papal tiara rests atop two crossed papal keys of office. A rope loosely links these keys and descends under and behind a shield, which presents five blank orbs and a sixth orb that contains three stars. This woodcut appears only in the second edition (1570). "Coat of Arms of Pope Julius II" replaces the image in the fourth edition (1583). Neither woodcut appears in the first (1563) or third (1576) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/56. JPEG file (3.43 MB).
  • Rv043076w?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Against a panoramic backdrop of Windsor Castle ("The Descripsion of Windsor [Castle]" ["The Description of Windsor Castle"]), three figures burn at the stake. Workers light the pyre, and richly dressed spectators and soldiers observe, some on horseback and others on foot. At the top of the image, Royal Arms flank a cartouche ("The condemning of Anthony Person, Marbecke, Testwood, and Filmer, with the burning of the sayd Person, Testwood, and Filmer, vnder the Castle of Windsore, here liuely described. Read pag. 1219. Marbecke saued by the Kynges Pardon" ["The condemning of Anthony Person, Marbeck, Testwood, and Filmer, with the burning of the said Person, Testwood, and Filmer, under the Castle of Windsor, here lively described. Read page 1219. Marbeck saved by the King's Pardon"]). A boy watches from a tree at the left, above the initials "MD," which also appear on "Table of the Ten First Persecutions of the Primitive Church" in this collection and may identify the designer of certain Foxe woodcuts. At the lower left of the image, seven judges preside over the trial of the four martyrs, and attendants and a clerk observe ("Anth. Person, Marbecke, Testwood, and Filmer, condemned by D. Capon Bishop of Sarum: Fachell geuing iudgement. Pag. 1219." ["Anthony Person, Marbeck, Testwood, and Filmer condemned by Doctor Capon Bishop of Sarum: Fachell giving judgment. Page 1219"]). At the bottom center, soldiers lead two martyrs, who are charged with perjury, backward on horseback through a town square. Onlookers gather at a distance ("D. London, and Simons, riding about the market place, with papers on their heades, for periurie, and secrete practising against certaine of the priuy Chamber." ["Doctor London, and Simons, riding about the market place, with papers on their heads, for perjury and secret practicing against certain [members] of the privy Chamber"]). At the lower right, a martyr ("R. Ockam") stands in a pillory, flanked by soldiers and civilians. ("Robert Ockam standing on the Pillory in the Towne of Newbery, where he was borne, for the like offence. Pag. 1224" ["Robert Ockam standing on the pillory in the town of Newbery, where he was born, for the like offence. Page 1224"]). To the right of this appears another set of initials, "RB," which could suggest a second designer of both this and other woodcut images. This woodcut appears in the third (1576) and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11224/4. JPEG file (5.2 MB).
  • Cr56n607p?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: This engraving depicts the coat of arms of Pope Clement VII, who reigned from 1523 to 1534; he denied King Henry VIII a legal divorce from his wife, Catharine of Aragon. The papal tiara rests behind two crossed papal keys of office. Sitting in front of the keys is a shield displaying an oak tree bearing acorns; tassels are on both sides of the shield. This engraving is a revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11225/1 and first appears in the fourth early English edition (1583) as the coat of arms of Pope Julius II, who reigned from 1503-1513. JPEG file (1.65 MB).
  • 00000527f?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: As attendants carry him through a town in a decorated, open-air litter, the pope gestures to kneeling figures at the lower right and left of the image. Crowned kings precede him, carrying orbs that symbolize their authority, and a train of cardinals, bishops, and friars follows. The pope carries the keys of his office in his left hand. This woodcut is the twelfth and final illustration in the "Proud Primacy of Popes" series and appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/34. JPEG file (4.35 MB).
  • C821gr85j?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: King Henry III of England kneels to kiss the knee of a cardinal, who arrives as papal legate. A train of bishops and friars follows the legate, and others kneel behind Henry to offer homage. Some observe from a rooftop above. This woodcut is the ninth in the "Proud Primacy of Popes" series and appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/31. JPEG file (4.44 MB).
  • M039kb668?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Henry IV, King of Germany and future Holy Roman Emperor, surrenders his crown to Pope Gregory VII (Hildebrand), who sits enthroned. Henry's wife and son kneel beside him, and cardinals and bishops observe with approval. The pope carries the keys of his office in his right hand. The events in this image occur immediately following those illustrated by "Henry IV awaits the pope outside Canosa" in this collection. This woodcut is the seventh in the "Proud Primacy of Popes" series and appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/29. JPEG file (4.42 MB).
  • 7d279084t?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: The pope sits enthroned in a cathedral on a raised dais, surrounded by friars, cardinals, and bishops. Clergy and others stand below. All look upward in alarm at an oversized owl perched in the rafters, and some attempt to remove it. This woodcut appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/9. JPEG file (4.4 MB).
  • 1257b0214?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Twelve scenes that illustrate "The Proud Primacy of Popes described in order of their rising up from faithfull Bishops & Martyrs to become Lords & Governors over Kings & Kingdoms" are engraved on this two-page tipped-in fold-out. Each engraving depicts a particular scene, beginning in the upper left corner: "Variety of Tortures exercised on Christians;" "Constantine the Emperor embracing Christian Bishops;" “Bishops of Rome advanced by emperors;" “An Emperor kissing the Popes feet;" “Pope Celestine crowning Henry 6 Emperor with his foot;" "Henry & Emperor waiting 3 dayes and nights in frost and snow for Pope Gregory admittance;" "King John offering his Crown to Pandulphus the Popes Legate;" “Henry & Emperor surrendering his crown to the Pope;" "King Henry kissing the knee of the Popes Legate;" "Frederick Emperor holding y Popes stirrup on y wrong side;" "The Pope Riding the Emperor or holding the Bridle, Kings walking before him;" "The Pope carried on mens shoulders." Each of these is a revised design of the twelve woodcuts that comprise the "Proud Primacy of Popes" series from the second early English edition (1570) forward. No Luborsky and Ingram #. JPEG file (869 KB).
  • Cc08hn59f?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: King Henry VIII sits enthroned on a raised dais over Pope Clement VII ("P. Cleme [Pope Clement]"), whose tiara lies discarded before him. John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester ("B. Fisher [Bishop Fisher]") bends over the Pope, while Cardinal Reginald Pole ("OLE") looks up at Henry from the king's left. Thomas Cromwell ("Cromwell"), Henry's vicegerent for religious affairs, and Thomas Cranmer ("Cranmer"), Archbishop of Canterbury, receive the English Bible from Henry, who also holds a sword. Other courtiers observe, some with seeming dismay on their countenances. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/48, which appears only in the fourth (1583) early English edtion. JPEG file (414 KB).
  • Zs25xf92h?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Flanked by John Day, Foxe, and, possibly, Sir William Cecil, Queen Elizabeth I sits enthroned over the pope, who holds broken keys of his office. An initial "C" frames her in the style of a cornucopia. The dais on which the queen sits contains the xylographic identification, "Elisabetha Regina" ["Queen Elizabeth"]. Elizabeth carries a sword and orb, which symbolize her authority, while serpents entwine the pope as symbols of the alleged "error" of Roman Catholicism. This illustration opens Foxe's dedication to Queen Elizabeth. The text of the dedication evolves over the first four editions of the Book of Martyrs to reflect Foxe's changing views concerning the status of Protestantism in England. The illustration appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). No Luborsky and Ingram #. JPEG file (538 KB).