Christian Missions
and
Social Progress

A Sociological Study of Foreign Missions

By the
 Rev. James S. Dennis, D.D.
Students' Lecturer on Missions, Princeton, 1893 and 1896; Author of "Foreign Missions After a Century"; Member of the American Presbyterian Mission, Beirut, Syria

"God works in all things, all obey
His first propulsion from the night;
Wake thou and watch! the world is gray
With morning light.''
"Aid the dawning, tongue and pen;
Aid it, hopes of honest men;
Aid it paper, aid it type;
Aid it, for the hour is ripe."




In Three Volumes
Volume III


NEW YORK
CHICAGO
TORONTO
Fleming H. Revell Company
M DCCCC VI




Copyright, 1906, by FLEMING H. REVELL COMPANY

TYPOGRAPHY BY THE DE VINNE PRESS






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PREFACE





THE present volume—the third of the series, which includes also the statistical supplement, "Centennial Survey of Foreign Missions"— completes a work the norm of which originally consisted of six lectures of an hour each. The first four lectures, rewritten and much amplified, were included in Volume First, while lecture fifth extends for about one hundred pages into the Second Volume. The sixth lecture begins on page 100 of Volume Second, and occupies the remainder of that, and the whole of the final volume, now issued. The form in which the matter was first used—as lectures—will serve to explain why the author has been led to retain it here, in spite of its cumbersomeness and unsuitability in so extended a treatise. The subjects dealt with in the lengthy concluding lecture were hardly more than briefly stated in outline at the time of delivery, but upon subsequent study and research they were found to be so suggestive and varied in their scope, and so important and serviceable as a demonstration of the main argument of the book, that detailed and extended treatment seemed not only allowable but essential, in the interest of a thorough and comprehensive study of important aspects of the theme.


If any reader is inclined to think that the author has trespassed upon his patience, or given undue attention to detail upon a subject which it is desired to commend to popular attention, it would be well for him to recall that very large and significant claims on behalf of missions have been advanced in the previous lectures which ought to be made good by ample and sufficing evidence. It has been asserted, for example, that missions are a forceful dynamic power in social progress, a molding influence upon national life, and a factor of importance in commercial expansion, as well as a stimulus to the religious reformation not only of individual lives but of society as a whole, through many and varied channels of influence.


The author has felt bound to substantiate' such explicit statements by authentic facts and tangible evidence of sufficient weight and historic


import to justify his assertions. He has, therefore, ventured to invite his readers, especially the serious and thoughtful students of missions, to a close inspection of an immense field of research, where this mighty instrument of social transformation is discoverable, working out, in so many and interesting ways, its beneficent function. This is an age of specialization in all departments of learning, and there seems to be no good reason why those who are interested in the theme should not look this subject of missions through and through, to discover, if possible, the full scope and suggestive significance to the world of these Christianizing agencies, or at least to take a patient survey of those powerful constructive forces which are effectively, though quietly, working through them for the universal uplift of the human race.


The book is not a history of missions, though historical facts are abundantly marshalled in support of the manifold aspects of the argument. The topical form of the treatment has given a somewhat encyclopedic variety to the contents, while it has justified here and there a repetition of facts to illustrate different phases of the outcome of mission influence, since certain personalities or incidents have served equally well as evidence in differentiated lines of social helpfulness. A temperance reformer like Khama, for example, may command attention as an excellent specimen of a Christian ruler, a friend of education, a foe to polygamy, and also furnish an example of other commendable virtues as exhibited in private life and in the service of the State. The same may be said now and then of certain historic incidents, or important facts, which may be interpreted as of varied significance when regarded from different points of view. This will explain the introduction of what might occasionally seem to be repetitional subject-matter. The author has had in mind the probable use of the book by students, who might turn to it to investigate some special phase of mission influence, or some distinct theme, topically treated therein, and he has, therefore, aimed at a reasonable fullness of exposition, and a grouping together of the illustrative evidence bearing upon each topic as it occurs. It should not be forgotten, moreover, that one specialty of the book is an attempt to give a world-wide summary of facts relating to the subjects under consideration, while it has usually been the case, when surveys of this kind have been presented, that they have been limited in their range to a denominational outlook.


It seems eminently fitting in this age of diminishing exclusiveness in ecclesiastical circles, that the one Church of Christ, as related to


her one Lord, should have a broader, more discerning, more penetrating vision of the great work which, independently of all denominational lines, she is accomplishing towards the redemption of the world. There is no nobler and more inspiring rallying-point for the universal Church than her stupendous task of discipling all nations. Is it not well, therefore, that the Church as a whole should have at her command a comprehensive survey of universal missions, which, barring its imperfections—of which no one can be more conscious than the author—will serve as a present-day basis of judgment as to the modern aspects of the progress and prospects of our Lord's work in His own great mission field of the world?


The newer, or rather the broader, views of the missionary enterprise, of which we are all more or less conscious, are not due so much to any radical change in the conception of its essential purpose and ultimate significance, as to the impressive revelation it is making of the great range of its influence upon mankind, its subtle power to transform social conditions, to create a new religious atmosphere in society, and to refashion the life of backward races along the lines of permanent regeneration. We are beginning to discover with our own eyes the microcosm of an uplifted society already formed within the bounds of successful missionary enterprise, slowly growing into preparedness for its coming world enthronement, and eventually its happy occupation of a redeemed earth.


The author took up his task nearly twelve years ago, with a cheerful unconsciousness of its magnitude, though fully aware that the subject was one in which mere general or abstract statements would count for little. He has since been continuously engaged in a systematic and careful search for facts of evidential value, which have accumulated to a surprising—even bewildering—extent. He has endeavored to arrange and classify this mass of material in a condensed and orderly form, so that it may be easily available for those of his readers who wish to enter with him into this fascinating field of study. To all such fellow-students of this wondrous theme, and to the Christian public who may desire to be informed upon the progress and outlook of missions in our modern era, these volumes are submitted, in the hope that their perusal will encourage further research, and at the same time serve to quicken a strong and unwavering optimism in the hearts of all those who long for the triumphs and blessings of the kingly rule of Christ over the world He came to save.




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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS





THE author is grateful for the sympathetic interest and helpful coöperation of many friends of missions who have in various ways aided him in the accomplishment of his purpose. In his efforts to secure information and verify facts he has been brought into communication with earnest souls in nearly all the fields of world-wide service for the Master's kingdom. His work has been much facilitated by the kind attention given to his inquiries, and by the valuable material which has been forwarded for his use. The secretaries of the leading missionary organizations in the United States, Canada, Great Britain, and the European Continent have been frequently consulted, as have also many missionaries in various parts of the world, whose prompt responses to his sometimes burdensome requests, and manifest appreciation of the theme he was endeavoring to treat, have alike lightened his toil and afforded substantial aid.


The assistance which he has received through the loan of photographs by the officers of missionary societies has been of great help in illustrating various aspects of mission work. The acknowledgments already made in the introductory paragraph at the head of the List of Illustrations in Volume II. (page xxi) might be largely repeated here. In addition, however, for use in Volume III., many photographs, through the kindness of missionary friends, have been secured direct from the foreign field. In some instances they have been taken specially for the author by local artists, or by the friendly camera of a resident missionary.


Special thanks are due, in recognition of these kind courtesies in the matter of photographs, to Mr. Eugene Stock and the Rev. George Furness Smith, M.A., of the Church Missionary Society; to the Rev. R. Wardlaw Thompson and the Rev. Lewis H. Gaunt, M.A., of the London Missionary Society; to the Rev. Charles H. Robinson, M.A., of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel; to Mr. Alfred Henry Baynes and Mr. Charles Edwin Smith, of the English


Baptist Missionary Society; to the Rev. A. R. Cavalier, of the Zenana Bible and Medical Mission; to the Rev. George Tonge, M.A., and Miss J. S. Jameson, of the Church of England Zenana Missionary Society; and to Dr. George Smith, C. I. E., and Mr. Robert F. Young, of the United Free Church of Scotland. In the United States, the Rev. W. R. Lambuth, D.D., of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, has kindly supplied the author with excellent photographs suitable for his purpose; while others have been obtained from the collection in the Library of the Presbyterian Board in the United States of America, 156 Fifth Avenue, New York City.


The author would also gratefully record his obligations to the following friends who have favored him with illustrative material direct from India: Professor Samuel Satthianadhan, LL.D., of Madras; the Rev. E. M. Wherry, D. D., of Lodiana; the Rev. J. J. Lucas, D.D., of Allahabad; the Rev. J. C. R. Ewing, D.D., of Lahore; the Rev. W. I. Chamberlain, Ph.D., of Vellore; the Rev. Robert A. Hume, D.D., of Ahmednagar; the Rev. Dr. and Mrs. Edward S. Hume, of Bombay; the Rev. Arthur H. Ewing, Ph.D., of Allahabad; the Rev. C. H. Bradburn, of Chupra; Mr. Walter Davies, of Calcutta; Miss S. S. Hewlett and Miss Lena R. Athim, of Amritsar; Mrs. H. M. Andrews, of the Woodstock School, Landaur; and Mrs. E. Guilford, of Tarn Taran.


Similar thanks are due to others in China, especially to the Rev. F. L. Hawks Pott, D.D., and the Rev. Timothy Richard, D.D., of Shanghai; the Rev. James Jackson, of Wuchang; the Rev. W. E. Soothill, of Wenchow; the Rev. Robert F. Fitch, of Ningpo; the Rev. W. S. Ament, D.D., of Peking; and the Rev. D. Z. Sheffield, D.D., of Tungchou, near Peking.


The Rev. Henry Loomis, of Yokohama, Japan; the Rev. Sidney L. Gulick, D.D., of Kobe; the Rev. Henry St. George Tucker, of Tokyo; and Mr. J. M. Stick, of Sendai; and also the Rev. James Sibree, F.R.G.S., of Madagascar, have placed a generous supply of excellent photographs at the authors disposal.


Dr. O. R. Avison, of Seoul, Korea; Mr. F. D. Phinney and Mrs. J. N. Cushing, of Rangoon, Burma; Miss E. M. Buck, of Chieng Mai, Laos; Mr. F. R. Johnson, of Tainan, Formosa; the Rev. F. E. Hoskins, D.D., Dr. Walter B. Adams, and the late Miss Jessie Taylor, all of Beirut, Syria; Mrs. George Wood and the Rev. George A. Ford, D.D., of Sidon, Syria; Dr. Wilfred M. Post, of Cesarea, Asia Minor; and the Rev. Charles C. Millar, of Coyoacan, Mexico, have also furnished material for interesting illustrations.


For pictures of the Young Men's Christian Association work in India thanks are due to Mr. Frank Anderson, M.A., and Mr. James McWhirter, M.A., of Bombay; and for several illustrations of the Young Women's Christian Association similar acknowledgments are made to the Committee of the American Department of the World's Young Women's Christian Association, including Miss Susan M. Clute, the Office Secretary. Miss Emily C. Wheeler, of Worcester, Massachusetts, Secretary of the National Armenia and India Relief Association, the Rev. Howard Agnew Johnston, D.D., and Dr. A. M. Trawick, have also added to the illustrative attractions of the volume.


Messrs. G. W. Wilson & Company, of Aberdeen, Scotland, and Bassano, Ltd., of 25 Old Bond Street, London, have given permission to use copyrighted photographs, as indicated on the reproductions. Mr. P. Cameron, of Pitlochry, Scotland, has kindly authorized the insertion of his photograph of the Duff Memorial Cross.


The author is indebted to Miss Elizabeth M. Claggett for accurate stenographic aid, and for intelligent reading of missionary literature, as well as for watchful attention to proof-sheets. To Miss Anna G. Claggett he is under obligations for helpful work on the index; and to Mrs. James Edward Graham, for suggestions of value, based upon her familiarity with missions, and her personal observations during a long tour of mission fields in Asia. Mr. G. Mercer Adam has kindly read the manuscript and proofs, offering discriminating suggestions, which are acknowledged with thanks. Others, at various times, have been engaged in searching for data, or in verifying facts.


The De Vinne Press has added to the author's indebtedness by the proficiency of its typographical and proof-reading service in this, as in the previous volumes; while to the Walker Engraving Company should be credited the excellence of the illustrations throughout.


As this final volume is issued, the author desires to express his many obligations to his publishers, the Fleming H. Revell Company, of New York, and Messrs. Oliphant, Anderson & Ferrier, of Edinburgh, for the consideration and patience which they have shown during the many disappointments and delays incidental to the completion of so extended a work. The date of issue has been repeatedly deferred, much to the author's regret, but for reasons which seemed quite beyond his control. To these friends, and to readers of his previous volumes who have anticipated this closing issue of the series, he offers apologies for its tardy appearance, and bespeaks their friendly and charitable estimate of his now completed task.

GENERAL TABLE OF CONTENTS



VOLUMES I, II, AND III

VOLUME I

LECTURE I. The Sociological Scope of Christian Missions.
LECTURE II. The Social Evils of the Non-Christian World.
LECTURE III. Ineffectual Remedies and the Causes of their Failure.
LECTURE IV. Christianity the Social Hope of the Nations.

VOLUME II

LECTURE V. The Dawn of a Sociological Era in Missions.
LECTURE VI. The Contribution of Christian Missions to Social Progress.

VOLUME III

LECTURE VI. The Contribution of Christian Missions to Social Progress. (Continued).

APPENDIX

(The statistical appendix which it was intended originally to insert at the conclusion of this volume has been published in a supplemental issue, under the title of "Centennial Survey of Foreign Missions." The author's work as Chairman of the Committee on Statistics, in connection with the Ecumenical Conference on Foreign Missions, held in New York in 1900, turned his attention in advance to that special feature of his plan, and having once undertaken to deal with the subject he was obliged to delay the preparation of Volume III. until after the completion of the statistical volume, which thus appeared in the form of a supplement, issued in 1902, out of its proper chronological order. The Directory of Protestant Foreign Missionary Societies in all lands also appeared in the statistical volume.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RECENT LITERATURE OF MISSIONS


INDEX



TABLE OF CONTENTS



VOLUME III



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LECTURE VI (Continued)

THE CONTRIBUTION OF CHRISTIAN MISSIONS TO SOCIAL PROGRESS.

Scope of the present volume, p. 3. Missions the source of vitalizing forces in the higher life of society, in the development of national life and character, in the promotion of commercial interests, and in the refining of religious experience, p. 4.



IV. RESULTS TENDING TO DEVELOP THE HIGHER LIFE OF SOCIETY . . . . . . . . . . 4

1. THE INTRODUCTION OF EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES . . . . . . . . . . 5

Christianity an ally of intellectual progress, p. 5.—The Church the patron of medieval learning, p. 6.—Modern missions have everywhere heralded an educational revival, p. 7.—Early indigenous education in India, p. 8.—Pioneer educators of the eighteenth century in India, p. 9.—The marshalling of forces for a great campaign, p. 10.— First efforts for the education of girls in India, p. 10.—The reign of the Indian classics, p. 12.—Dr. Duff and his plea for a broader curriculum, p. 13.—Lord Macaulay's minute on educational reform, p. 14.—The purport of the Despatch of Sir Charles Wood, p. 15.—The work of the Education Commission of 1882, p. 16.— The University Commission of 1902, p. 17.—An appraisement of Indian State Education, p. 17.—The gradations of the government system, p. 19.—The emancipating power of education in India, p. 20.—The supreme aim of missionary education, p. 21.—Immediate conversion not the sole test a success, p. 22. —The mighty uplift of Christian education in India, p 23.—A cursory survey of missionary education in India, p. 24.—An educational equipment excellent in quality and large in volume, p. 26 —A general summary of the educational forces of Indian missions, p. 28.—Educational success in Burma, p. 28.—Excellent institutions in Ceylon, p. 29.—The transforming leaven of education in Indian society, p. 29. —An open door of opportunity among Indian students, p. 29. — The social influence of education, and its power to reach all grades of Indian society, p. 30. — Its development of moral character, p. 31. — Its helpfulness in promoting general intelligence, p. 32. — Its contribution

of gifted personalities in India, p. 32.—Its stimulus to literary and artistic culture in India, p. 33.—Its promotion of educational zeal in native circles, p. 34.—The development of educational plans among native rulers in India, p. 35.—New government projects for the education of the Pariahs, p. 35.—The educational contribution to government service in India, p. 37.—The above summary of results applicable to other fields than India, p. 37.—The beginnings of missionary education in China, p. 38.—The colossal task of the missionary educator in the Chinese Empire, p. 39.—Significant movements towards educational reform in China, p. 40. —The rôle of the Chinese obstructionist, p. 41. — The mission educator, the real school-master of the empire, p. 42. — The Christianization of Chinese education all-important, p. 43. — The valuable educational provision of missions in China, p. 44.— The modern educational progress of Japan, p. 46. —The important service of missionaries, p. 47.—A more invigorating'ethical incentive needed in Japanese education, p. 48.—Can Japanese tradition and history be deemed a sufficient and stable basis of ethics? p. 48.—An extreme reactionary policy may sometimes gain the ascendancy, p. 50.—Japanese State education elaborate and extensive, p. 50. —Abundant facilities for the education of women, p. 51.—Mission efforts among students in Japan, p. 52.—The Christian forces of the empire recruited from mission schools, p. 53.—Educational facilities of missions in Korea, p. 55.—No adequate system of State education in Korea, p. 57.—Missionary education a valuable national asset in Siam, p. 57.—A vigorous educational movement in the Laos community, p. 58.—Malaysia a scene of educational activity on the part of American, British, Dutch, and German missions, p. 59.—The debt of Turkey to missionary education, p. 60.—The brilliant record of mission colleges in Turkey, p. 61. —Excellent higher institutions for boys and girls, p. 62.—Many training schools—theological and industrial, p. 63.—The missionary an educational pioneer in Persia, p. 64. —Urumiah College and its fruitful work, p. 65.—Educational beginnings in Arabia, p. 65.—Vigorous educational efforts on the part of missions in Egypt, p. 66. —A new era in Egyptian State education, p. 67.—Educational progress in East Africa, p. 68.—The phenomenal work of the Church Missionary Society in East Africa and Uganda, p. 68.—Scotch Presbyterians in the British Central Africa Protectorate, p. 69.—Education in South Africa from the Zambesi to Cape Town, p. 70.—The beneficent function of missionary education among South African races, p. 71.—Some representative institutions of South African missions, p. 73—Mission schools in the Congo State, p. 75.—The educational movements on the West Coast from Kamerun to Senegal, p. 75.—Prominent institutions of the various missions on the West Coast, p. 76.—Educational summary for the African Continent, p. 77.—A long and fruitful educational work in Madagascar, p. 77.—Superior instruction and crowded schools, p. 78. —The first chapters of the educational story of New Guinea, p. 79. — Schools for aborigines, Kanakas, and Chinese immigrants in Australia, p. 80. —An educational record in New Zealand covering three generations of Maoris, p. 81.— The Melanesian Mission and its " Iona of the

East," p. 82.—The educational taming of wild tribes in the New Hebrides, p. 83.—A bold venture and a noble outcome in the South Seas, p. 84. —A minimum percentage of illiteracy in mission fields in the South Pacific, p. 85.—Missionary education of the Hawaiians, p. 85. —Its sequel in a well-organized system of public instruction, p. 86. — American mission schools in Micronesia, p. 86.—Educational summary for the Pacific Islands, p. 87.—A remarkable record of progress from cannibalism to culture, p. 87.—A vigorous educational policy in the Philippines, p. 88.—South and Central American missions, and their educational plans, p. 89.—Excellent mission schools in Mexico, p. 91. —Fruitful educational efforts in the West Indies, p. 92.—A new start in Cuba and Porto Rico, p. 93.—Efforts among the aborigines of North America, p. 93. —Educational summary of the mission fields of the world, p. 94.



2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL TRAINING . . . . . . . . . . 95

An urgent economic problem, p. 95.—Industrial training essential in some mission fields, p. 96.—The notable industrial record of the Basel Mission, p. 96.—The Industrial Missions Aid Society and its work, p. 98.—The "Uganda Company, Limited," p. 98.—Other lay movements in support of mission industries, p. 99.—The rise of industrial missionary societies, p. 100. —Enlarged industrial efforts on the part of established societies, p. 101.—Extensive industrial plants now a feature in many mission fields, p. 102.—Lessons in scientific agriculture, and schooling in model workshops, p. 102.—The undoubted benefits of industrial training in Africa, p. 103. —Mission industrial schools honored in Madagascar, p. 104.—The exceptional value of industrial training in India, p. 104.—Increased attention to an industrial programme, p. 106. —Growing appreciation of the economic benefits of technical training, p. 107.—English societies and their industrial activities, p. 108.—Continental societies and their large and varied work, p. 109.—American societies extensively engaged in industrial training, p. 109.—Numerous printing-presses a special feature in India, p. 110.—Useful industries in many orphanages, p. 111.—Valuable work in the hostels, p. 112. —Special efforts for Eurasian children and Indian widows, p. 113.— Mission industries in Ceylon, p. 113.—Varied industrial projects in Burma and Laos, p. 114.—China eager for mental culture, but averse to manual training, p. 114.—Efforts to improve the industrial prospects of Chinese converts, p. 115.—Interesting work for defective children in China, p. 116.—An industrial beginning in Korea, p. 116.—Mission industries in Japan, p. 117.—Energetic work of Japanese philanthropists, p. 117.—Industrial education a blessing in Turkey, p. 118.—Manual training in the orphanages, p. 119.—Industrial centres in Syria and Palestine, p. 120. —Arts and crafts in the missions of the Malay Archipelago, p. 120.—Flourishing industries and reclaimed lives in British New Guinea, p. 121.—Business enterprise invades a primeval wilderness, p. 122.—Industrial communities in Australia and New Zealand, p. 123,—Successful schooling in handicrafts among the Pacific islanders, p. 124.—Transforming the Indian from a "pagan liability" into a

"Christian asset," p. 125. — Industrial efforts in South America, Mexico, and the West Indies, p. 126.



3. MODERN METHODS OF UNIVERSITY EXTENSION . . . . . . . . . . 127

Extra-institutional methods for extension of culture, p. 127. —Special efforts among Indian students, p. 127.—Valuable work of the Oxford and Cambridge Missions, p. 128.—Efficient aid of lecturers on the Haskell foundation, p. 129.—The Decennial Missionary Conference of India, and other stated assemblies, p. 129.—Summer schools, harvest festivals, and students' camps in India, p. 130.—Settlement work in Indian cities and villages, p. 132.—" Rainy Weather Bible Classes " in Burma, p. 132.—The Mission among the Higher Classes in China, p.133.— Numerous conferences, associations, and institutes in China, p. 133.—The Educational Association of China, p. 134.—The academic utility of museums, p. 135.—Informal classes among the Chinese for the study of "Western learning," p. 136. — University extension devices popular in Japan, p. 136.—Bible institutes and social settlements in Japanese cities, p. 137.—Bible study classes a remarkable feature in Korea, p. 137.—Students' conferences, Bible schools, and lectureships in Africa, p. 138.—Conferences on the heights of Lebanon in Syria, and summer schools in Asia Minor and Macedonia, p. 138.



4. CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATIONS FOR YOUNG MEN AND YOUNG WOMEN . . . . . . . . . . 139

A noble response to the claims of world-wide missions, p. 139.—The progress of the Y. M. C. A. in mission fields, p. 140.—The Y. W. C. A., and its activities abroad, p. 142.—The Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions, p. 143.—Its genesis and notable services, p. 144.—The Christian Student Movement—its distinctive sphere and aim, p. 145.—The "World's Student Christian Federation "—its design and scope, p. 145.—The United Society of Christian Endeavor, and its remarkable extension in mission lands, p. 146.—The Epworth League as a factor in mission progress, p. 147.—Other societies of young people, and their service to foreign missions, p. 147.—The growth of the Y. M. C. A. in India, p. 149.—The Madras Association, and its noble building, p. 149.—The Association in Calcutta, and its expanding work, p. 150.—The Intercollegiate Department, and its work among Indian students, p. 151. —Hearty official endorsements of the Association in India, p. 151.—Excellent work of the Y. W. C. A. among Eurasian and Indian women, p. 152.—The Christian Endeavor Society in India, p. 153.—The Epworth League and the India Sunday-school Union, p. 154.—Other associations, and their work among young people in India, p. 154.—The Y. M. C. A., the Y. W. C. A., and other societies for the young people of Burma and Siam, p. 155. — "The Association of Christian Men of Vigorous Years " in China, p. 156.—The rise of Christian literati in China—a twentieth-century product, p. 157. —"The Drum-around-and-rouse-up-Society" in China, p. 158.—Entrance of the Y. M. C. A. into Japan, p. 159.—Its important work among students, p. 160.—Its plan of a beneficent campaign in cities, and also in the Japanese Army and Navy, p. 161.—Progress, of the, Y. W. C. A.

in Japan, p. 162. —The Christian Endeavor Society in Japanese churches, p. 162.—The Y. M. C. A. an active force in Korea, p. 163.—Vigorous organizations for young people in Africa, p. 164.—The Y. W. C. A. active at various important centres, p. 165.—Christian Endeavor, and its useful work in Africa, p. 166.—The young people of Madagascar— an appeal, p. 166.—Various associations in Mohammedan lands, p. 166. —The Y. M. C. A, in Australasia and Oceania, p. 167.— Christian Endeavor spreads its sails in the South Seas, p. 168.—Modern movements on behalf of young people on the South American Continent, p. 169.— Hopeful work among the young in Mexico and the West Indies, p. 170. —Christian Endeavor heroism, amid Alaskan snows, p. 171.



5. THE PRODUCTION OF WHOLESOME AND INSTRUCTIVE LITERATURE . . . . . . . . . . 172

A noble rôle in authorship, p. 172.—Increasing attention to vernacular production, p. 172. —Great languages waiting for a Christian literature, p. 174.—A monumental service in Bible translation, p. 176.—The triumphant march of God's Word, p. 178.—Phenomenal demand for the Scriptures, p. 179.—Statistics of Bible translation, p. 179.—The notable services of the tract societies, p. 181. —The large literary output in India, p. 182.—Prosperous mission presses, p. 182.—The growth of periodical literature, p. 183.—A proposed classification of mission literature, p. 185.—Group I.: biblical handbooks, histories, and expository aids, p. 185. — Scripture biographies and Bible Dictionaries, p. 186.—Biblical histories, p. 187.—Scripture exposition, p. 187.—Group II.: church liturgies, catechetical and devotional literature, including hymnody, p. 189.—Bunyan's " Pilgrim's Progress" a missionary classic, p. 190.—A new career for the old favorites of our devotional hours, p. 190.—Valuable devotional literature by missionary authors, p. 191.— The surprising hymnology of missions, p. 192.—The admirable work of native hymnists, p. 192.—Beautiful hymns for use in India, p. 194.— Songs of Zion in Burma, Ceylon, and Siam, p. 195.—Prominent hymn-writers in China, p. 196. — Hymnals in Japan and Korea, p. 196.—The service of song in the languages of Turkey and Persia, p. 197.—An abundant ministry of song in Africa, p. 197.—A century of song in the Pacific Islands, and among Indian tribes, p. 198.—Group III.: the literature of theology and cognate studies, p. 199.—Able theological writings in the languages of India, p. 200. —Volumes dealing with ethics, evidences, and pastoral training, p. 200.—A large output of controversial literature, p. 201.—The great importance of a wise apologetic in mission fields, p. 202.—Missionary authors in the department of Church History, p. 203.— Group IV.: biography, and the literature of science and culture, p. 203,—Great nations in the school of history, p. 204.— Timely historical studies in national evolution, p. 205.—Lessons in political and social science, pi 206.—Literature for a time of intellectual and social transformation, p. 207.—Economic themes and scientific literature, p. 207.—Technical handbooks, and books on the industrial arts, p. 208.—Group V.: medical, surgical, and sanitary science, p. 208.— Group VI.: educational text-books of great variety and utility, p. 209. —Group VII.: books for the home circle, p. 210.—Literature for the



blind, p. 211.—Libraries and free reading-rooms, p. 212.—The entrance of the modern encyclopedia into China, p. 213.



6. THE QUICKENING OF GENERAL INTELLIGENCE . . . . . . . . . . 214

A conclusion amply vindicated in previous sections, p. 214.—The entrance of missions presages a general intellectual awakening, p. 214. —Communities thus enlightened instinctively seek their own betterment, p. 215.—Encyclopedic interrogations and plethoric mail-bags as aftermaths of missions, p. 216.—Sources of spiritual and mental culture are treasured in native homes, p. 217.—Singular transformations wrought by the leaven of intelligence, p. 218.



7. THE ABOLISHMENT OF OBJECTIONABLE SOCIAL CUSTOMS . . . . . . . . . . 219

Missions a specific remedy for degraded and bestial living, p. 219.— Established customs in the Orient cannot be changed by violent and arbitrary means, p. 220.—The spirit of reform now characteristic of enlightened India, p. 220.—Remarkable progress of the anti-foot-binding movement in China, p. 221.



8. THE DISINTEGRATION OF CASTE . . . . . . . . . . 221

The social tyranny of caste in India, p. 222.—Governmental regulations bearing upon the system, p. 223.—Patriotism and manhood versus the ritual of the pill, p. 224.—Caste irreconcilable with the Christian spirit, p. 224.—The historic attitude of missions to the system of caste, p. 225.—High-caste schools a concession on the score of expediency, p. 227.-—Great ingatherings into the Christian fold from the lower castes, p. 227.—The missionary as the friend and liberator of the Panchamas, p. 228.—A great change apparent in the attitude of intelligent and progressive Hindus, p. 229.—Christianity should not become itself a caste, p. 229.—Education a powerful levelling agency as against caste pretensions, p. 230.—Great social changes brought about by the influence of education, p. 231.—The medical work of missions, and its disintegrating effect upon caste, p. 232.—The influence of missions upon Hindu public opinion, p. 232.



V. RESULTS TOUCHING NATIONAL LIFE AND CHARACTER . . . . . . . . . . 234

The God of Nations sovereign in our present time as in past ages, p. 234.—Missions a department in the modern school of national life, p. 235.—The "principle of projected efficiency" exemplified in, the larger trend of missionary influence, p. 236.—Christian teaching a valuable asset in the historic development of nations, p. 236.—Some striking features of the national discipline and training which may be credited to missions, p. 237.



I. CULTIVATING THE SPIRIT OF FREEDOM AND TRUE PATRIOTISM . . . . . . . . . . 238

The missionary evangel a charter of soul-freedom, p. 238.—This implies no discrediting of civil allegiance to existing governments, p. 239.

—Political disloyalty not encouraged by Protestant missionaries, p. 240. —Lessons imparted in the true import of liberty, and the limitations which should govern its exercise, p. 241.—Missions, while nourishing the spirit of liberty, also train a people to enjoy freedom and use it aright, p. 242.—Enlightened views of the import and demands of true patriotism are cultivated by missionary training, p. 243.—Japanese patriotism an intense sentiment, but not always ideal in practice, p. 243.— Spasms of false patriotism in Japanese national development, p. 244.— The Japanese patriot must face perplexing questions, p. 245.—Christianity no foe to liberty or true patriotism, p. 246—Missionary instruction broadens the outlook of an extreme nationalism, p. 247.—Currents of missionary influence discoverable in the national reform movement in Korea, p. 248,—The Independence Club, and its protest against official despotism, p. 249.—Korean Christians are true patriots, p. 250.—The missionary occupation of China, and its dynamic power in this transition period, p. 251.—The missionary in China an expounder of the rationale of Western civilization, p. 252.—The proverbial attitude of the Chinese towards the Government, p. 253.—The potential patriotism of the Chinese not a negligible quantity, p. 254.—The relation of missions to imperialism in India, p. 255.—British rule in India an instrument of Providence, p. 256.—Perplexing problems in Indian administration, p. 257.—The education of Christian manhood the best possible service of missions to the State, p. 257.—A providential meaning in the conjunction of British rule and Christian missions in India, p. 258.—Is there a potential national sentiment among Indian races? p. 259.—The influence of missions conducive to Indian loyalty and political sobriety, p. 260.—The moral and intellectual discipline of missions a valuable stimulus and guide to national aspirations, p. 261.—Missions encourage among Indian races wholesome views of liberty and patriotism, p. 262.— The racial dignity and sane political tone of the Karen Christians in Burma, p. 263.—The friendly estimate of missions on the part of the Siamese Government, p. 264.—The virtual prohibition of proselytism from Islam in the Moslem State, p. 265.— The uplift and improvement of Christians in Turkey not welcomed by Moslem rulers, p. 266.—American missions in the Turkish Empire make no attempt to disturb the political status, p. 267.—The only political offense of missions in Turkey is the benefits they confer upon the subject Christian races, p. 268.—Missions an immense boon to Oriental Christians who have been for centuries under the rule of the Moslem, p. 269.—The unhappy fate of the Christian populations of Persia, p. 270.—The political rôle of missions among primitive African races, p. 270.—Missions a valuable adjunct to colonial rule in Africa, p. 271.—Some examples of transformed kingly policy which may be credited to missions, p. 272.—Reading the same Bible a bond of peace and confidence between African chieftains, p. 274.—The influence of missions in aiding the African to adjust himself to a constitutional régime, p. 275.—The political services of missions in Australasia, p. 276.—Missionary coöperation in the adjustment of political relationships in New Zealand, p. 277-—The decay of primitive native races not chargeable to missions, p. 278.—Chalmers

of New Guinea, and his political services to the savage races of that island, p. 279.—Valuable testimony of Sir William Macgregor while Governor of British New Guinea, p. 280—A missionary idealist and his political achievements among savage Indian tribes, p. 280.—Indians of North and South America beginning to respond to the claims of order and good citizenship, p. 282. — Protestant missions and their work on behalf of religious liberty in South America, p. 283.



2. PROMOTING THE RECONSTRUCTION OF LAWS AND THE REFORM OF JUDICIAL PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . 283

The influence of Christianity on Roman legislation, p. 283.—The call of conscience in the Roman State, p. 284.—The outcome of Christian modifications—the gradual accentuation of individual liberty, p. 285.— Missions a potent instrumentality in modifying the legal ideals and methods of barbarous races, p. 286.—The relation of the missionary to the problems of Church and State in a non-Christian environment, p. 287.—Missions and colonial rule in South Africa, p. 288.—The proper relationship between missions and colonial administration, p. 288.— Pioneer missionaries among primitive races are often called to be arbiters and judges, p. 289.—Missionary intervention a protection to the victims of barbarous rule, p. 290.—The savagery of native law and custom a menace to African communities, p. 291.—Terrors which attend the charge of witchcraft, p. 292.—The helpfulness of missions in discrediting native methods of dealing with witchcraft, p. 292.—The passing of legal barbarities in the Pacific Islands, p. 293.—Missionary efforts to protect native communities from the aggressions of foreign greed, p. 294.—The effort to promote legal reforms and to conserve morality in the State a legitimate function of missions, p. 295.—Efforts to promote legal reconstruction not confined to savage races, p. 297.—Missionary pilots on the Japanese Ship of State, p. 297.—The service of Verbeck at a critical period in Japanese history, p. 298.—The influence of Verbeck in securing religious toleration in Japan, p. 299.—The influence of missionaries in promoting penal and other reforms in Japan, p. 300. —The ethical standards of the new Japanese codes due in part to the influence of Christian missions, p. 301.—Legal and political reconstruction in Korea, p. 301.—The relation of the missionary to the Chinese State one of great delicacy and difficulty, p. 302.—Protestant missions maintain an attitude of wise restraint and great reserve, p. 303.—The reform leaven in Chinese politics can be traced to Christian sources, p. 304.—The prominence of Christian literature as a stimulus and guide to Chinese reformers, p. 305.—The spiritual and intellectual forces introduced by missions will guarantee a reformed China, p. 306. — British jurisprudence in India an assurance of justice and security, p. 307.— Traditional Asiatic conceptions of justice must be adjusted to an orderly judicial system, p. 309.—The Indian codes represent essential justice adjusted to indigenous precedent and popular custom, p. 310.—The moral insistence and support of missions have been helpful in the process of legal reconstruction, p. 311.—The problem of neutrality, and its happy solution, p. 311.—The personal independence versus the official

reserve of British and native rulers, p. 312.—The function of the panchayat, p. 313.—Missionary appeals to the Government, and their good results, p. 314. —The late Dr. Murdoch, and his "open letter" to Lord Curzon, p. 314.—Efforts to abolish some vexatious disabilities still resting upon Indian Christians, p. 315.—Miss Cornelia Sorabji, and her appeals on behalf of the purdahnishins, p. 316.—The status of subject Christian races under Moslem law, p. 316.—The unhappy condition of Christian races in Turkey, p. 317.—European protection an uncertain dependence to the Christian communities of Turkey, p. 318. —The value of the friendly interposition of missionaries in behalf of persecuted and distressed Christians, p. 318.—The missionary a faithful advocate of a just and kindly policy in dealing with the Indians, p. 319. —The early efforts of Eliot, p. 320.—The rights of citizenship secured to mission converts from among Indian tribes in South America, p. 320. —A larger liberty the result of missions in South America, Mexico, and the West Indies, p. 321.



3. AIDING IN THE RENOVATION AND AMELIORATION OP ADMINISTRATIVE METHODS . . . . . . . . . . 322

Pure administration essential to good government, p. 322.—Administrative methods not subject to missionary revision, p. 322.—Taxation a facile instrument of oppression, p. 323. —Excessive taxation often aggravated by bad administration, p. 323.—The tax banditti in Turkey and Persia, p. 324.—Missionary interference avails little, p. 325.—Missionaries cannot be mentors to those in authority, p. 325.—The presence and friendly appeals of resident missionaries are often of value, p. 326. —Korean Christians not an easy prey, p. 327.—A land where it is dangerous to be successful, p. 327.—Extortion and blackmail favorite methods with rapacious officials, p. 327.—The perils of a lawsuit in China, p. 328.—Successful missionary appeals on behalf of the Pariahs, p. 328.—The extortionate greed of the money-lender in India, and a proposed remedy, p. 329.—Extortion and cruelty in the Congo Free State, p. 329.—A vigorous missionary indictment of administrative iniquity, p. 330.—Extortion plus massacre and torture the Belgian interpretation of the Berlin pledges, p. 331.—How missionaries "spoil the country for other white men," p. 332.



ELEVATING THE STANDARD OF GOVERNMENT SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . 333

A better class of native officials supplied by mission institutions, p. 333. —The spirit of Christianity has touched Japanese statesmanship, p. 334.—Many leading men have been pupils of missionaries p. 334. — Christian profession no bar to government positions, p. 335.—The parliamentary service of Christians has been specially honorable, p. 335.— Christian officials in Japan are highly esteemed, p. 337.—Efforts on the part of missionaries to influence Korean officials, p. 337.—Friendly protection to Christians by humane Chinese officials, p. 338.—Missionary literature an inspiration to the reform movement in China, p. 338.— Graduates of mission institutions welcome in government service, p. 339.—A growing friendliness on the part of enlightened Chinese offi-

cials, p. 340.—Christian officials not unknown in Siam, p. 341.—The native Christian will win his way to government service in India, p. 341. —Growing appreciation of the native staff in British India, p. 342.— Mission institutions are training a superior class of public servants, p. 343.—Graduates of many institutions in prominent positions, p. 344. —A Christian contingent in the Indian Civil Service, p. 345.—Sir Harnam Singh and his distinguished career, p. 346.—Training worthy and competent officials in Africa, p. 346.—A new dignity and quality to public service in Uganda, p. 347. — "Kings shall be thy nursing fathers, and their queens thy nursing mothers," p. 348.— Daudi of Toro and his Christian rule, p. 349.—A royal evangelist in Bunyoro, p. 349.— Thrones " established by righteousness," p. 350.—A tribute to mission-trained natives by Sir Lloyd Mathews, p. 350.—A moral revolution in kingly policies, p. 351.—The political value of Lovedale in South Africa, p. 351. —Princes, rulers, and judges who are lovers of peace, justice, and good order, p. 352.—Baptized queens in Madagascar, p. 353.—A new order of manhood in official ranks in Turkey, Syria, and Egypt, p. 353. — Mission graduates in government employ in Persia and Arabia, p. 354.—Wise and humane Christian rulers in the Pacific Islands, p. 354.—Heathen war-chiefs who have put on the Christian armor, p. 356.—Teaching natives the art of government in New Guinea, p. 357.—Modern "saints of Caesar's household," p. 357.



5. FURTHERING PROPER INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS . . . . . . . . . . 337

There is an international value to missions, p. 357. —Apostolic missions a link between continents, p. 358.—Christian history a story of expansion among the nations, p. 359.—The missionary factor in American colonial history, p. 360.—Puritan hearts were in sympathy with the missionary motive, p. 360.—The legend of the Norse missionary who discovered America, p. 361.—The missionary motive in early maritime explorations, p. 362. —The evangelistic aspirations of Columbus, p. 362. — Some significant extracts from his journal, p. 363.—Further evidence from his writings, p. 363.—The Papal Bulls and their references to the conversion of the West, p. 363. —The Spanish occupation of the Philippines was in part missionary, p. 364.—Early Spanish missions in the southern regions of North America, p. 365.—The historic outcome of the Roman Catholic propaganda in America, p. 365.—The Jesuit Missions in North America, p. 365.—Their large place in the history of New France, p. 366.—French interest in the Canadian missions, p. 367. —The religious spirit of the Dutch colonists, p. 367. —The presence of the missionary motive in the British colonial establishments, p. 367. — Hakluyt's "Discourse Concerning Western Planting," p. 368.—The Charter of, Virginia and its missionary clause, p. 368.—Bradford and his hope of planting the Gospel in the New World, p. 369.—A formal statement of the missionary desire of the Pilgrim Fathers, p. 370. — Winthrop and his desire for the conversion of the aborigines, p. 370. — The Massachusetts Colony and its seal, p. 370. —Statement in the Articles of the New England Confederation, p. 371.—Roger Williams and his missionary efforts for the Indians, p. 372.—The Swedish settlement

and its mission to the savages, p. 372.—William Penn and his evangelistic spirit, p. 373.—Significant declarations in the Charters of Carolina and Georgia, p. 373.—Sufficient evidence of a missionary purpose in early colonial ventures, p. 374.—John Eliot and his successors, p. 374. The Corporation for the Propagation of the Gospel in New England, established in 1649, p. 375. —The formation of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, in 1698, p. 375.—The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, founded in 1701, p. 376.—Its memorable service in the American Colonies, p. 376.—The missionary purpose in colonial education, p. 377.—Missionary efforts form an important asset in our colonial history, p. 378.—Home missions a lineal descendant of their colonial progenitor, p. 378.—The international links forged by Carey and his associates, p. 379.—Missionary pioneering among the Pacific Islands and in Africa, p. 379.—The missionary has promoted international acquaintance, p. 380.—International friendships have been nourished by missions, p. 381.—Lines of service between nations specified, p. 381.—Verbeck the real sponsor of the Japanese Embassy of 1871, p. 382— Missionaries have in some measure prepared the way for modern treaties, p. 383.—Pioneers of modern political development in New Zealand, p. 384.—Savage races in the Pacific trained for their political destiny, p. 384.—Dangerous shores made accessible to the white man, p. 385.— American missions in Hawaii have been of political value, p. 386.— Some striking political features of missionary progress in Africa, p. 387. Missions the forerunner of international ties in Central Africa, p. 388. Missionary participation in China's first treaty with a European Power, p. 388.—Missionary coöperation in China's earliest treaties with the United States and Great Britain, p. 389.—The service rendered in connection with the treaties of Tientsin, p. 389,—Williams and Martin sponsors for the famous Toleration Clause, p. 390.—The policy of tolerant recognition of Christianity due to missionary insistence, p. 390.— The subsequent diplomatic service of Dr. Williams, p. 391.—Dr. Williams and the Perry expedition, which opened Japan to foreign intercourse, p. 393.—The recent revision of Japanese treaties cordially supported by missionaries, p. 394.—Subsequent treaties confirm the policy of toleration, p. 394.—The services of missionaries in defense of the Legations at Peking, p. 395.—The late Dr. McCartee and his diplomatic services, p. 396.—Dr. Horace N. Allen for several years American Minister to Korea, p. 397. — Missionary ministrations in time of war, p. 397.—Teachers of international law in China and Japan, p. 398.— The humane provisions of the international code have been initiated and fostered, p. 398.—Unobtrusive, yet valuable services of missionaries in the interest of peace, p. 399.—Missionary converts not inciters of disorder and massacre, p. 400. —The memorable victory of the Moravians over the Bush Negroes in Dutch Guiana, p. 400.—Arbiters, mediators, and advocates of higher reciprocity, p. 401.—Almoners of international philanthropy, p. 402.—Incidental contributors to kindly feeling among the nations, p. 402.—A helpful rather than a disturbing element in international intercourse, p. 403.—The Christian missionary should be tactful, patient, and wise, p. 404.—The true causes of the Boxer up-

rising, p. 404.—Government attitude to missionaries as a rule respectful and friendly, p. 405.



6. CONTRIBUTING TO THE INTELLECTUAL AND SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS OF THE WORLD . . . . . . . . . . 406

Missionaries have made unique contributions to the world's store of knowledge, p. 406.—Their literary services varied and important, p. 407.—Some representative volumes by missionary authors, p. 407.— Monumental labors in Japanese, Chinese, and Korean lexicography, p. 409.—Learned tomes in the languages of India and Burma, p. 410.— Strange African tongues conquered by patient and assiduous toil, p. 411. —The Indian languages of North and South America made accessible, p. 413.—The missionary contribution to philology of exceptional import and value, p. 414.—Linguistic triumphs of missionary scholars, p. 414. —The mastery of Oriental languages a most difficult task, p. 415.—Many obscure languages reduced to written form, p. 416.—Missionaries in the South Pacific have no peers in these linguistic achievements, p. 416.—African languages illustrate the peculiar difficulties of these philological labors, p. 417.—Official commendation of good work in Central Africa, p. 418.—Aboriginal languages indebted for their literary form to the early toils of missionaries, p. 419.—Efforts to secure a uniform system of orthography, p. 420.—Contributions to the science of comparative philology, p. 421.—A remarkable recognition of the linguistic erudition of missionaries, p. 422.—The missionary as an explorer and geographer, p. 423.—Missionary initiative in African exploration, p. 424.—Geographical services in many sections of the Continent, p. 425.—The opening of Africa largely the outcome of missionary pioneering, p. 425.—Missionary tours in Central Asia, the Shan States, and China, p. 426.— Explorations in Australasia and Oceania, p. 427.—Varied geographical data furnished, p. 428.—Reporters of volcanic phenomena and earthquake shocks, p. 429.—Chroniclers of archæological discoveries, p. 429. —Students of anthropology, ethnology, and ethnography, p. 430.— An accomplished student of biology, p. 431.-—Some eminent botanists in the missionary ranks, p. 432.—Missionaries who have been students of geology, p. 433.—The debt of science to missionary zoölogists, p. 434. Services in astronomy, pharmacology, medicine, and agriculture, p. 435. —Studies in music, and improvements in typography, p. 436. — Chroniclers of Christian history, p. 437.—Histories which will be classics in the bibliography of the world's redemption, p. 438. —Valuable historical records of events in the Far East, p. 438.—Missionaries are influential factors in contemporary history, p. 439.—A leaf from the Court Annals of one of the Native States of India, p. 440.—Examples of missionary participation in the historical development of nations, p. 441. —The missionary factor in American history, p. 441.—Some data furnished upon primitive methods of government, p. 442.—Valuable studies in philosophy and ethics, p. 443.—Contributions to biblical learning, p. 443.—Missions stimulate practical theology, federated coöperation, and church unity, p. 443.—Missionaries have been leaders in the study of comparative religion, p. 444.—Abundant data furnished in sociology

and folk-lore, p. 444.—The fitness of Christianity to be the universal religion vindicated by missions, p. 445.—Recent testimonies to the value of missions as a civilizing agency, p. 446.—Tributes from officials in India, p. 447.—Significant statements from officials in Australasia and Oceania, p. 448.—What well-informed men in Africa are saying, p. 450. —Words of appreciation from influential native sources, p. 451.—Lord Curzon on the philanthropic service of missions, p. 451.—Notable honors and awards to missionary benefactors, p. 452.—Generous recognition of eminent services, p. 453.—Decorations and medals for devoted men and women, p. 454.—High tributes to the personal character and worth of numerous missionaries, p. 455.—Tributes in bronze and marble to men who have been loved and admired, p. 456.



VI. RESULTS AFFECTING THE COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL STATUS . . . . . . . . . . 457

The beneficent mission of commerce, p. 457.—Is commerce historically in debt to missions? p. 458.—The moral and educational subsidy which missions furnish for the promotion of commerce, p. 458.—Commerce has, in its turn, offered many, advantages to missions, p, 459.



1. COMMENDING NEW STANDARDS OF COMMERCIAL INTEGRITY . . . . . . . . . . 459

Christianity introduces new conceptions of the ideal purport of wealth, p. 460.—Missionaries universally trusted and regarded as examples of integrity, p. 461.—Native Christians accept and endeavor to practise new standards of honesty, p. 461.—Business integrity recognized as a Christian obligation, p. 462.



2. PROMOTING BETTER METHODS OF TRANSACTING BUSINESS . . . . . . . . . . 463

Mission fields are the commercial hinterland of Christendom, p. 463. —Phenomenal changes in the commercial outlook in the Far East, p. 463.—Missions helpful in solving grave problems of industrial adjustment, p. 464.—The ethical ministry of missions a valuable feature of commercial training in the East, p. 465.—The higher interests of commerce not neglected in the mission programme, p. 466.—A code of market-day morals, p. 466.—Laymen inaugurating a new campaign of business enterprise in mission fields, p. 467.



3. SEEKING TO INTRODUCE A BETTER SYSTEM OF FINANCE . . . . . . . . . . 468

The financial stability of the Orient depends largely upon foreign supervision, p. 468.— Missionaries endeavor to save their converts from improvident habits, p. 468.—The first savings-bank in India established by missionaries, p. 469.—Provident funds and loan associations, p. 470.



4. DEVELOPING TRADE AND COMMERCE WITH THE OUTER WORLD . . . . . . . . . . 470

The promotion of trade not the deliberate design of missions, p. 470. —Missions, nevertheless, indirectly stimulate commercial interchange, p. 471.—Conditions and desires conducive to trade are created by missions, p. 471.—The promotion of commerce an incidental result of mission ac-

tivities, p. 472.—This aspect of missions cannot be regarded as either aggressive or conspicuous, p. 473.—The marvelous commercial and material advances of the age, p. 474.—Livingstone's "open path for commerce " in Africa, and the monumental changes it heralded, p. 475. The recent phenomenal growth of African commerce, p. 475. — An era of rapid railway extension throughout the African Continent, p. 476. —The part taken by missions in the commercial awakening of Africa, p. 476.—Early mission efforts to promote commerce on the West Coast, p. 477.—The Rev. Henry Venn and his expert knowledge of the commercial possibilities of the West Coast, p. 477. —Missionary coöperation in the opening of the Niger Valley to trade, p. 478.—Pioneer explorations of missionaries in the Congo Valley, p. 479.—The early pilots along the Congo waterways were from the missionary ranks, p. 479.— The important service of missions in the commercial development of Uganda, p. 480.—The heroic missionary occupation of Uganda counts for much in its history, p. 481.—The advances of trade along the "open path" in British Central Africa, p. 481.—The "African Lakes Corporation "a result of missionary initiative, p. 482.—The first planting of coffee in Nyassaland was by a Scotch missionary, p. 483.—South African trade among native tribes began under missionary tutelage, p. 484.—The native kraal transformed by missions into a miniature trading centre, p. 485.—Pacific Islands linked commercially with the outer world by pioneer missionaries, p. 485.—The moral influence of missions upon South Pacific trade, p. 486.—Missionary labors in the Pacific Islands have proved a valuable asset of commerce, p. 487.— Islands where shipwrecked crews were massacred are now marts of trade, p. 488.—The " banner church-goers of the world " have also a creditable trade record, p. 488.—The story of trade extension in the New Hebrides, p. 489.—The missionary occupation of New Zealand prepared the way for immigration, p. 490.—Missionary outposts in New Guinea have long marked the line of safety for the trader, p. 491.—The redemption of the Hawaiian Islands a missionary achievement, p. 492. The part missions have taken in promoting commercial prosperity in Hawaii, p. 493.—The commercial value of missions appears also in the recent history of Asia, p. 493. —Some important testimony based upon personal observation, p. 494.—Evidence that missionaries in China are serving the interests of commerce, p. 494.—The recent enormous growth of commerce in the Far East, p. 495.—The immense possibilities of Chinese commerce, p. 496.—The phenomenal commercial development of Japan, p. 497.—The great transformation in Japanese commercial and industrial aspirations, p. 497.—Remarkable growth of the commerce and industries of Japan, p. 498.—Commercial progress in Korea, p. 499.—Missionary impetus to trade in India and Burma an unknown but not a negligible quantity, p. 500.—The material returns of mission work in Turkey are apparent, p. 501.—An opening market in Syria, especially for American exports, p. 502.—The commercial value of missions among the Indian tribes of North and South America, p. 503.—Protestant progress in South America coincident with trade advances, p. 504.—Missionary footsteps make a pathway for commerce, p.504



5. INTRODUCING MATERIAL CIVILIZATION AND MODERN FACILITIES . . . . . . . . . . 504

Spiritual enlightenment usually a passport to economic welfare, p. 505. —Missions change not only the spiritual but the physical outlook of life, p. 505.—The traditional anti-modern spirit of non-Christian cults, p. 506. —"In the beginning God sent the missionary, "p. 507. —"The enchanter's wand," and its work in the material environment of savagery, p. 508—"The Gospel has added a story to our houses," p. 509.—A new type of home supplanting the filthy hovels of pre-mission days, p. 510.—Missionaries the sponsors of many "first things " of value, p. 510.—Agricultural improvements have made even the soil a debtor to missions, p. 511.—Experimental farms and agricultural colonies, p. 512.— Valuable contributions to native agricultural wealth, p. 513.—Exotics planted by missionaries in African soil, p. 513.—Fruit culture in Korea and China, p. 514.—Missions are making new markets for agricultural implements, p. 515.—Every reminiscent missionary has much to say of material improvements, p. 515.—The missionary heralds the incoming of many modern inventions, p. 516.—Typewriting machines and typographical improvements, p. 518.—A campaign in behalf of good roads, p. 518.—The passing of old and clumsy methods—new devices the order of the day, p. 519.—Pioneer printers in many lands, p. 520. —Enterprising shipbuilders, and patrons of modern machinery, p. 521.—Cotton-spinning in China—a large industry promoted by missionaries, p. 522. —Mackay's busy workshop in Uganda, p. 523.—An electric plant in British Central Africa, p. 523.—The enterprise of native converts, p. 524.—How soap was first manufactured in Madagascar, p. 525.— Miniature World's Fairs in China, p. 525.—Modern methods of transportation in some instances the result of missionary initiative, p. 526. —Missions not a negligible factor in the modern progress of the world, p. 526.



VII. RESULTS OF SOCIAL VALUE TRACEABLE TO REFORMED STANDARDS OF RELIGIOUS FAITH AND PRACTICE . . . . . . . . . . 527

The social value of religious reform, p. 527.—Special themes to be considered in the following sections, p. 528.



1. THE SOCIAL ADVANTAGES OF A MORE SPIRITUAL CONCEPTION OF RELIGION . . . . . . . . . . 528

The perils of formalism, p. 528.—The spiritual instinct when misguided may, itself, mislead and bewilder, p. 529.—Spirituality in the Christian sense is a religious grace, p. 530.—The spiritual Christian a valuable asset of society, p. 530.—Christian evangelism an outcome of spiritual religion, p. 531.—Spiritual Christians are multiplying, p. 531.— Spiritual earnestness is the secret of a vigorous native Church, p. 532.



2. THE SALUTARY INFLUENCE OF THE DECLINE OF IDOLATRY . . . . . . . . . . 533

The debasing influence of idolatry, p, 533. —The doom of an idolatrous society, p. 533.—Idolatrous customs a social incubus, p. 534.— The manifold gain to a community in discrediting idol worship, p. 534.

—The moral power of a break with idolatry, p. 534.—The reign of the idol is waning, p. 535. — "I will never believe in idols again," p. 535.



3. THE GAIN TO SOCIETY FROM THE OVERTHROW OF SUPERSTITION . . . . . . . . . . 536

The deplorable power of superstition, p. 536. — " Demonophobia "— its dismal outlook upon life, p. 537.—The social blight of sorcery, p. 537.—The witch-doctor and his black arts a peril to society, p. 538. —Superstition a grave danger to social order, p. 538. —Superstitious fears are vanishing before the trustful courage of faith, p. 539.



4. THE WHOLESOME SOCIAL EFFECTS OF ASSOCIATING MORALITY WITH RELIGION . . . . . . . . . . 540

The religion of Christ demands a life of moral integrity, p. 540.— The special emphasis of missions upon the moral code, p. 541.—Religion should be an incentive to good morals, p. 541.—Christian morality essential to social well-being, p. 542.—Ethical discontent in Japan, p. 543.



5. THE PUBLIC BENEFITS OF EXEMPLARY RELIGIOUS LEADERSHIP . . . . . . . . . . 544

The personal character of religious leaders a matter of vital moment to society, p. 544.—The Christian leadership of mission fields is worthy of confidence, p. 544—Some men of light and leading on the roll of missions, p.544.—A social influence which cannot be tabulated, p. 545.



6. THE ENNOBLING SOCIAL RESULTS OF RELIGIOUS LIBERTY . . . . . . . . . . 546

The social value of religious liberty, p. 546.—Missionaries have been leaders in interdenominational federation, p. 546.—Great changes in the attitude of foreign states towards religious liberty, p. 547.—Notable progress of the spirit of tolerance in Japan and China, p. 547.—The influence of Verbeck in promoting religious liberty, p. 548.



7. THE SOCIAL UPLIFT OF SABBATH OBSERVANCE . . . . . . . . . . 549

The benign purpose of the Sabbath, p. 549.—Mission emphasis on the observance of the Lord's Day, p. 550.—The "Japan Sabbath Alliance" and its work, p. 550.—Sabbath observance in many mission fields, p. 551.—A novel method of identifying the day, p. 552.—The story of a rescued Sabbath, p. 553.—The social rewards of Sabbath keeping, p. 553—The outcome of our study, p. 554.—Things hoped for are coming true, p. 554.—The gist of this final volume, p. 555.—The majestic meaning of universal redemption, p. 555.




ABBREVIATIONS OF MISSIONARY SOCIETIES USED IN VOLUME II




A. B. C. F. M.

A. B. M. U.

A. B. S.

A. C. C.

A. F. B. F. M.

A. W. M. S.

Ba. M. S.

Ber. M. S.

B. F. B. S.

B. S. M.

C. E. Z. M. S.

C. I. M.

C. M. D.

C. M. M. S.

C. M. S.

C. P. M.

C. S. M.

C. W. B. M.

E. B. M. S.

E. M. M. S.

E. P. C. M.

F. C. M. S.

F. C. S.

F. F. M. A.

G. M. S.

H. E. A.

Ind.

L. E. L. M.

L. M. S.

Luth. G. C.

Luth. G. S.

M. E. M. S.

M. E. S.

M. L.

M. M.

M. M. S.

N. A. M.

N. B. C.

Neth. M. S.

P. B. F. M. N.

P. B. F. M. S.

P. C. I. M. S.

P. E. M. S.

P. M. M. S.

R. B. M. U.

Ref. C. A.

Ref. C. U. S.

Ref. P. N. A.

R. M. S.

S. A. M. S.

S. B. C.

S. D. B.

S. D. C. K.

S. E. N. S.

S. F. N. E.

S. M. E.

S. P. G.

U. B. C.

U. F. C. S.

U. M. C. A.

U. M. F. M. S.

U. P. C. N. A.

U. P. C. S. M.

W. C. M. M. S.

W. M. S.

W. U. M. S.

Y. M. C. A.

Y. W. C. A.

Z. B. M. M.

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions.

American Baptist Missionary Union.

American Bible Society.

American Christian Convention. (U.S.A.)

American Friends' Board of Foreign Missions.

Australasian Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society.

Basel Missionary Society.

Berlin Missionary Society [Berlin I.]. (Germany.)

British and Foreign Bible Society.

British Syrian Mission.

Church of England Zenana Missionary Society.

China Inland Mission.

Cambridge Mission to Delhi.

Canadian Methodist Missionary Society.

Church Missionary Society. (Eng.)

Canadian Presbyterian Mission.

Church of Scotland Mission.

Christian Woman's Board of Missions [Disciples]. (U. S A.)

English Baptist Missionary Society.

Edinburgh Medical Missionary Society. (Scot.)

English Presbyterian Church Mission.

Foreign Christian Missionary Society [Disciples]. (U. S. A.)

Free Church of Scotland. (See U. F. C. S.)

Friends' Foreign Missionary Association. (Eng.)

Gossner Missionary Society [Berlin II.].

Hawaiian Evangelical Association.

Independent.

Leipzig Evangelical Lutheran Mission. (Germany.)

London Missionary Society.

Lutheran General Council. (U. S. A.)

Lutheran General Synod. (U. S. A.)

Methodist Episcopal Missionary Society. (U. S. A.)

Methodist Episcopal Church, South. (U. S. A.)

Mission to Lepers in India and the East. ( Scot.)

Melanesian Mission.

Moravian Missionary Society.

North Africa Mission. (Eng.)

National Baptist Convention. (U. S. A.)

Netherlands Missionary Society. (Netherlands.)

Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, North. (U. S. A.)

Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, South. (U. S. A.)

Presbyterian Church of Ireland Missionary Society.

Protestant Episcopal Missionary Society. (U. S. A.)

Primitive Methodist Missionary Society. (Eng.)

Regions Beyond Missionary Union. (Eng.)

Reformed Church in America. [Dutch.] (U.S.A.)

Reformed Church in the United States. [German.]

Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America.

Rhenish Missionary Society.

South American Missionary Society. (Eng.)

Southern Baptist Convention. (U.S.A.)

Seventh-Day Baptist Missionary Society. (U. S. A.)

Society for the Diffusion of Christian, and General Knowledge among the Chinese. (China.)

Swedish Evangelical National Society.

Society for Promoting Female Education in the East. (Work now transferred to other societies.)

Société des Missions Évangéliques de Paris. (France.)

Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. (Eng.)

United Brethren in Christ. (U. S. A.)

United Free Church of Scotland.

Universities' Mission to Central Africa. (Eng.)

United Methodist Free Churches Missionary Society. (Eng.)

United Presbyterian Church of North America, Board of Foreign Missions.

United Presbyterian Church of Scotland. (See U. F. C. S.)

Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Foreign Missionary Society. (Eng.)

Wesleyan Missionary Society. (Eng.)

Woman's Union Missionary Society. (U. S. A.)

Young Men's Christian Association.

Young Women's Christian Association.

Zenana Bible and Medical Mission.


LECTURE VI
(Continued from Volume II)

SYNOPSIS OF LECTURE VI.
(Continued)

The first three of the classified groups of Lecture VI., dealing with the social results of missions, are treated in Volume II. (pp. 100-486) as follows:

I. RESULTS MANIFEST IN THE INDIVIDUAL CHARACTER.

II. RESULTS AFFECTING FAMILY LIFE.

III. RESULTS OF A HUMANE AND PHILANTHROPIC TENDENCY.

The remaining four groups make up the contents of the present Volume.

IV. RESULTS TENDING TO DEVELOP THE HIGHER LIFE OF SOCIETY. (I) The Introduction of Educational Facilities; (2) The Development of Industrial Training; (3) Modern Methods of University Extension; (4) Christian Associations for Young Men and Young Women; (5) The Production of Wholesome and Instructive Literature; (6) The Quickening of General Intelligence; (7) The Abolishment of Objectionable Social Customs; (8) The Disintegration of Caste.

V. RESULTS TOUCHING NATIONAL LIFE AND CHARACTER, (I) Cultivating the Spirit of Freedom and True Patriotism; (2) Promoting the Reconstruction of Laws and the Reform of Judicial Procedure; (3) Aiding in the Renovation and Amelioration of Administrative Methods; (4) Elevating the Standard of Government Service (5) Furthering Proper International Relations; (6) Contributing to the Intellectual and Scientific Progress of the World.

VI. RESULTS AFFECTING THE COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL STATUS, (I) Commending New Standards of Commercial Integrity; (2) Promoting Better Methods of Transacting Business; (3) Seeking to Introduce a Better System of Finance; (4) Developing Trade and Commerce with the Outer World; (5) Introducing Material Civilization and Modern Facilities.

VII. RESULTS OF SOCIAL VALUE TRACEABLE TO REFORMED STANDARDS OF RELIGIOUS FAITH AND PRACTICE. (I) The Social Advantages of a more Spiritual Conception of Religion; (2) The Salutary Influence of the Decline of Idolatry; (3) The Gain to Society from the Overthrow of Superstition; (4) The Wholesome Social Effects of Associating Morality with Religion; (5) The Public Benefits of Exemplary Religious Leadership; (6) The Ennobling Social Results of Religious Liberty; (7) The Social Uplift of Sabbath Observance.

LECTURE VI
THE CONTRIBUTION OF CHRISTIAN MISSIONS TO SOCIAL PROGRESS
(Continued)




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"St Paul felt, as he gathered into the Church the weak and foolish things of this world, runaway slaves, and even men of despicable character (for 'such,' he says, 'were some of you,') that every one of these contributed something to the efficiency of the whole Church.

"Well, what is thus true of units is true also of the races and nations of mankind. Each has its own genius and characterization. The point is that each nation has its peculiar gift, and all are needed; that if there are seven lamps, each Church carries its own into the darkness; and each hears a message evoked by its own character and its needs; and yet that message is for all—' He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the Churches '—unto all the seven. And do you think that this, written of the Churches in Asia, is no longer true except of Europe? That Japan, when she is won, will turn for us no new page of theology? And India none? Why, Bishop Westcott said that the adequate commentary upon St. John would never be written until India is converted. Surely, the dreaming, patient, subtle soul of Asia must have something deep and strange to tell us about the wisdom of Proverbs and about the Logos of St. John. It may well be that Missions—the inbringing of those new races, of the fulness of the Gentiles—are much like those explorations of Egyptian sepulchres and Syrian monasteries, destined to show us wonderful, mysterious, new aspects of the truth we love—new to us because we have not found them, but existent all along, and patiently awaiting recognition.

"And we who preach to individuals that they cannot expect miracles to avert the penalties of their own thriftless extravagance or sloth, shall we not preach it to ourselves? Is there no waste in our leaving these fields untilled, these gold mines unworked? So, then, the bringing-in of the fulness of the Gentiles will be to them salvation and blessedness, and to unbelievers at home the most overpowering evidence, and to the Church new joy and strength and wisdom.

"And lastly, and above all, what shall it be to the Master? I think of that most Divine, most human heart of all—most human because most Divine—and of the day when He shall see of the travail of His soul, and shall be satisfied. How great, how world-wide must that redemption be which shall quite content His large and absolute love."

THE RIGHT REV. G. A. CHADWICK, D.D.,
Bishop of Derry and Raphoe

"What we need in the Christian Church to-day is a revival of the patriotism of the Kingdom of Heaven. The commonwealth of love for which Christ lived and died is world-wide. We cannot love any part of it rightly unless our thoughts and our desires reach out through that part to the greater whole to which it belongs. Indifference to missions is the worst kind of treason. Enthusiasm for missions is the measure both of our faith in Christ and of our love for man."

THE REV. HENRY VAN DYKE, D.D., LL.D.
In Baptist Missionary Magazine.




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LECTURE VI
THE CONTRIBUTION OF CHRISTIAN MISSIONS TO SOCIAL PROGRESS
(Continued)

THE impress of missions upon individual character, upon family life, and upon Scope of the present volume humanitarian progress, has been found to be at once potent and salutary. As these themes have been treated in the previous volume, we turn now to study the impact of the same forceful instrumentality along other lines of social progress—upon the higher life of humanity in its varied forms of culture, upon the development of national character and the elevation of administrative standards, upon the enlargement of commerce and the refinement of religious ideals. We shall find abundant evidence that the making of better men and women awakens in society as a whole loftier aspirations, and stimulates to wiser and nobler effort—the new man becoming the embryonic norm of a new society and a new national life. It will be discovered that the influence of missions upon the nascent desires and eager searchings of this quickened life is marked by directness, adaptation, and wholesome incentive. In the spheres of education, literary activity, general culture, social refinement, and caste problems, their ministry brings a manifest and distinct gain. They furnish invigorating stimulus, suggest useful discriminations, cultivate finer tastes, and establish wiser standards of judgment. In tracing further the molding power of missions upon national life and character, we shall find that at many points a process of reconstruction is discoverable which has in it ennobling visions of freedom, truer views of patriotism, the revision of laws, the repression of official corruption, the elevation of the public service, the increase of concord and international amenities among separate races, and the general promotion of civilization. In




Page -- 4 --

the sphere of commercial and industrial interests, also, we shall discover that missions are by no means an indifferent factor, since they commend the principles of fair and honest dealing, and have a useful though indirect part to play in developing trade and commerce, and in introducing the characteristic facilities of modern progress. Furthermore, in the religious development of communities which have been quickened and illumined by the fuller light of divine revelation, they implant new convictions, awaken fresh aspirations, respond to earnest questionings, supply moral guidance, develop personal leadership based upon character rather than upon hierarchic position, cultivate a spirit of tolerance, give the consciousness of freedom, and inspire an ardent longing for higher spiritual ideals. Through these various channels of influence missions are pouring vitalizing forces into the social, national, commercial, and religious life of foreign peoples. It remains for us to examine in detail the present status of missionary effort as manifested along these lines of transformation and progress. We shall consider first the realm of the higher intellectual and social life of mission lands. Dealing with this theme, we are introduced to the fourth main division of the present lecture.

IV.—RESULTS TENDING TO DEVELOP THE HIGHER LIFE OF SOCIETY

This is a sphere in which we may expect to find missions at their best as a social force, ministering directly to the higher nature of man, providing facilities for increased culture, awakening dormant powers of development, quickening the aptitude for progress, giving a finer tone to life, and elevating the ideals of intellectual and social aspiration, so that a new atmosphere is produced and a more beneficent environment is created, to which society as a whole readily and quickly responds, and that with an upward, aspiring trend. First under this general caption comes the educational work of missions as a quickening ministry to the intellectual powers of man.




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I. THE INTRODUCTION OF EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES.—The noble service Christianity an ally of intellectual progresswhich missions have rendered in the education of the modern world has become part of the intellectual history of mankind. Christianity itself is a message to the mind as well as to the heart, and has brought light from the eternal source of wisdom to illumine the pathway of knowledge. It has also stimulated and aided the intellect of man in its search after truth in all departments of investigation and discovery. The Church has sometimes, no doubt, mistaken its function, presumed upon the extent of its wisdom, and assumed authority in realms of knowledge which were outside its ken, yet, when true to its historic mission, it has ever been the advocate and supporter of verified truth, in whatever sphere it has been discovered, and has shown itself to be a zealous ally of true enlightenment and culture. Where this statement does not hold, it will be found that the failure on the part of the Church has resulted from false conceptions of its sphere of service, from the corruption of its aims, and the prostitution of its sacred functions to ignoble uses. Despite some of the melancholy aspects of medieval church history, the intellectual development of Europe, and in fact the whole course of learning in the world, are deeply indebted to the zeal of the Church in establishing and nourishing seats of learning, and in laying the foundations of those great universities which have been for centuries the agencies and centres of culture. The educational quickening which touched the Continent of Europe as early as the seventh and the beginning of the eighth century was traceable to the influence of the Irish-Scottish missionaries, who, wherever they went, founded centres of learning. Mr. Reginald Lane-Poole, in his "Illustrations of the History of Mediaeval Thought," writes of them: "Wherever they went they founded schools."1

1 The following paragraph gives us the conclusions of this accomplished writer upon this point: "Malmesbury, the house of which Saint Ealdhelm was a scholar and ultimately abbat, took its origin from the company of disciples that gathered about a poor Scottish teacher, Mailduf, as he sat in his hut beside the walls of the old castle of Ingelborne. The foundations of Saint Columban, Luxeuil, and Bob-bio, long remained centres of learned activity amid Burgundian or Lombard barbarism ; the settlement of his comrade, Saint Gall, rose into the proud abbey which yet retains his name, and which was for centuries the beacon-tower of learning in western Europe; the sister-abbey of Reichenau, its rival both in power and in cultivation, also owed probably its establishment on its island in the lake of Constance to the teaching of a Scot. Under the shelter of these great houses, and of such as these, learning was planted in a multitude of lesser societies scattered over the tracts of German colonisation; and almost uniformly the impulse which led to their formation as schools as well as monasteries, if not their actual foundation, is directly due to the energetic devotion of the Scottish travellers."—Lane-Poole, " Illustrations of the History of Mediæval Thought," pp. 14, 15.




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One of the striking historical features of the reign of Charlemagne is The Church the patron of medieval learninghis coöperation with Scottish missionaries in the promotion of education. The Emperor made them the masters and guides of the intellectual training of a company of young men, some of them the noblest of his realm, and their influence was thus extended to the affairs of State, and to all ranks of society.1 The story of Bede and his follower, Alcuin, who was deeply imbued with his spirit, is identified, in the case of the former, with English learning, and of the latter, with educational foundations upon the Continent, and is familiar to students of that period. Later on in the course of medieval development, we come to the intellectual revival of the eleventh and twelfth centuries, during which ecclesiastical orders appear as the friends and supporters of learning. The parish and cathedral schools, and subsequently the " Studium," from which issued the university, represented the educational forces of the Continent of Europe.2 Rashdall, whose work upon the history of European Universities in the Middle Ages is regarded as a model of research and learning, is most emphatic in according to Christianity the credit of extending and cherishing education amidst the darkness which followed the dominance of barbarism, and which has given the distinctive title of the " Dark Ages " to a section of medieval history. " It is at least certain," he writes," that so much of the culture of the old Roman world as survived into medieval Europe survived by virtue of its association with Christianity." Again, he writes: " Narrow as may have been the Churchman's educational ideal, it was only among Churchmen that an educational ideal maintained itself at all. . . . The improvement of education formed a prominent object with every zealous Churchman and every ecclesiastical reformer from the days of Gregory the Great to the days when the darkness passed away under the influence of the ecclesiastical revival of the eleventh and twelfth centuries. If the monastic system of Cassian retained something of the ascetic and obscurantist traditions of the Egyptian desert, the Benedictine Monasticism which superseded

1 Ibid., pp. 16, 17.

2 Rashdall, "The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages," vol. i., pp. 4-10. A mine of suggestive comment and bibliographical information on the whole subject of education will be found in Cubberley's " Syllabus of Lectures on the History of Education " (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1904).




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it created almost the only homes of learning and education, and constituted by far the most powerful civilising agency in Europe until it was superseded as an educational instrument by the growth of the Universities." 1 In fact, pre-university education was almost exclusively ecclesiastical.

If we turn our attention to the development of modern missions, Modern missions have everywhere heralded an educational revivawe shall find undoubted evidence that education has been especially prized and fostered, and has proved itself also one of the most effective instrumentalities, for accomplishing the full, rounded purpose of the Gospel to mankind. Missions have had to face ignorance in its darkest and most desolating forms, but they have accepted with courage and patience the serious task of intellectual training which this situation imposed. In fact, the pioneers of the educational revival of nations outside of Christendom have been the missionary teachers, who have always striven to have this mental awakening identified with Christian enlightenment, and thus be in coöperation with the supreme aim of Gospel evangelism. In this they have succeeded to an extent which is not surpassed in the educational provisions of the most favored communities of Christendom. While intellectual culture no doubt brings its peculiar temptations, this is no reason why it should be ignored in the missionary programme. The Gospel itself often involves startling and fierce trials to the soul; yet we are bound to propagate it as the only assured way of spiritual victory. The experience of missions, moreover, has brought abundant evidence to demonstrate the benefits of education and its power as a coöperating agency in preparing a people for the acceptance and enjoyment of Christianity.

This subject has been treated in some of its general aspects in the previous volumes of this work. In Volume I. (pp. 357-361) will be found a discussion of the futility of merely secular education, with neither a Christian basis nor an ethical aim, as an instrument for the moral regeneration of society. In Volume II. (pp. 33-35) will be found a brief survey of the fundamental value of education in the promotion of social progress. Again, in the same volume (pp. 177-209) will be found special references to the educational work of missions in improving the condition of woman, and a brief review of the educational facilities provided in different fields for her higher training and culture. Detailed lists of missionary institutions, with much information concerning their special lines of service, will be found in

1 Rashdall, "The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages," pp. 26, 27.




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the author's " Centennial Survey of Foreign Missions."1 We shall not attempt, therefore, to discuss further these general aspects of the subject, but shall proceed at once to summarize briefly the decisive influence and historical progress of missionary education in different lands, and to outline in a cursory way its present status in some of the more prominent fields, presenting, as opportunity may offer, some fresh manifestations of its power to uplift, and some concrete illustrations of its influence in the promotion of social progress.

The country which of all others, with the possible exception of Japan, is Early indigenous education in Indiadistinguished for educational progress, both under governmental and missionary auspices, is India, and the influence of missions in fostering this advance is indisputable. Indigenous education under native patronage, and in harmony with Hindu, Buddhist, and Moslem ideals, has been in operation there for centuries, but it was much limited in extent and scope, being chiefly is the interest of the Brahman caste, and thus fruitless in practical incentive to the masses. The East India Company had established, through Warren Hastings, a government college known as the Calcutta Medrassa, in 1782; the Sanscrit College at Benares was opened in 1791; the Hindu College in 1817; and the College at Poona (now known as the Deccan College) was founded in 1821. There followed the Agra College, in 1823; the Calcutta Sanscrit College, in 1824; the Delhi College, in 1825; and the Elphinstone College at Bombay, in 18272 These institutions, however, were dominated by native traditional conceptions of education, and in purpose and spirit, as well as in their curricula, were wholly Oriental, besides being exclusively for the higher classes of Hindus. The British Government, as early as 1822, began a series of official inquiries into the state of education. Sir Thomas Munro, in 1822, ordered an investigation in the Madras Presidency; while Lord Elphinstone in Bombay, and Lord Bentinck in Bengal, in 1823 and 1835 respectively, were also instrumental in instituting a similar inquiry. The incentive which prompted these researches was the pitiful ignorance of the masses, and a sense of responsibility as to the promotion of their moral and intellectual welfare. The higher education

1 Dennis, ''Centennial Survey of Foreign Missions : A Statistical Supplement to ' Christian Missions and Social Progress,' Being a Conspectus of the Achievements and Results of Evangelical Missions in All Lands at the Close of the Nineteenth Century," pp. 69-120.

2 Consult "Report of the Indian Universities Commission, 1902," and also Chamberlain, " Education in India," pp. 13-18.




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found to exist was entirely in the hands of Brahman teachers,1 and confined to pupils of the same caste; village schools were crude in method, and gave only the most elementary instruction, and, moreover, were exclusively for boys. The curriculum in the higher schools was narrow and intensely scholastic, formed altogether in the Brahmanical mold, fostering caste exclusiveness, and failing in practical incentive and useful stimulus.2 These preliminary researches, however, initiated a movement which has developed during the past century into the present elaborate system of government education in India.

The earliest efforts at foreign education began in the seventeenth century, when the Pioneer educators of the eighteenth century in IndiaDutch opened numerous schools in Ceylon. These schools were under governmental, rather than strictly missionary, auspices, and yet the movement was a religious one, prompted largely by the Dutch clergy, and having in view the moral and spiritual good of the native community. A distinctively missionary effort appears, however, with the establishment of the Danish Halle Mission at Tranquebar, in 1706. Ziegenbalg, Plütschau, Schultze, Fabricius, and Schwartz were the leading spirits in this movement during the larger part of the eighteenth century. Their educational work cannot be considered as extensive, but it became an important part of their programme. The British Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, and the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, coöperated financially with the Danish-Halle missionaries in their early educational efforts, and in 1728 the Christian Knowledge Society assumed the support of the Madras Branch of the Tranquebar Mission, chiefly under the direction of Schultze, who opened schools in that section of India. The Christian Knowledge Society eventually transferred the practical management of its work to the Propagation of the Gospel Society, while it continued to give financial aid in support of education. The London and the Wesleyan Missions began educational work in Madras in 1805 and 1819 respectively; the Wesleyans, however, had previously opened several schools in Ceylon. The Scotch Mission commenced its notable educational efforts in the Madras Presidency in 1837, with the coming of the Rev. John Anderson, whose name

1 A curious indication of the reverence due to the Brahmanical teacher in early Vedic times is found in the following passage from the Laws of Manu: " By censuring his preceptor, though quietly, he [the pupil] will be born an ass ; by falsely detaining him, a dog; by using his goods without leave, a worm; by envying his merit, a larger insect or reptile."

2 Satthianadhan, "History of Education in the Madras Presidency," pp. 1-6.




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occupies an honorable place in the history of education in India. As early as 1758, John Daniel Kiernander, one of the Danish missionaries supported by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, being driven out of Cuddalore by the warlike aggressions of the French, proceeded to Calcutta and began mission work there, establishing a school with two hundred pupils, and inaugurating a missionary and educational campaign, which was still going on when Carey arrived there in a Danish vessel in 1793.

The last decade of the eighteenth century, and the opening years of the nineteenth, found The marshalling of forces for a great campaignBaptist representatives in Carey and his associates, and also Anglican missionaries, aided by the alliance of some distinguished Christian officials—notably Charles Grant and several British chaplains—with representatives also of the London Missionary Society, all engaged in securing a missionary foothold in Calcutta and its vicinity. Educational efforts were identified with each of these agencies. The Baptists, who were known as the Serampore missionaries, owing to their enforced residence at that place under Danish rule, the London Society agents, and the Church of England missionaries, were all active in promoting school work. In 1816 the Serampore Mission reported 10,000 children as having been under its instruction in schools. The London Missionary Society in the same year reported thirty schools in operation, with 2600 children in attendance, under the supervision of their missionary, Mr. Robert May,1 while the Church of England missions were also active in promoting elementary education in the first quarter of the century. The earliest college in India under missionary auspices was founded in Serampore by Carey, in 1818, followed, in 1820, by the Bishop's College at Calcutta, or rather at Howrah, directly opposite Calcutta, 2 representing an elaborate scheme of higher education devised by Bishop Middleton—the first Anglican Bishop of India—and placed under the direction of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel.

We find these three representative agencies of First efforts for the education of girls in IndiaBaptists, Anglicans, and English Independents fully committed in 1820 to education in India as a component part of their missionary effort; but, as yet, the benefits accrued almost exclusively to boys, although, in some instances, a few girls had been received in certain of the

1 Lovett, "The History of the London Missionary Society," vol. ii., p. 16.

2 Bishop's College is sometimes spoken of as located at Sibpur, a section of Howrah, four miles below Calcutta.




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boys' schools of the London Mission. The formal effort in behalf of education for girls was ere long to be inaugurated. Mrs. Hannah Marshman, of Serampore, as early as 1800, was the first woman actually to attempt female education in India. It should be noted, however, that her school enterprise was intended primarily for Eurasians, with a view to securing financial returns for the support of the Serampore Mission. Subsequently, in 1807, she began to include native girls within the scope of her school work. Her efforts, however, through the initiative of some young ladies, probably Eurasians, who had been under the instruction of Mrs. Lawson and Mrs. Pearce, of the Baptist Mission in Calcutta, resulted in April, 1819, in the formation of the Calcutta " Female Juvenile Society for the Education of Native Females," which set itself heroically to overcome the prevailing prejudice of the natives against female education. The Society could report only eight scholars during the first year of its existence, and not more than thirty-two during the second year; but at the end of another three years the schools had increased to six, and the scholars to one hundred and sixty.1

In September of the same year (1819), the "Calcutta School Society" was founded, with a view to uniting under combined European and native control a movement in the interest of education. The Society soon enlisted itself especially in behalf of female education, and was aided therein by missionary coöperation, and by gifts from various sources in England.2 It shortly afterwards applied to the British and Foreign School Society in England, begging that a competent lady be sent out to undertake this branch of service. This appeal resulted in the sending of Miss M. A. Cooke to Calcutta in 1821, and in 1822 that lady opened a school for girls in the city. This school is regarded by the missionary historians of India as the first formal effort under the auspices of an organized missionary society to establish schools exclusively for girls in that country. Miss Cooke had ten schools in operation in a few months, with two hundred and seventy-seven pupils. In 1823 the schools had increased to twenty-two, with nearly four hundred pupils. Owing to an irreconcilable prejudice among the native members of the mixed committee of Europeans and Hindus representing the Calcutta School Society, Miss Cooke found it expedient to transfer her work almost immediately to the charge of the Church Missionary Society. An auxiliary organization, originated by Mrs. Marshman herself, called the " Ladies' Society for Native

1 Lovett, "The History of the London Missionary Society," vol. ii., p. 244.

2 Ibid., p. 245.




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Female Education in Calcutta and the Vicinity," was formed, in 1824, to coöperate with and aid in supporting the entire movement. Thus the work of female education in India gained headway, and before long, through the various missionary societies at home—especially the Society for the Promotion of Female Education in the East (1834), the Church of Scotland Women's Association (1837), and the Indian Female Normal School and Instruction Society (1852)—a decided impetus was given to the movement, which has steadily grown to the present status. The important feature of zenana work might properly be mentioned here, but in Volume II. (pp. 251-258) will be found a sufficiently full statement concerning it.

The progress of education under both governmental and missionary The reign of the Indian classicsauspices advanced along two distinct lines until 1835, when a memorable change took place. The Government had confined its attention to the fostering of a system of education exclusively in harmony with Oriental ideals; the missionaries, on the other hand, had availed themselves of the common vernaculars, and had given prominence to religious instruction. The curriculum adopted by the Government was, therefore, restricted to the Indian classics, through the medium of Sanscrit, Arabic, and Persian, since the promotion of Oriental learning, and the exploiting of classical literature as embodied especially in the sacred Sanscrit, was the main object in view. As early as 1793, when the Royal Charter of the East India Company was to be renewed—a necessity recurring every twenty years—Wilber-force and others of like views as to the moral responsibility of England for the well-being of the natives of India endeavored to introduce into the renewed Charter a clause which would prove serviceable in initiating more definite efforts to further the moral and intellectual welfare of India. The attempt failed, although it was hopefully and strenuously advocated.

In 1813, however, when another term for the renewal of the Charter came round, a more successful effort was made, and provision was secured for the inauguration of an educational programme, together with the founding of a religious establishment in India. The appropriation, amounting to one hundred thousand rupees annually, was used in rather a lukewarm fashion by the " Court of Directors" in supporting the existing institutions, and in promoting the study of the Indian classics, until finally, in 1823, a " Committee of Public Instruction " was appointed, charged with the expenditure of the government appropriation. It was devoted partly to education, and in part to the




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publication of Oriental classics. Matters thus drifted, as it were, until about 1833, when, on the further renewal of the Charter, the appropriation was increased to one million rupees, and in connection with the proper use of this enlarged grant arose the famous controversy which resulted in the memorable educational minute of Macaulay, dated February 2, 1835.

Missionary education, heretofore, though giving due attention to secular branches, Dr. Duff and his plea for a broader curriculumhad proceeded along religious lines, but was confined almost exclusively to the use of vernacular languages as media of instruction. The arrival, in 1830, of Dr. Alexander Duff, sent out as a missionary of the Established Church of Scotland (Dr. Duff became a Free Churchman in 1843), and his subsequent advocacy of the use of the English language and the introduction of Western learning into Indian educational work, brought about a crisis in a controversy of far-reaching importance. On the one hand, it was advocated that the proper sphere of Indian education was the Indian classics as embodied in Oriental sources—an exploitation of Orientalism was in fact conceived to be its proper scope. Dr. Duff, on the other hand, argued that this ignoring of Western knowledge and the neglect of the English language, with the rich sources to which it gave access, was narrowing and unfair to the intellectual needs and prospects of India. Raja Rammohun Roy had already (in 1823) advocated the use of the English language, in a letter to Lord Amherst, the Governor-General, but Dr. Duff took the practical step and founded an institution in Calcutta, in harmony with his ideals, and the Duff College proved an immediate success.1 This was, in fact, the significant contribution of Dr. Duff to the educational progress of India, since to him the country is indebted for having established a Christian college, with Western learning as its distinctive basis. He made a modern curriculum to be an accredited feature of mission policy, and incidentally his influence was also strong and decisive in securing and implanting the essentials of European culture as a part of State education. Dr. Duff's proposal, in his own language, was as follows: "to lay the foundation of a system of education which might ultimately embrace

1 Dr. Duff's record as an educator is remarkable in the value and efficiency of its results. Dr. J. P. Jones speaks of it as follows : " It is said that, of the forty-eight educated men who were won to Christ through his mission, in 1871, nine were ministers, ten were catechists, seventeen were professors and high-grade teachers, eight, Government servants of the higher grade, and four, assistant surgeons and doctors."—Jones, "India's Problem, Krishna or Christ," p. 176.




Page -- 14 --

all the branches ordinarily taught in the higher schools and colleges of Christian Europe, but in inseparable combination with the Christian faith and its doctrines, precepts, and evidences, with a view to the practical regulation of life and conduct. Religion was thus intended to be, not merely the foundation upon which the superstructure of all useful knowledge was to be reared, but the animating spirit which was to pervade and hallow all." 1

The controversy waxed, and reached its crisis in the minute of Lord Macaulay, Lord Macaulay's minute on educational reformissued in 1835, sustaining Dr. Duff's position.2 The minute was approved immediately by Lord Bentinck, then Governor-General of Bengal, Who issued a proclamation in which it was declared " that the chief aim of the educational policy of Government should be to promote a knowledge of European literature and science." The result of this new move was apparent at once, and consequently a great impulse was given to the study of the English language in all the government schools and colleges. The printing of Oriental books was largely supplanted in the interests of European literature, and Orientalism, henceforward, occupied a subordinate place in the government curriculum. Dr. Duff had followed closely a scheme outlined by Dr. Inglis, of Scotland, in 1824, and this adoption of the English language and literature as instruments of higher education in India has abundantly justified itself as a master-stroke of missionary statesmanship. Although criticized and deprecated at the time by admirers of Indian literature, it has proved of the highest benefit to the intellectual development of India. It has broadened and enriched the whole scope of knowledge, and opened to the native mind the door to the noblest realms of modern scientific and religious attainment. The personal influence of Dr. Duff may justly be said to have been a very forceful factor in shaping the policy of the Government, and in establishing in its educational curriculum the English language and its literary treasures, rather than Sanscrit and the other sacred languages of India, as the media of high educational training. Throughout India to-day government universities, colleges, and schools bear witness to the momentous import of this wise and far-reaching programme, which has become incorporated into the intellectual growth of India

1 Smith, "Life of Alexander Duff, D.D.," vol. i., p. 110.

2 The minute is given in full in " Sketches of Some Distinguished Anglo-Indians " (Second Series), by Colonel W. F. B. Laurie, pp. 170-184 (W. H. Allen & Co., London), and in Appendix A in " History of Education in the Madras presidency," by Dr. S. Satthianadhan (Srinivasa, Varadachari & Co., Madras).




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largely, as we have seen, through missionary initiative. Two other Church of Scotland missionaries, Dr. John Wilson at Bombay (1829), and the Rev. John Anderson at Madras (1837), followed in the path marked out by Dr. Duff, and were the leaders in founding institutions which have developed into large plants, and are to-day among the most useful educational agencies in India. Both the Wilson College at Bombay and the Madras Christian College at Madras are monuments to the wisdom and energy of their founders, as well as to those who have aided in bringing them to their present standard of efficiency.

Another pivotal point in the history of Indian education under government The purport of the Despatch of Sir Charles Woodauspices is the Despatch, dated July 19, 1854, of Sir Charles Wood (afterwards Lord Halifax), which inaugurated the present scheme of government education in India, and established what is known as the system of " Grants-in-Aid." As a matter of missionary history it may be noted that this document was drawn up by Mr. T. G. Baring (later known as Lord Northbrook), after prolonged conferences with Dr. Duff and Mr. John Clark Marshman, who was the son of Carey's associate, and also a distinguished official of the Government of India.1 Both of these men happened to be in London at the time Sir Charles Wood was Chief of the India Office. Mr. Baring, who drafted the document, was, as Lord Northbrook, subsequently Governor-General and Viceroy of India. The system of Grants-in-Aid to educational institutions, both missionary and non-missionary, inaugurated by the Government in 1854, and put into operation by Lord Dalhousie, secured a measure of financial aid to educational work not directly under government control. The Grant in-Aid scheme was in reality a compromise between the absolute prohibition of all religious instruction in any school under government supervision, and the proposal urged by Dr. Duff and Mr. Strachan that the Bible should be a class-book in government schools, attendance on the class being optional.2 The provisions of the Despatch were, in their original form, not onerous or hampering to missionary education, and the proposal was received by the friends of missions with gratitude and satisfaction. Missionary schools in which religious instruction was given could thus benefit by the financial aid of government. It has come to pass, however, that in connection with its

1 Stock, "The History of the Church Missionary Society," vol. ii., p. 240; Smith, " Twelve Indian Statesmen," p. 237.

2 Stock, "The History of the Church Missionary Society," vol. ii., p. 241.




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administration certain supplementary requirements instituted by local officials have sought to impose undue exactions and limitations -which have been unwelcome to missionaries in India. The result has been that a few missionaries in certain sections of India have found these conditions and limitations neutralizing, in a greater or less degree, ,the benefits of the system. It should be noted, however, in all fairness, that the original provision placed no restrictions upon the giving of Christian instruction in mission schools accepting the grants from the Government, and that the Grant-in-Aid system has, with some minor and local exceptions, worked satisfactorily.

Again, in 1882—another historic date in the educational progress of India—when The work of the Education Commission of 1882the Education Commission was appointed, we have further evidence of the helpful coöperation of missionaries. We have noted this already as having occurred in 1835 and in 1854, and once more, in 1882, we find that friends of missions in England, acting as an organization entitled a "Council on Education in India," worked in harmony with missionary educators in the field, and that this combined influence in the interest of missions did much towards securing the appointment of this important Commission.1 Two of its leading members were the Rev. Principal Miller of the Madras Christian College, and the Rev. W. R. Blackett of the Church Mission Divinity College at Calcutta. A third missionary member was the Rev. Dr. Jean, Rector of St. Joseph's Jesuit College at Trichinopoly. Sir William W. Hunter was the President, and it consisted of :twenty one members, chosen from among British officials, educated natives, and missionaries. Its object was to examine into the workings of the Despatch of 1854, which had then been over a quarter of a century in operation, to correct abuses, and to suggest measures looking to the improvement and larger efficiency of the educational system. Its voluminous report gave special attention to the Grant-in-Aid system, and secured its more effective application and usefulness. It laid put an advanced programme in the interests of primary education, which had hitherto been too much neglected, in favor of higher schools ,and colleges. It secured also advantageous measures in behalf of indigenous secondary, collegiate, and special education. Among its recommendations, under the head of collegiate education, we note the following specifications: "That an attempt be made to prepare a moral text book based upon the fundamental principles of natural religion such

1 " Education in India," by William I. Chamberlain, Ph.D., p. 67; "History of Education in the Madras Presidency," by Dr. S. Satthianadhan, p-151.




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as may be taught in all Government and non-Government colleges," and further, "that the Principal, or one of the professors, in each Government or Aided college deliver to each of the college classes in every session a series of lectures on the duties of a man and a citizen." These recommendations, although adopted unanimously, and favored by a large majority of experienced educators who gave testimony before the Commission, were, strange to say, rejected by the British Government.1

In a very elaborate review of the Report of this Education Commission of 1882, it is stated The University Commission of 1902that the document refers "to the important part taken by missionary societies in originating and carrying on modern culture in India. In going over the different provinces it is shown that in almost every instance the missionary had preceded the Government in setting up schools of every kind; and the great service rendered by them in female education is frankly and gracefully acknowledged." In the University Commission of 1902, appointed to examine and report upon the condition and prospects of the universities established in British India, and suggest plans for promoting their efficiency, we find a missionary among its seven members, in the person of the Rev. Dr. Mackichan, of Bombay; while among the witnesses who were asked to give evidence before the Commission were twenty-four missionary educators. This is a still further indication of the active part which missionary coöperation has taken in the shaping of the present system of State education in British India. The work of the University Commission promises to result in practical benefits to elementary and secondary education, quite as much as in advantageous changes in the university system.

The government system sketched in the preceding paragraphs may be described as an An appraisement of Indian State Educationelaborately graded scheme, reaching from the village school to the university. While it is not faultless, lacking as it does teaching power, and encouraging unduly a process of superficial cramming on the part of the student, besides needing more practical and utilitarian adaptation in its curriculum to the special requirements of India, it nevertheless stands as a striking testimony to the wisdom and liberality of the British Government in its efforts to promote the intellectual welfare of those vast populations. Its sweeping condemnation as a complete failure is an extreme under-

1 Satthianadhan, "History of Education in the Madras Presidency," pp. 165-168.




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valuation. It should be remembered that education in India is not in the least compulsory, and that seven eighths of the children of school-going age are not sent by their parents. The fact that the outcome in high-grade institutions has not been wholly satisfactory in every respect, and that the Indian Babu—using the term in its disparaging sense—seems to be a perversion of the true educational ideal, is no doubt disappointing, yet this is, perhaps, to be expected to some extent, in an era of intellectual transition in a land of caste spirit like India, where, moreover, the government appointment has, unfortunately, become both the incentive and the aim of a student career. It is evident also that the Brahman and his congeners in all classes of Indian society, either through natural incapacity or overweening self-complacency, do not seem in numerous instances to assimilate modern knowledge with wholesome psychological results, failing often to avail themselves of its benefits in a way which is either creditable to themselves or useful in their environment. The absence of all religious instruction, which is carried to the extent of absolute neutrality, is, moreover, a grave defect when the higher welfare of society is considered, and goes far to account for much that is disappointing in the outcome of Indian State education. This is freely acknowledged even by many who regard religious neutrality as the only proper attitude for the Government to take in an educational system for India.1 Under these circumstances, mission schools where religious instruction is imparted become all the more essential as moral factors in the progress of Indian civilization. It is recognized, however, by acute observers in that imperial dependency of Britain that "the Government educational policy, though technically neutral, 'and in its administration strictly non-religious, has proved to be more powerfully destructive to Brahman and Moslem orthodoxy than any form of missionary agency." If this be true, it is obviously the more important that missionary education should teach Christianity, in positive terms, as the religion to which unsettled minds may turn with comfort and assurance.

The gradations of the government system may be enumerated under five heads:

(I) Universities. There are five of these, located at Calcutta,

1 Valuable articles, judicial and suggestive in conception, on this perplexing theme are found in The Imperial and Asiatic Quarterly Review for October, 1900, p. 225, by Mr. R. Maconachie, late of the Indian Civil Service, and by D. Duncan, LL.D., late Director of Public Instruction, Madras, in the same Review for January, 1902, p. I.




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Bombay, Madras, Lahore, and Allahabad. The first three were The gradations of the government systemestablished in 1857, that at Lahore in 1882, and the one at Allahabad in 1887. These are not teaching institutions, but simply for the examination of candidates for degrees in the arts, sciences, and professions.

(2) Colleges. These are teaching institutions in which candidates are prepared for the university examination. They have also special courses in law, medicine, engineering, art, and other technical branches.

(3) Higher Schools. These educate for the matriculation examination at the universities, but do not undertake to prepare candidates for anything beyond their entrance enrolment.

(4) Middle Schools. These occupy a medium grade between the higher and the primary, and provide a good general education.

(5)Primary Schools. These are ordinary village schools where the teaching is usually in the different vernaculars of the country.

The total number of male pupils is 4,083,393, and of females 446,-098, making, as reported in "The Statesman's Year-Book for 1904," an aggregate total of 4,529,491.1

1 " The Statesman's Year-Book for 1904," p. 144, gives the following statistical summary of Indian education, compiled up to March 31, 1902. The two grades of schools named above as higher and middle are grouped in this table under the one head of secondary. Under the head of special education are included technical and industrial schools.


INSTITUTIONS FOR SCHOLARS
.................................................................Males ............Females .......... Males ........Females
Colleges..................................................... 180 .................12 ................ 23,027 ....... 264
General Education:
****** Secondary ....................................5,045 ............. 462 ............. 519,004 .....41,638
****** Primary .......................................92,902 ...........5,686 ............2,922,522 ....348,857
Special Education:
****** Training and other
****** special schools ................................1,003 ................75 ................32,368 ...... 2,812
Private Institutions ..................................... 41,805 ...........1,355 ..............586,472 ....52,527


Total ........................................................140,935 ............7,590 ...........4,083,393 .. 446,098
Grand Total ...........................................................148,525 .............................4,529,491




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Although, all things considered, this is a magnificent provision, yet it is entirely inadequate for India, as is only too apparent when we note that, according to a recent estimate, only 23.10 per cent, of the boys of a school-going age attend school, and only 2.60 per cent, of the girls.1 The school-going age is estimated to represent about fifteen per cent, of the total population of India. There are about 17,000,000 girls who are suitable candidates for educational privileges, and out of that number only about 400,000 are under instruction. Less than six per cent, of the entire population can read or write, and only one in 330 of the women. The Census of 1901 reveals the depressing fact that 277,728,485 persons are illiterate.

Thus, in its origin and in its subsequent development, the whole imposing The emancipating power of education in Indiasystem of popular education in India, where the caste spirit of ostracism and exclusiveness has reigned for centuries amidst the darkness of ignorance, is, to a very considerable and gratifying extent, the product of missionary faith and wisdom, coöperating with British statesmanship. The British Blue Book on the "Progress of Education in India," issued in 1904, has the following statement : " From a very early date missionary societies have played a prominent part in the development of Indian education."2 It is impossible to forecast the results of general education, not only in promoting intellectual progress, but also in cultivating a spirit of democracy and social brotherhood, in a country which has long been a veritable stronghold of privileged exclusiveness. We cannot expect that educational movements under Hindu auspices will work any change in the dominant spirit of Indian society, since they are almost entirely designed for the higher castes, and are expressly arranged in deference to the exactions of the caste system. The Serampore missionaries, however, as long ago as 1802, issued a circular containing a "Plan for the Education of the Children of Converted Natives, or of those who have lost Caste," 3 and the missionary programme has never lost sight of this educational attitude in regard to the caste system. Sooner or later, ancient social wrongs, however proud and defiant, will crumble at the touch of the missionary educator and those who happily adopt his principles. Recent educational reports of the Government of India show that the prejudice against the admission of low-caste chil-

1 "The Statesman's Year-Book for 1904," p. 144.

2 Blue Book on the "Progress of Education in India" (Fourth Quinquennial Review, 1898-1902), vol. i., p. 3.

3 The Mission World, October 16, 1899, p. 442.




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dren to the State elementary schools is much less operative than formerly, and there is reason to expect that it will gradually pass.1 The entrance of an untrammelled educational force into the intellectually stagnant communities of the Orient creates everywhere an irrepressible movement in the direction of a higher social evolution. The educated soon forge ahead; the uneducated become restless and anxious; the advantages of educational training are made apparent, and thus a demand is created. Men, and especially young men, begin to see visions, and the whole mass of society is stirred by new desires. The old unchallenged conservatism loses its influence; it cannot face the facts and live. Where different races are concerned, as in India, the movement may be still further stimulated by a jealous zeal on the part of competitors who are unwilling to be left behind. "English education," wisely observes Dr. Samuel Satthianadhan, "is the great emancipator of the Indian races." It is worthy of note that, speaking generally, missions now control fully one third of the collegiate education of India, one tenth of the secondary grade, and about one fourth of the total number of all pupils, of all grades and both sexes, so that one person in every 120 comes under the influence of missionary education; while of the girls receiving instruction one third at least are under missionary training.2

There are weighty and perplexing problems arising in connection The supreme aim of missionary educationwith the whole question of missionary education, but it is obviously impossible to discuss them here. Nor is it within our present purpose to attempt any vindication of the missionary function of education, where it is properly conducted and regulated. All that it is necessary to say on this point has been said many times over in missionary literature.3 One principle, however, is of supreme moment; it is that missionary education should be Christian in its spirit, and should be so conducted as to unfold and commend the essential truths of Christianity to the minds of the pupils, and produce as its final re-

1 Blue Book on the " Progress of Education in India" (Fourth Quinquennial Review, 1898-1902), vol. i., pp. 391-394.

2 The Rev. J. Morrison, M.A., in a Paper on "Educational Work in India during the Queen's Reign," read at the Calcutta Missionary Conference.

3 A very complete résumé of the evidence in favor of education as a missionary agency will be found in " Educational Missions in India," the revised special Report to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, May, 1890. See also for a full discussion The Church Missionary Intelligencer, April and May, 1872, and The Missionary Review of the World, July, 1901. Cf., also, Volume I. of this work, pp. 357-361.




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sults a basis of Christian culture. Education, emphatically, must be the handmaid of religion. Christ must be the master-spirit of intellectual progress if India or any other mission field is to receive the highest benefits from the establishment of educational facilities. In the light of present results it may be safely asserted that the educational, quite as much as the evangelistic, campaign is already a priceless contribution to the welfare of the native Christian Church.

After this clear statement we shall not be misunderstood if we express the conviction Immediate conversion not the sole test a successthat the test of immediate conversion should not be established as the one essential mark of success in missionary education. However desirable this may be, and however commendable as the aim of a missionary teacher, it seems a mistake to it regard it as the only test, or the final one, of success. In the spiritual and intellectual soil of India, and in fact of the entire Oriental world, the seed which springs up quickly does not necessarily issue in the most healthy and permanent growth. It is likely to be without the deep roots which are necessary to nourish and support it, and so may soon wither and die. Spiritual impressions, in some cases, may result speedily in sound conversion, but, among others, the ripening processes are apt to be slow; yet the final outcome, in the latter case, is not unlikely to be quite as permanent as, and perhaps even richer and sounder in essentials than, the first.1 The missionary must be a man of faith, and must serve in love and patience, if he aims to be the educator of Orientals. He must wait in humility and prayer upon the workings of the Divine Spirit. However ardently he may desire to record results, he must be content to refrain until they have been written first in the book of Providence, where time alone will make them legible.

1 Evidence in favor of the ultimate converting power of missionary education seems decisive. "It is simply matter of historical fact," writes a careful student of missions, " that more converts from Hinduism have been gathered into the Christian Church through the influence, direct or indirect, of schools, than by any other one instrumentality."—Stock, "The History of the Church Missionary society," vol. i., p. 195.

The above statement, although made originally with reference to the influence of missionary education early in the nineteenth century, may still be regarded as not out of date, even at the beginning of the twentieth century. Bishop Caldwell as recently as 1876, after an earnest effort to reach the higher castes by evangelistic methods, states his conviction as follows: "I found I was obliged to look, as before, almost entirely to teaching in mission schools for direct fruit." The verdict of missionaries in Egypt is that the mission school is "the cheapest and most effective method of reaching the life of the non-Christian community for the purpose of evangelizing it."




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Meanwhile, we may all hope for the time when distinctively Christian Universities and colleges will crown the educational development of India, and when the religion of Christ will become the dominant influence in such higher centres of learning. It is true that Christian education has always been an essential feature of missionary policy, yet, in the judgment of some eminent missionaries, the hour has now come when there is a call for a decisive advance in the direction of a more thorough Christianization of all missionary institutions, and the establishment of Christian universities with their affiliated colleges.1

The inestimable value of Christian education as a factor in the higher progress of India is apparent. The mighty uplift of Christian education in IndiaThe guidance of its modern development will be chiefly in the hands of its educated leaders. Shall they represent the agnostic and materialistic, or the Christian, view of life and destiny? The ultimate conversion of India, so far as human instrumentalities are concerned, must be the work of Christian natives, so that a preaching and teaching corps drawn from the varied ranks of Indian society becomes essential for this gigantic task. Education, moreover, is an aggressive and creative force in the making of manhood. It is an accredited method of storing away in the individual personality an endowment of power which God's guidance and blessing may render of priceless value to those nascent races in their formative and unifying era, just as they are entering upon the responsibilities and perils of modern culture.2 It is already manifest that the Christian community of India, under the stimulus of missionary education, is gaining a vantage-ground which insures it a place of influence and efficiency altogether outranking its

1 Cf. The Church Missionary Intelligencer, March, 1899, p. 175, April, 1899,p. 273, June, 1899, pp. 469-472; also The Chinese Recorder, April, 1897, pp.153-160.

2 A Report of the Secretary of State for India, presented to the House of commons in 1892, contains a paragraph referring to the work of missionaries, as follows: " The various lessons which they inculcate have given to the people at large new ideas, not only on purely religious questions, but on the nature of evil, the obligations of law, and the motives by which human conduct should be regulated. Insensibly a higher standard of moral conduct is becoming familiar to the people, especially to the young, which has been set before them not merely by public teaching, but by the millions of printed books and tracts which are scattered widely through the country. This view of the general influence of their teaching, and of the greatness of the revolution which it is silently producing, is not taken by missionaries only. It has been accepted by many distinguished residents in India, any by experienced officers of the Government."—Quoted in Thompson's " British Foreign Missions," p. 39.




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social standing. Taking into consideration its recent origin, with no historic prestige and no caste lineage, its present position and prospects indicate that Christian education holds the key to social destiny in India, despite the protest of traditional exclusiveness. It opens a door which even the dominance of caste sentiment cannot effectively close. It is fast becoming an illustration of the Gospel paradox that "the last shall be first, and the first last," when we find the small Christian community of India fairly in competition with the Brahman for the leadership of twentieth-century progress. In university examinations the successful Christian candidates for degrees are already far above the proportion which one would expect from the size of the Christian community. This is especially true of lady graduates.

In a cursory survey of missionary education in India we cannot expect to do justice to its many A cursory survey of missionary education in Indianoble institutions.1 In the principal ities, as Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras, are large and flourishing colleges, having in several instances over a thousand pupils in all departments. Other cities not so prominent are not less important as centres of education. In fact, it is now true that almost every strategic point in India is occupied by Christian educational forces. We may name Trichinopoly, Nagpur, Rawal Pindi, Vellore, and Tanjore, each with institutions containing over a thousand pupils, while Masulipatam and Sialkot have slightly under that number. Guntur, Delhi, Agra, Almora, Nagercoil, and Cottayam have each five hundred and over in their colleges.2 The higher institutions are not for boys alone. The Sarah Tucker College at Palamcotta, with 277 pupils, the Isabella Thoburn College at Lucknow, with 164, and the Sigra Normal School at Benares, with 188 on its roll, all show that a promising beginning has been made in the higher education of girls.

Next in order are theological and training schools, established for the raising up and adequate preparation of competent Christian natives to aid in the spiritual and educational conquest of India. Their im-

1 More extended sources of information concerning educational work in India may be found in Mott's " Strategic Points in the World's Conquest," Smith's " The Conversion of India," Stock's "History of the Church Missionary Society," Lovett's "History of the London Missionary Society," Sherring's "History of Protestant Missions in India," and Chamberlain's " Education in India."

2 The following list of Indian missionary colleges is confined to those reporting over 250 students, the enrolment of their preparatory as well as academic departments being included in most instances. For fuller details, and a more complete list of institutions, consult the statistical tables in the author's "Centennial Survey of Foreign Missions," pp. 70, 71.




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portance is increasingly manifest as an essential factor in the Christian progress of Indian races, and it is interesting to note that this class of institutions is represented by 110 schools, with 2905 male pupils and 1433 female, making a total of 4338. Twenty-five of these report over fifty pupils in attendance, while fourteen others report over one hundred.

Medical training schools, including those for nurses, number sixteen,


....................................................Society.....................Males ..... Females .. Total
Madras Christian College ............ U. F. C. S ............ 1793 ........................ 1793
Trichinopoly College ................... S. P. G ..................1458 ....................... 1458
Rawal Pindi Gordon
Mission College .......................... U.P.C.N.A. .......... 1272 ...................... 1272
Tanjore St. Peter's College ......... S. P. G .................. 1210 ....................... 1210
Nagpur Hislop CoIlege ............... U. F. C. S ............ 1169 ........................ 1169
Calcutta Gen. Assembly's Inst ..... C. S. M ............... 1148 ....................... 1148
Madras Mission College ............. C. S. M ................ 1013 ........................ 1013
Vellore Elizabeth R.
Voorhees College ....................... Ref. C. A ............. 1004 ......................... 1004
Calcutta Duff College and
Institution ....................................U.F.C.S. ................. 995 ......................... 995
Masullpatam Noble College ........ C.M.S .................... 961 ......................... 961
Sialkot Scotch Mission College ... C. S. M .................. 909 ......................... 909
Guntur Arthur G. Watts
Memorial College ....................... Luth. G. S ............... 882 ......................... 882
Delhi St. Stephen's College ......... C. M. D .................. 759 ......................... 759
Bombay Wilson College ............. U. F. C. S ............... 699 ......................... 699
Almora Ramsay College ............. L. M. S ................... 600 ......................... 600
Calcutta Bhowanlpur College ..... L. M. S ................... 572 ......................... 572
Agra St. John's College .............. C. M. S ................... 534 ......................... 534
Cottayam Cottayam College ...... C. M. S .................. 518 ......................... 518
Pasumalai Pasumalai College
and Training Institution ............... A.B.C.F.M. ............ 512 ......................... 512
Nagercoil Christian College ......... L. M. S .................. 500 ......................... 500
Madras Royapettah College .........W. M. S ................. 482 ......................... 482
Ongole American Baptist
Mission College ........................... A. B. M. U. ........... 457 ......................... 457
Bellary Wardlaw College .............. L. M. S ................. 455 ......................... 455
Calcutta American Methodist
Institution for Native Christians ..... M. E. M. S. ........... 400 ......................... 368
Tinnevelly College ........................ C. M. S ................. 368 ......................... 368
Lahore Forman Christian
College ......................................... P. B. F. M. N. ...... 354 ......................... 354
Lucknow Reid Christian College .. M. E. M. S ............ 340 ......................... 340
Palamcotta Sarah
Tucker College .. ............. C. M. S. and C. E. Z. M. S. ................. 277........ 277
Mannargudi Findlay College ............W. M. S. .............. 252 ........................ 252




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with a total of 191 students. Of this number it may be noted that134 are females and 57 males. Institutions such as the North India School of Medicine for Christian Women at Lodiana, the Medical Missionary Training Institute at Agra, and the training class for nurses in connection with St. Catherine's Hospital at Amritsar, where maternity cases are made a specialty, are all centres of beneficent service to India. Industrial training institutions and classes are increasing rapidly, and already number about 170, with several thousand pupils.

Institutions not yet graded as colleges, but designated as boarding schools, high schools, and An educational equipment excellent in quality and large in volume seminaries, are numerous in India, filling a large place in the educational resources and equipment of the country. They number 337, with 29,321 male pupils and 12,092 female, making a total of 41,413. Few of them have less than one hundred pupils, and the majority enrol between two and three hundred each. In several instances the list goes beyond four and even five hundred, and in two cases the record exceeds eight hundred. The table given below enumerates some of the more important schools of this grade, being limited to those reporting an attendance of 250 or over1 Details concerning schools reporting less than 250 pupils will be

1


............................................................................Society ............... Males .. Females .. Total
Srlnagar ...............High School .......................... C. M. S ............... 989 ..................... 989
Lahore .................Rang Mahal School ............... P. B. F. M. N....... 807 ..................... 807
Bangalore ............Petta High School .................. L. M. S ................ 737 ..................... 737
Mysore City .........High School ........................... W. M. S ............. 654 ..................... 654
Benares ..............Jay Narayan's School ............ C. M. S ..................569 ..................... 569
Bangalore ...........High School ............................. W. M. S .............. 549 ..................... 549
Jalandhar ............High School ............................. P. B. F. M. N..... ..510 ..................... 510
Ambala ................High School ............................. P. B. F. M. N.......507 ..................... 507
Sialkot ..................City High School ..................... U. P. C. N. A...... 500 ..................... 500
Chinsurah ............Boarding and High School....... U.F.C. S ............... 494 ..................... 494
Vizigapatam.........High School ............................. L. M. S ................ 490 ..................... 490
Amritsar ..............City High School ...................... C. M. S ............... 467 ..................... 467
Belgaum ..............High School ............................. L. M. S ............... .458 ..................... 458
Gujrat ..................High School ............................. C. M. S .............. .450 ..................... 450
Callcut .................High School ............................. Ba. M. S ............. 428 ................... ...428
Ahmednagar .......High School ............................. A. B. C. F. M. ......400 ...................... 400
Peshawar ...........Edwardes High School ............ C. M. S ................. 377 ...................... 377
Ahmednagar .......Girls' Boarding School ............. A.B.C.F.M ......................... 370 ........ 370
Ebenezer .............igh and Training School ........... I.H.M.S. .................157 ..... 200 ........ 357
Ahraedabad .........High School ............................ P.C.I.M.S ............. 353 .................... .353
Dera Ismall Khan ..Boarding and High School...... C.M. S ................... 342 .................... .342
Madras ................Vepery High School ................ S. P. G .................. 338 ..................... 338
Dehra ..................High School .............................. P. B F M.N........... 336 ..................... 336
Lodiana ...............City High School ....................... P. B. F. M. N........ 334 ..................... 334
Ellore ...................High School .............................. C. M. S ................ 333 ..................... 333
Beawar ..............Anglo-Vernacular High School...U. F. C. S ............... 332 ..................... 332
Wazirabad ..........High School .............................. C. S. M ................. 332 ......................332
Bombay ..............Boarding and Station School..... A.B.C.F M ............. 128..... 180 ...... ...308
Gorakhpur...........High School .............................. C. M. S ................. 307 ..................... 307
Madras ..............High School ............................... U. F. C. S .......................... 302 ......... 302
Nellore ...............High School ............................... U. F. C. S ............... 300 .................... 300
Berhampur..........Khagra High School .................. L. M. S ................... 300 ..................... 300
Nasirabad ..........Anglo-Vernacular High School.. U. F. C. S ................. 300 .................... 300
Surat .................High School ................................ P. C. I. M. S ........... 295 .................... 295
Moradabad.........Boarding and High School.......... M. E. M. S .............. 285 .................... 285
Ramnad .............High School ............................... S. P. G .................... 284 .................... 284
Madura ..............High School ............................... A. B. C. F. M ......... 280 .................... 280
Benares ............High School and Boarding Home . L. M. S ................... 278 .................... 278
Calcutta ............Garden Reach High School......... C. M. S .................... 275 .................... 275
Ajmere ..............Anglo-Vernacular High School... U. F. C. S... .............. 270 .................... 270
Mirzapur ...........High School ................................ L. M. S. ................... 267 .................... 267
Salem ...............High School ................................ L. M. S. .................... 250 ................... .250
Calcutta ............High School ................................ M. E.M.S. ............................ 250 ....... .250




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found in the "Centennial Survey of Foreign Missions." A number of these schools, it will be noticed, are for girls. Among the more important may be mentioned that of the American Board at Ahmednagar, with 370 pupils ; of the United Free Church at Madras, with 302 pupils; of the Methodists at Calcutta, with 250 pupils ; of the Baptists at Ongole, with 246 pupils; of the Methodists at Aligarh, with 234 pupils, and at Jabalpur, with an enrolment of 215. There are besides thirty-two schools for girls reporting between one and two hundred scholars, and fifty-five others reporting fifty or over, but with less than one hundred. These statistics, bare as they are, afford a basis for estimating the volume of work which is being conducted along this line. Mention might further be made of thirty kindergartens, with 815 pupils, and of the elementary or village day schools, numbering, ac-




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cording to the recent estimate of Mr. Harlan P. Beach, in his statistical Atlas, 8285, with 342,114 pupils.

The total educational force of Protestant missions in India may therefore be A general summary of the educational forces of Indian missionssummarized as follows: 34 colleges, with 22,084 students;110 theological and training schools, with 4338 students; 16 medical schools, with 191 students; 170 industrial schools and classes, with about 10,000 pupils; 337 boarding schools, high schools, and seminaries, with 41,413 pupils; and 8285 elementary day schools, with 342,114 pupils. As some allowance should be made for a few industrial departments or classes in connection with various institutions which probably have been reported both under the head of industrial work and also in the enrolment of schools, it will be safe to say that a total of 8900 schools and about 418,000 pupils is well within the limits which the reports justify.

Higher institutions of learning have been established in Burma by the American Baptist Educational success in BurmaMissionary Union and by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. The Rangoon Baptist College, with 567 pupils, is the leading institution of the first of these, while St. John's College at Rangoon, with 650 pupils, is the most important institution of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. Theological and normal training schools, and also flourishing boarding and high schools of excellent character, are conducted by the American Baptists and Methodists, the English Wesleyans, and the Anglicans, representing, all told, 26 schools of this grade, with 2801 pupils. The great majority of these are connected with the American Baptist Mission, which, moreover, conducts an extensive work of a primary grade, as does also the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. The Welsh Calvinistic Methodists have a large normal coeducational training school at Shillong, in Assam, with 336 boys and 104 girls on its roll, and a high school for boys at Sheila, with 150 pupils, besides over 200 schools of primary grade. An interesting result of missionary education in Burma is the remarkable appreciation of the Karens, and their readiness to enter into educational work voluntarily, even at great sacrifice. "Illiteracy among Karen Christians of the second generation is very rare indeed," writes the Rev. W. I. Price, of Henzada. This interesting race seems to have broken the record for enthusiastic coöperation in the educational campaign, and in their readiness to contribute a large and gratifying share towards the expense of providing these advanced facilities.




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In Ceylon, educational work under Dutch auspices dates back to the seventeenth Excellent institutions in Ceyloncentury, but the distinctively missionary beginning was early in the eighteenth. During the nineteenth century the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society of England gave much attention to general education, and established some fine institutions of the higher grade. Wesley College at Colombo, with 540 pupils, Jaffna Central College, with 500 pupils, Trinity College at Kandy, with 430 pupils, Jaffna College at Batticotta, with 160, and Richmond College at Galle, are leading examples. Next in magnitude comes the work of the Church Missionary Society, including St. John's College at Chundicully (Jaffna), with 271 pupils, and four theological and training schools, besides a number of higher schools, some of which are for boarding pupils. In addition to the above, the American Board of Foreign Missions has 141 schools of various grades. Several other British societies are also engaged in educational work in Ceylon. It is a striking feature of the good work in that island that the majority of schools of the higher grade are for girls. This is true of 30 out of a total of 56 higher educational institutions, including high schools.

Educational work in such volume and variety as we find under mission The transforming leaven of education in Indian society auspices in India and Ceylon should reveal itself as a social influence of transforming efficacy, with facile power to create a new and stimulating intellectual environment. Evidence demonstrating that this is true can be brought forward. Not to burden our pages with too tedious details, it will be sufficient to note some of the channels of social influence opened up by education, and present some concrete examples of results noticeable in Indian progress.

The valuable opportunity which educational work gives for special efforts among students, An open door of opportunity among Indian students and among the educated classes in general, is apparent. Such campaigns as have been successfully conducted by the Young Men's Christian Association, especially in its collegiate department, with the personal aid of Mr. John R. Mott, and the immediate practical oversight of the able corps of foreign secretaries residing in India, are efficient factors in this sphere. The Intercollegiate Young Men's Christian Association of India has forty-one branches in different institutions in India, with over 2340 members. In addition, there are at least some twenty-two general Associations, the membership of which is drawn in part from the student body, making in all a student constituency of over 3000. The total




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of all the Associations in India (1904) is 147, with a membership of 6957. Conventions and enthusiastic assemblies with a view to directly influencing the whole student body of India, including also the student constituency of the Young Women's Christian Association, are incidental to these efforts. The services of such men as the members of the Oxford and Cambridge Missions, and of Messrs. Wilder, Moorhead, Wright Hay, Larsen, Campbell White, Wilbert White, McConaughy, Anderson, Eddy, Smith, Barber, Williamson, Steinthal, Carter, Gilbert, Murray, Grace, Patton, Golden, and Farquhar, who, with many others, have been specially active among the student body, suggest the aggressive influence of this department of work.1 A further opportunity presents itself in the numerous hostels under Christian auspices, which have been opened for the occupancy of students while in attendance upon the colleges. St. John's College at Agra, for example, has two of these, and likewise the Hislop College at Nagpur and the Madras Christian College at Madras. They have also been established in connection with Duff, Cottayam, and Trichinopoly Colleges, and the Church Missionary Society High School at Jabalpur. The Lady Jane Dundas Hostel of the Church of Scotland and the Hostel of the Oxford Mission, both at Calcutta, are further examples. The hospitality of such special homes for students includes watch and ward, and kindly moral influence, amidst the temptations of student days.

The distributive and penetrative social influence of education is also noticeable. It Its power to reach all grades of Indian societydomesticates itself in the humblest villages; it has welcome access to obscure and isolated communities otherwise difficult to reach because of suspicion and fanaticism. It lays hold of the most forsaken and stranded lives; it gathers the young of both sexes from communities where life has remained stagnant for generations, and trains them for a future which brings a wondrous change of environment and opens a door to signal achievement. The progress of the native Christian community in enlightenment and social betterment is already so marked as to attract the formal notice of the Government and awaken a note of dissatisfaction and protest among the more exclusive caste communities of the country. The Government Report, even as long ago as 1890, comments as follows, in speaking of the Christian community: "There can be no question, if this community pursues with steadiness the present policy of its teachers,

1 Mott, "Strategic Points in the World's Conquest," pp. 75-108; Wilder, "Among India's Students," pp. 9-78; "Year-Book of the Young Men's Christian Association of North America, 1904," pp. 86, 330.




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that, with the immense advantages it possesses in the way of educational institutions, in the course of a generation it will have secured a preponderating position in all the great professions." 1

The contribution of moral character which education makes to Indian society is another of the Its development of moral characterstriking evidences of its social value. A statement from official documents is here in place. We learn that whereas there is one criminal Hindu in 447 of the population, in the Christian community there is found only one in 2500. The estimate has been made that "if all the people in the Madras Presidency were Christians, there would be 12,000 criminals fewer every year, and most of the jails might be shut." 2 The Christian community has a reputation for truthfulness, honesty, morality, and general excellence in behavior, which reflects the influence of its education and Christian training. Native converts are already conspicuous for those habits of orderly living and self-regulated discipline which give symmetry and direction to life, and make their personal influence of value to society as an example and a dynamic power. Sir Alexander Mackenzie, formerly Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, not long ago remarked concerning the graduates of the Free Church of Scotland Institution at Calcutta, that he had in the course of his long service met many pupils of that Institution, Christian pupils, whom he had always found "good men—men on whom one could always place absolute reliance, and who served Government as honestly and zealously as any Government could wish."3 A retired Indian civilian writes: "The system of education pursued in mission schools has had a far-reaching effect on the standard of popular morality, even among those who have not professed themselves Christians." 4 Nearly all of the four hundred students in Cottayam College were Christians in 1898, and the graduates of the institution bear a high moral character everywhere.5 From the College of the Church Missionary Society in Tinnevelly was sent, in 1898, to the Society's Office in England an address from the past students of the College, men holding, for the most part, positions of usefulness and high standing in the community. "You may have the gratification to know," they write "that this College has

1 Report of Mr. H. B. Grigg, Director of Public Instruction, Madras Presidency, 1890.

2 Quoted in Work and Workers in the Mission Field, June, 1898, p. 234.

3 The Church of Scotland Home and Foreign Mission Record, May, 1897, p, 135.

4 Work and Workers in the Mission Field, June, 1901, p. 224.

5 The Church Missionary Intelligencer, July, 1898, p. 542.




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expanded the minds and elevated the morals of numerous young men"; and a little further on in the address they make the discerning comment: "The only return for such great and beneficent kindness is the use made of it."1

The infusion of general intelligence into the life of the country is a further tribute to the Its helpfulness in promoting general intelligence social value of education. There are many men and women in India, graduates of missionary institutions, of distinguished academic and professional attainment. A single fact, stated in a British Blue Book, of 1897-98, is indicative of the intellectual stimulus which education has imparted to the literate classes in India. "The number of postal articles, excluding money-orders, issued per head of population for the whole of India was 1.63, against 1.54 in 1896-97. Per head of literate population the percentage was 38.58, against 36.39 in the preceding year."2 Then in what has been called the "Science of Common Life," in the realm of every-day wisdom and in the varied round of duty, the value of the knowledge and discriminating intelligence which education gives is a wholesome gain to the social system. In the more intelligent comprehension of history, geography, natural science, political economy, and sanitary hygiene, the fruits of instruction appear in a thousand instances. An improved domestic economy both sweetens and brightens the home, and sows the seeds of a better economic and moral life for succeeding generations.

Moreover, there is that volume of missionary and philanthropic energy to be considered and Its contribution of gifted personalities in Indiaappraised which goes forth from educational institutions to do its work in the realm of social life. We take a single illustration from the record of the Isabella Thoburn College at Lucknow, founded in 1886, which has sent forth a group of educated Indian women, such as Miss Lilavati Singh, M.A., Miss Zoe Bose, and others, who would bring honor to any institution. Of the girls who were graduated from the school in a single year, it is stated that one is teaching, one is engaged in evangelistic work, one became an army schoolmistress, one enlisted in the work of the Church of England, one went to Cawnpore School as first assistant, one entered upon government educational labor, two are under-teachers in the academic department of the College, and still another continued

1 The Church Missionary Gleaner, September, 1898, p. 130.

2 "Statement Exhibiting the Moral and Material Progress and Condition of India during the Year 1897-98," p. 165.




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her studies in a post-graduate, course. They are all earnest Christians.1 Examine also the record of the Pasumalai College, at Pasumalai, Madura. President G. T. Washburn, who for nearly forty years has been connected with the institution, states that since 1886 over 350 schoolmasters have been trained there, and that the College and Theological Seminary have sent out nearly two hundred preachers, evangelists, and pastors. Its graduates, moreover, are found on the faculties of twelve colleges in various parts of India. Of the 24 pastors, 139 preachers, and 124 teachers connected with the Madura Mission, nearly all of them look on Pasumalai as their foster-mother.2 St. John's Girls' School with its affiliated schools also for girls, at Nazareth, in connection with the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, have furnished 225 teachers for work in the Madras Presidency.3 Similar illustrations might be presented by the score.

It is education that creates in the Indian mind a taste for the literature of the modern world, and Its stimulus to literary and artistic culture in Indiabreaks the spell of the ancient Indian classics, which, however worthy of admiration as examples of philosophic acumen and speculative genius, are of little value for all purposes of practical instruction in this age of the world. The demand for fresh and informing literature in all branches of knowledge is stimulated; journalistic enterprise is promoted; mission and native presses and publishing-houses are multiplied and kept busy; while an era of wholesome, instructive, and timely literary activity is being rapidly developed. The founding and enriching of museums of science for the cultivation and encouragement of learning are additional features of this intellectual renaissance. An Intelligent and increasing appreciation of nature and all her varied riches, of the treasures of art and the interesting relics of archæology, demands an organized esprit de corps devoted to their development and proper preservation. Learned societies, literary institutes, and courses of popular lectures soon command a growing constituency, while cultured tastes and intellectual cravings search for useful and congenial expression, and give a refined tone to the higher life of society.

The educational revival among Indian peoples themselves, and the stimulus thus given to public and individual effort on their part for the increase of facilities, are further to be noted as, in themselves, benign and helpful contributions to the progress of India. It

1 World-Wide Missions, April, 1897, p. 2.

2 The Missionary Herald, February, 1899, p. 57, and February, 1903, p. 77.

3 The Mission Field, (S. P..G.), December, 1903, p. 378.




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is undeniable that this desire and purpose in native circles, now beginning to be discernible, to Its promotion of educational zeal in native circlesextend to all classes the benefits of education, are in large part the result of the missionary invasion of India. The educated upper classes, who have been trained in the atmosphere of non-religious and non-missionary institutions, are, confessedly, not zealous in desiring or working for the education of the masses. The educational enthusiasm which plans large things for the benefit of all classes of the Indian populations has pertained almost wholly to the programme of missions; even in the case of non-Christian progressives, where we find an approach to this enthusiasm, it can, in large measure, be traced to the example and influence of missions. This, it may be said in passing, is also true of philanthropic work in general. It is the Ramabais among the natives who gather in the famine waifs, befriend the ostracized widows, and establish orphan homes, and, we may add, incite to the initiation of similar efforts under other than Christian patronage. Bright signs of this awakening interest in educational and philanthropic progress are already in evidence. "Village Education Societies" are forming. Prominent Indian Christians, like Sir Harnam Singh, K.C.I.E., Professor Samuel Satthianadhan, LL.D.,of Madras, and many others, are revealing this deepening interest in the educational movement. The former has lately given fifty thousand rupees, the interest of which will be used to create a number of scholarships to be tenable by poor Indian Christian students. The Fergusson College of Poona is a Marathi institution pure and simple—an outgrowth of native interest in education, and the sign of a spirit of liberality and sacrifice in native hearts which is destined to prove a powerful factor in Indian progress. The same may be said of similar colleges at Madras, Lahore, Calcutta, and elsewhere. The education of Indian women has been and is still enlisting the services of many women of culture. The late Mrs. Anna Satthianadhan, of Madras, who founded schools and zenana classes some forty years ago in that presidency, Mrs. Sorabji, of Poona, whose educational work is well known, and Miss Bose, formerly Principal of the Bethune College, with others, are examples of this helpful class of workers.

The non-Christian communities and the native rulers are feeling also the benign force of this quickened enthusiasm for education. The Native State of Baroda, in 1875, had but two small schools, for girls; in 1900, however, it reported 108 schools, with 9151 pupils.1

1 The Church Missionary Intelligencer, December, 1900, p. 940.




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Not less significant is the fact that the Raja of Punganur has invited the Arcot Mission of the Reformed Church in America to take charge of the educational work in his capital, where it is now conducting several flourishing schools.1 Lady Mukarram-ud-Dowlah, daughter of the late Sir Salar Jung, has, moreover, paid honor to her The development of educational plans among native rulers in Indiadeceased father by establishing a memorial zenana school at Hyderabad. Other instances might be mentioned to show the general interest in education which is being awakened throughout India even outside the Christian community. A noteworthy example among the Parsis is the project of the late Mr. J. N. Tata, of Bombay, for establishing a university for all India, modelled after the Johns Hopkins University of Baltimore. To this end he devoted an endowment of a million dollars in 1898. The final form which the scheme appears to have taken is the founding of an Indian Institute of Science. Government coöperation has been secured, with that of the Native State of Mysore, and in the near future the project is likely to be realized.2 A notable Mohammedan Educational Conference, it may also be mentioned, was held in 1902, at Delhi, in which the intellectual needs of the Moslem community were earnestly discussed, and the necessity of strenuous efforts in that line was insisted upon, lest the Mohammedans should be left behind in the general advance of Indian races.3

Another noticeable result which seems largely due to the educational campaign of missions, New government projects for the education of the Pariahsand is of great social value to India, is the awakened interest of the Government in the education of the Pariahs, now designated in some official documents, especially those of the Madras Presidency, as the Panchamas. Missions have always sought to reach in some measure these outcast classes, but hitherto they had been almost ignored or forgotten in the great educational scheme of the Government. Missionary appeals to the authorities on their behalf have been numerous and urgent, and a favorable disposition, due no doubt in part to these solicitations, is now observable in official circles. This has been attested of late years by the efforts put forth by the authorities in their behalf, and by the opening of schools under official patronage in Pariah villages, at the

1 The Mission Field (Ref. C. A.), Jane, 1901, p. 64.

2 The Educational Review (Madras), February, 1903, p. 57, and May, 1903, p. 213.

3 Cf. a remarkable speech by Aga Khan at this Delhi Conference, published in The East and the West (London), April, 1903, pp. 148-155.




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expense of the local fund boards. An explicit statement may be quoted, made in 1887 by Sir Charles Aitchison, then Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab, who wrote: "Missionaries have been the pioneers of education, both vernacular and English, and they are still the only body which maintains schools for the low castes." Lord Elgin was probably the first Viceroy to receive an "Address" from a Pariah community; it was presented in 1895 by the Pariah society known as the Mahajana Sabha, and to it the Viceroy made a kindly and courteous reply.1 A forward movement began in the Madras Presidency about the year 1892, during the administration of Dr. Duncan, who was then Director of Public Instruction in that presidency. In the Report of Public Instruction in the Madras Presidency for the official year 1890-91, Dr. Duncan dismissed the education of the Pariahs in seven brief lines. In 1892 he devoted a whole chapter to it! In 1893 we find that Panchama children to the number of 31,659 were attending schools. In 1897 the attendance was 57,894, an increase of over eighty-three per cent.! Dr. Duncan's order of the 1st of February, 1893, granting special privileges to Panchama schools, is regarded as the "Magna Charta of Panchama education."2 Exceptional progress has been made in this respect in the Madras Presidency. In other parts of India low-caste education is still in a backward state, although the barriers of prejudice are slowly crumbling. There are signs of increasing interest in this new departure in some of the native sections of India, especially in the Native State of Baroda, where the Maharaja is devoting himself to the enlightenment of the backward classes.3 His recent address (1904), at the annual distribution of prizes to the pupils of the Alexandra Native Girls' Institution, Bombay, was a vigorous plea for female education in India.4 These efforts of the Government represent an encouraging step in the right direction. The stronghold of hope, however, for Indian outcasts is in the Christian sympathy and devotion of the missionary. "As in the past," saysThe Christian Patriot of Madras, "so in the future, we firmly believe that the salvation of the Panchamas will rest with the missionary bodies." Here is surely the prophecy of a momentous social change in India.

1 The Baptist Missionary Review (Madras), January, 1896, p. 34.

2 The Christian Patriot (Madras), August 6, 1898.

3 In Burma, also, the labors of the American Baptist Mission have developed a large and flourishing educational work among the Karens, whose caste position is an inferior one in the eyes of the Burmans. The Educational Review (Madras), October, 1902, p. 529, and April, 1903, p. 186.

4 The Educational Review (Madras), May, 1904, p. 309.




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A further helpful outcome of education, which has both a social and a The educational contribution to government service in Indiapolitical value, is the supply of native candidates for government positions, possessing the intelligence, training, and discipline, combined with such standards of fidelity, as will make them suitable for the service of the State. The Rev. E. A. Hensley, of the Church Missionary Society, stationed at Jabalpur, writes that the "majority of all the men in government offices have passed through our [mission] classes." He referred, of course, to that immediate section of India. In a recent speech, Sir Andrew H. L. Fraser, K.C.S.I., Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, remarks: "It has been my policy to find out the school from which boys who are candidates for government service come, and I find that the best boys we have come from missionary schools and colleges." 1Nor must we overlook another gratifying fact, namely, that Christian education is already a propagator of trustworthy political loyalty, as well as a maker of native men-of-affairs who have caught, in some measure, the spirit of Anglo-Saxon integrity and justice, and display an encouraging esprit de corps.

Another result of the deepest social significance may be mentioned, touching the welfare especially of the domestic life of India; this is the service of education in training those who will become wives and mothers of intelligence, character, and refinement for spheres of influence in the homes of present and future generations. Female education, now so successfully established, becomes in this aspect of vital and cumulative import. Indian wives and mothers of the nobler and finer type have been, and will continue to be, the gift of Christian education to the country.

We have dwelt thus at length upon the educational function and influence The above summary of results applicable to other fields than Indiaof missions in India as a typical illustration of what missions may accomplish through their educational forces in almost every foreign field. It will be impossible to review in like detail the history, status, and outcome of education in other countries. Brief outline references to developments of special interest in the educational annals of other lands will be all that can be here attempted, in view of the exigencies of space and the immense range and scope of the topic. We have found in India a sufficiently suggestive illustration of the historic import of missionary participation in educational progress, and this has afforded also a favorable opportunity for a study of the social

1 Speech at Simla, reported in The Missionary Herald of the Baptist Missionary Society (London), October, 1903, p. 508.




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value of the educational enterprise, now well established in all mission lands. It will not be necessary, therefore, to repeat the statements made in the course of this exposition, to which all other fields can furnish a more or less perfect analogue.

The aspects of education in China and Japan have been admirably and instructively discussed in a The beginnings of missionary education in Chinarecent volume by Robert E. Lewis, M.A., entitled "The Educational Conquest of the Far East." The historic facts and the present-day environment of the subject are therein presented in luminous and, we believe, in authentic detail. Certainly no one can peruse the book without discovering the significance of the educational renaissance in these mighty nations, whose swiftly unfolding destiny promises to fill a large place in the history of the twentieth century. Missionary education entered the Empire of China when the "open door" gave it access towards the middle of the nineteenth century. Dr. Samuel R. Brown went out in 1838 to take charge of the work proposed by the then recently established "Morrison Educational Society," and founded in 1839 what was known as the Morrison School, first located at Macao, and afterwards at Hong Kong. This school, however, was suspended in 1848. Dr. Brown, on account of the failure of his wife's health, left China in 1847, bringing with him to America the first Chinese boys to be educated here under Christian auspices. They were taken to Dr. Brown's home in Monson, Massachusetts, where they were for a time under the care of his mother. This was the beginning of the education of Chinese in America, which twenty-five years later, in 1872, under Dr. Yung Wing, a graduate of Yale, resulted in the Chinese Government supporting one hundred and twenty young men who were sent to America to be educated. They were here for nine years, under the special supervision and care of Dr. Yung Wing, and were recalled to China in 1881. Dr. McCartee, a contemporary of Dr. Brown's, was also deeply interested in the work of the Morrison Educational Society. This Society was named after the pioneer missionary, Dr. Robert Morrison, who died in 1834. It was founded by a group of Christian missionaries and laymen, among whom was that distinguished and philanthropic American merchant, Mr. David W. C. Olyphant, of Canton, and continued its useful work for more than thirty years.

Mr. Milne, of the London Missionary Society, as early as 1815 had established a school at Malacca, afterwards known as the Anglo-Chinese College. This was closed in 1843, but reëstablished at Hong Kong, where an Anglo-Chinese Theological Seminary was immediately




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opened, under the charge of Dr. James Legge. Since then the roll of missionary educators in China has included such distinguished names as Happer, Martin, Tenney, Ross, Sites, Mateer, Ferguson, Headland, Hayes, Corbett, Richard, Smyth, Sheffield, Pott, Bridie, Parker, Partch, Anderson, Lowry, Peet, Moir Duncan, Bentley, and many others.1 These men and their colleagues represent the aggressive and tireless efforts which everywhere have been characteristic of the missionary educator, and their work has not only borne fruit in its own sphere of activity, but it has awakened throughout China, and even in government circles, an interest in modern education which has given a remarkable stimulus to various reform movements. These may not have fulfilled expectations for the time being, but they are significant of coming changes which will in time make irresistible headway.

The numerical extent of population, and the mighty geographical environment, of the The colossal task of the missionary educator in the Chinese EmpireChinese Empire are obviously imposing, but may not the spiritual and intellectual weight of such a mass of humanity, in its relation to the progress of the human race as a whole, be as full of portent as of promise? Think of one million students flocking to the Triennial Examinations, in search of coveted honors, after years of arduous preparation. To capture such a volume of aspiring intellectual energy, and endow it with the power and self-control which Christian education gives, would surely promise results of untold value to China. The moral and intellectual enlightenment of one fourth of the world's population is a matter which cannot be regarded as an indifferent factor in the development and destiny of humanity as a whole. More than this, the colossal significance of the whole educational movement in missions is apparent when we reflect that about one thousand million, or at least two thirds of the world's population, seem to have been committed largely to the care of missionary educators, who have been and are still responsible, to a very considerable extent and in most important respects, for the initial provision and the unfaltering toil which have been instrumental in opening to vast multitudes the door of opportunity. As Eastern nations and backward races become more enlightened, it is to be expected that they will establish educational systems of their own; but the originating and propelling stimulus will doubtless be traced, in almost every instance, to missionary enterprise.

Education under mission auspices in China has been beset by many

1 Cf. an article on American Educators in China, by Dr. George B. Smyth, in The Outlook, November 3, 1900, p. 545.




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difficulties, and has lacked many of the favoring influences which have furthered intellectual progress in India. The language, because of its numerous dialects, has been an especially formidable difficulty; while the opposition of the literati, wedded to their ancient system, has been unrelenting. The elaborate provision under government patronage for passing the examinations as a preparation for official service has, moreover, proved an irresistible attraction to young men of ambition, eager for promotion. Despite all these obstacles, significant progress can be noted, resulting in revolutionary changes on the part of the Government and the learned caste in their attitude towards Western learning, and in the manifest eagerness of multitudes to secure the advantages of the new curriculum. Missions through, various channels of influence are carrying the day in their efforts to bring China to an appreciative attitude towards modern knowledge, and to break the spell of the effete and musty scholasticism of the ancient classical régime.

The Emperor Kwang Hsü, in 1898, before his deposition, seemed to Significant movements towards educational reform in China have a vision of the educational reforms needed in China, but his efforts at that time, no doubt sincere, and his imperial edicts, were seemingly barren of permanent results. The Empress Dowager and many notable officials of China apparently discovered for themselves the defects of the old system, and in 1901 launched upon the empire another series of edicts, which if carried out fully would have wrought a colossal change in the method and aim of the whole educational programme. Western learning and modern scientific knowledge were, strange to say, officially sanctioned and required as essentials of the curriculum. Colleges and schools after Western ideals were favored by imperial decree. Practical culture, rather than the mere mastery of effete literary formulæ, was made the goal, and a heroic attempt was apparently made to substitute mental development, with its stimulus and inspiration, under the guidance of modern knowledge, for the monotonous activity of a classical but enslaved pen. Still further changes followed, in 1902, in connection with the rehabilitation of the State University at Peking. A system of government institutions, forming a ladder reaching from the primary school, through high schools and colleges, to the universities, was established, and the plan of educating Chinese young men abroad was favored. Each province was to have its university, and each prefecture its college, to be fed by the district schools. In Shansi, Dr. Timothy Richard was to have exclusive control in the organization and conduct of its university, which was to be endowed by devoting to this purpose indemnities which




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the missionaries of that province had declined to collect. In Shantung also, Dr. Hayes, of the American Mission, was to have charge of the university established there. These elaborate provisions have, sad to relate, proved more imposing on paper than in their practical outcome, as they have met with active and hampering hostility from many influential officials in the empire, to whose hands was committed the practical execution of these imperial orders. Dr. Richard made a visit of several months in North China, to arrange for the opening of the Shansi University. He found that the Chinese Government had already opened a university of its own, to be run in accordance with conservative Chinese ideals, but after prolonged deliberations an amalgamation was agreed upon, resulting in a single university with two departments, one devoted to the classical Chinese course, with its essential traditional features, and the other to Western learning, under foreign control. The final arrangement stipulated for a payment of fifty thousand taels per annum for ten years by the Chinese Government; it being part of the compact that the Rev. Moir Duncan should be made Principal, and with him should be associated two other foreign professors. In ten other provinces of the empire universities were established, with a government annuity varying in amount from twenty thousand to one hundred thousand taels, making a total of about half a million taels annually appropriated for modern education in China in its university curriculum alone.1

In a conservative empire like China, biassed by traditional hostility to The rôle of the Chinese obstructionist reform, it is not a matter of surprise that new departures in education should be especially difficult. China has always prided herself upon the superiority of her educational system, and its sufficiency for all her requirements. Revolutionary changes can hardly be brought about in that unprogressive land by deliberate and

1 Cf. the following authorities on the modern educational movement in China: "The Empress Dowager's System of Modern Colleges for China," by Robert E. Lewis, M.A., in The American Monthly Review of Reviews, July, 1902, p. 72; "The Shansi University from Within," by the Rev. Timothy Richard, D.D., in The Missionary Herald of the Baptist Missionary Society of England, April, 1903, p. 193, and September, 1903, p. 478; a similar article appears in The Chinese Recorder, September, 1903, ,p. 460; "Mission Work and Educational Reform in China," by His Excellency, Sir Chentung Liang Cheng, in The Independent, August 6, 1903, p. 1846; "Education in China," by C. H. Daniels, M.D., in The Baptist Missionary Magazine (Boston), May, 1903, p. 179; "How St. John's College is Helping to Solve the Problems of China's Future," by the Rev. Francis L. Hawks Pott, D.D., in The Spirit of Missions, June, 1902, p. 405.




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orderly processes. They are more like spasms, desperate and convulsive starts, resulting only in temporary advances, followed by disappointing reactions. This process may repeat itself, yet slowly the new movement gathers headway, and in time some real advance is made. Experience counsels us to be on our guard against too sanguine an interpretation of imperial edicts of revolutionary import. The crux of the situation is that, however wise in conception and thoroughgoing in requirements such documents may seem to be, their execution, we find, is committed to officials who are hostile to their proposals and are expert in the arts of obstruction. The recent edicts have in fact been largely neutralized throughout the empire by various devices on the part of the provincial authorities. They have been misinterpreted, their provisions minimized, while teaching facilities of the poorest quality have been substituted, and an inefficient curriculum instituted; old institutions have been placarded with new names, and lack of funds has been pleaded as an excuse for inaction. Religious exactions have also been imposed in the interests of Confucianism, so that the scope and usefulness of the edicts represented hardly any advance upon previous conditions. The dedication of these institutions to the propagation of Confucianism, and the demand that all students shall prostrate themselves in worship twice every month before the tablet of Confucius, have practically banished Christian pupils, and the resignation of Christian instructors has followed. It is to be hoped that these stringent requirements will be relaxed in the case of Christian students, as they are clearly in violation of the pledges subscribed to in treaties.

We must not, however, give undue weight to these disappointing revelations. The mission educator, the real school-master of the empire A new educational era in China has already begun. It may win its victories slowly, and only after many reactions, but it is destined to triumph in the end. If we search for the animating incentive which has given both impetus and direction to the new intellectual growth of the Chinese, a large place must be assigned to mission education. When China shall find herself intellectually approaching the high plane of European nations, and when practical results of genuine worth shall have superseded these vast paper schemes of educational reconstruction, it will be seen that the missionary educator has been the real schoolmaster of the empire. It is difficult to comprehend all that it means to have a great and capable nation put to school for the study of modern science, philosophy, economics, mechanics, law, and civics, with the instructive lessons of the world's past




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history spread open before it, and the wonders of discovery and invention made accessible. We can compare it only with the mightiest outstanding events of the past, such as the Renaissance, the Reformation, or the discovery and settlement of the American Continent. The making of a new China, and the molding of a new Asia—we say it without too optimistic a flight of the imagination—easily come within the range of such a historic vision.

It will be noticed that a boundless field of influence is, undoubtedly, open to The Christianization of Chinese education all-important Christian education in China. The Chinese ideals of learning have had a long and undisputed reign, but their downfall is inevitable, and it is a matter of crucial import whether an effective Christianization of Chinese education shall be brought about, or only its purely secular content shall be coördinated with Confucianism. It is an hour of deep significance in Chinese history. The last decade has been one of unprecedented awakening, and the educational plans of the various missions, happily, have recognized and vigorously responded to the enlarged opportunity. Calls for the "New Learning" are increasingly urgent on every side. The intellectual horizon of even the humblest Chinese has expanded more in the last few years than in many generations, or even in centuries, before. So deeply impressed have the missionaries been with the import of this situation that they have organized an "Educational Association of China," including in its membership all missionaries who are especially interested in that sphere of service, and they meet at stated intervals for the discussion of the educational outlook and its demands. The Chinese Recorder is the official organ of their proceedings, and the organization finds itself face to face with unprecedented responsibilities and a widening sphere of usefulness. The. Rev. W. M. Hayes is its President, and the Rev. J. A. Silsby its Secretary. A very useful service which it has recently rendered to the cause of education is the preparation, through a special committee, of a standard syllabus of study, covering six years in the primary course, four years in the academic course, and four years in the collegiate course, with a list of elective studies, and a supplementary list of Christian studies properly graded for use in each schedule; besides recommending for students a list of suitable text-books.1

The educational plant of missions in China is still small, in comparison with the immense demands of the situation. It includes, however, a goodly number of beneficent and prosperous higher institu-

1 The Chinese Recorder, June, 1903, pp. 294-301.




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tions,and numerous schools of a less advanced grade. Among the former The valuable educational provision of missions in Chinamay be noted: the Anglo-Chinese College of the American Methodists at Foochow, with over 300 pupils, and the Nanking University of the same Church, with 175 students, and their new College at Chentu; the American Board Colleges for Boys and. Girls at Foochow, with 190 and 96 inmates respectively; and the fine North China College of the same Society at Tungchou, lately domiciled in its new buildings erected in place of those destroyed during the "Boxer outbreak." We also note the Anglo-Chinese College of the Southern Methodists at Shanghai, and their Tung Wu College at Soochow, both of which have recently been united under the new charter of Soochow University. At Shanghai also is the new Medhurst College of the London Mission, and St. John's College of the American Episcopal Mission, with an enrolment of 150, and a new building just erected to accommodate 150 more. The Presbyterian college at Wei Hsien (formerly at Tengchow, but now known as the Shantung Presbyterian College) and the one at Hangchow belong also in the first rank. Independent institutions, missionary in tradition and aims, are the Christian College at Canton, the Anglo-Chinese College at Amoy, and the Peking University, which was founded by the Methodist Mission. A new college at Moukden has also just been established, under the auspices of the United Free Church of Scotland and the Presbyterian Church in Ireland. The Ningpo College, projected in 1903 by the Chinese, is a unique institution, in that it represents a native enterprise which has been put under the administration and supervision of missionaries by the voluntary choice of Chinese contributors and organizers. St. Stephen's College (C. M. S.) is at Hong Kong.

Theological and training schools number 68, with 772 male and 543 female pupils. Notable among these are the Church Missionary Institution at Hong Kong, the Theological College of the London Mission at Hankow, and others at Moukden, Amoy, Canton, Ching-chowfu, Foochow, Hinghua, Swatow, and Nodoa. Boarding and high schools are well distributed at important centres, to the number of 166, with 2930 boys and 3509 girls in attendance.1 There are also a few industrial schools, with a total of 191 students. The medical schools, including those for nurses, number 32, with 270 pupils. Primary education has been earnestly promoted, so that a total of day

1 The following boarding and high schools in China report more than fifty students in attendance. For further details concerning the entire list, consult the "Centennial Survey of Foreign Missions," pp. 88-92.




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schools of elementary grade is reported by Mr. Beach, in his statistical Atlas, numbering 1819, with 35,412 children enrolled therein, to which may be added 5150, which he gives as the number in higher institu-




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tions, making in all 40,562 pupils under missionary instruction in China. The total of schools reported by Mr. Beach is 1989. Christian educators—several of them missionaries—also occupy important positions in government colleges, at Peking, Tientsin, and Shanghai. One single fact in the educational record of missions in China is of unusual interest. The Tengchow College, under Dr. Mateer, of the Presbyterian Mission (since removed to Wei Hsien), reported 150 graduates in 1898, every one of whom was a Christian, and twelve of whom had been chosen as professors in the Imperial University at Peking. "Ten years ago," writes Miss M. E. Talmage, of Amoy, " there were comparatively few Christian women in this region who could read the Scriptures, and the pupils in girls' schools were but a few score. This year (1902) there are seven hundred girls under instruction, while there are over a thousand women who can read."1

The progress of education in Japan is one of the most striking intellectual The modern educational progress of Japan movements of history, and here as elsewhere an honorable and leading place may justly be accorded to missions as an inspiriting factor in this phenomenal development. That a nation of forty-five million people which came into touch with the modern world not more than half a century ago should organize an elaborate system of State education, administer it efficiently, endow it with a complete working plant, enlisting meanwhile in its support the enthusiastic cooperation of all classes, and accomplish this unprecedented achievement virtually within the limits of a single generation, is surely a phenomenon of extraordinary interest and impressiveness. The stir of the awakening came with the opening of the empire by Commodore Perry in 1853 and 1854, and the subsequent treaties of Townsend Harris on behalf of America, and of Lord Elgin on behalf of Great Britain, the former being signed July 29, 1858, and the latter August 26 of the same year. The beginning of the Meiji Era, in 1868, witnessed the initial efforts set in motion to develop an educational system. In 1871 a Department of Education was established, and in 1873 a programme was drawn up along modern lines, modelled after the approved methods of the West. Even at this juncture the enterprising youth of Japan did not wait for the opening of the door of opportunity at home, but, as we know, came by hundreds to America and other Western lands, in search of educational privileges. The Emperor, in 1872, issued his remarkable proclamation of an educational code, in which occurs this striking

1 The Mission Gleaner of the Woman's Board of the Reformed Church in America, January, 1902, p. 10.




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sentence: " It is intended that henceforth education shall be so diffused that there may not be a village with an ignorant family, or a family with an ignorant member." In setting before themselves the accomplishment of so monumental a task the Japanese had the wisdom to seek the advice and aid of educational experts—men of gifts and experience, mostly from America, into whose charge were committed various departments of the general scheme. Dr. David Murray was invited to become Superintendent of Schools and Colleges, and was installed as official adviser to the whole Educational Department of Japan.

The service rendered by missionaries at this time was of conspicuous value. The important service of missionariesDr. Hepburn's Dictionary became a serviceable working tool, indispensable as a link between the Japanese language and Western learning. Dr. Guido F. Verbeck was called upon by the Government, in 1869, to establish a college after the Western model. In fulfilling this mission, he became virtually an instrument in laying the foundations of an Imperial University. He acted as Adviser of the Department of Education, and so identified himself with intellectual progress, during a period of ten years, that he has been justly regarded as one of the founders of the whole educational machinery of the empire. He assumed at the same time the r#x00F4;le of political counsellor and guide to the leading men in government circles. Dr. Samuel R. Brown was another missionary educator whose services were notable at this formative period. " Nine tenths," writes Dr. Griffis, "of the modern educated men and women of Japan before 1890, and a majority of those in influence and office to-day, received their first instruction from American missionaries."1 Female instruction received also an abiding incentive at this time through the services of Mrs. Louise H. Pierson.2 The growth of the educational spirit has been quickened by such Japanese Christians as Neesima, Honda, Ibuka, Nijima, Ebara, Motoda, Oshikawa, Yoshioka, and Kataoka. Men of affairs have promoted these high interests with patriotic devotion and liberal gifts. Mr. Fukuzawa is an example of a man of great public spirit and enlightened views on national questions, who has established

1 The Outlook, August 1, 1903, p. 802.

2 A Japanese official is quoted as saying concerning the initial efforts to promote female education: "You missionary ladies have done a vastly greater work for Japan than you ever dreamed of. Our Government had no hope for success in establishing girls' schools until we were inspired by your successes."—Quoted in "Dux Christus," p. 267.




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what is practically an independent university, in which ethical instruction A more invigorating'ethical incentive needed in Japanese educationand moral discipline receive due attention.

The Japanese educational system, although a wonderful achievement, with many admirable features, is not without grave defects, and in the hands of reactionary administrators it may even become a source of moral degeneracy of the Japanese. Its ethical basis and its moral trend both lack the highest and most efficient elements of educational power. It is not meant that ethical instruction is altogether neglected, but that moral discipline is based purely upon patriotic ideals derived from the national consciousness or from social custom, with no inspiring religious incentive and hardly any pressure of supreme authority to support it. Things that ought to be observed or done are taught in the form of maxims or rules, with a wearisome iteration which leads many teachers to regard the hour for instruction in ethics, or, in other words, the classic formulae of the traditional moral systems of Confucianism and Buddhism, as the most unwelcome and tiresome feature of the curriculum. Stimulus and power are lacking, and practice is hardly counted a serious duty, except by those already predisposed to a moral life. The spirit of patriotic chivalry, which is inspired by reverence for ancestral traditions and by devotion to the ruling Emperor—that code of the samurai, with its loyalty and its intense esprit de corps, which has flamed up so marvelously in the present great struggle for national existence and international prestige—is an endowment of which any people may be proud. It is, however, a Code of Honor, an Order of Knighthood (known among the Japanese as " Bushido "), rather than a religion of love and humility, which finds its inspiration in reverence for the Christ who exemplifies universal sacrifice, teaches pure and noble morals for all men, and emphasizes the brotherhood of mankind in terms of gentleness and unselfish service.

The Japanese themselves, in many instances, recognize the Can Japanese tradition and history be deemed a sufficient and stable basis of ethics?imperfection of such a system, but those in authority, while seeking to provide a remedy, have apparently, as yet, failed to comprehend the need of a spiritual and, religious sanction to ethics. The Emperor's " Imperial Rescript on Morals, issued in 1890, was intended to relieve this situation and give to the educational system a more invigorating quality. It can hardly be said, however, to have been really helpful in this respect, as it made the traditional moral standards of Japan, in a somewhat idealized form, virtually the-highest rule of




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conduct for succeeding generations. Japan must be built upon Japan, the Japanese must be good Japanese, true to themselves and to their history, a reproduction of their ancestral exemplars—this is the first incentive and the final word of the moral code.1 In a work on ethics for use in the schools, and sanctioned by the Department of Education, occurs the following sentence: " Our country's history clearly constitutes our sacred book and moral code. . . . Our sacred book is our history, holy and perfect, the standard of morals, authority or time having not the slightest value. We have this divine, sacred book of history; do we need to seek another? " This appeal to national consciousness and historic ideals may, no doubt, be regarded by some as a close counterpart of natural religion; but must it not be conceded that while Japanese education brings to the front no higher moral standards than these, and enforces them with no more vigorous appeals to the conscience, the educational programme will be lacking in power ? In addition, the portrait of the Emperor is hung in every school, and receives honors which place him in the seat of moral authority, if not of religious supremacy. In the stress and strain of that mighty conflict with evil which marks all human experience, the Japanese surely need the authoritative guidance of a Sovereign higher than the loftiest

1 Let the reader judge for himself as he scans the instructions of the " Rescript," which are as follows: "The founder of Our Imperial House and Our Imperial Ancestors laid the foundation of Our Empire on a grand and everlasting basis, and deeply implanted the virtues to be ever cherished. The goodness of Our subjects, displayed generation after generation in loyalty and piety and harmonious coöperation, constitutes the fundamental character of Our Country, and from this the principles of education for Our subjects have been derived. Do you, Our subjects, be filial to your parents, kind to your brothers, harmonious in your relations as husbands and wives, and faithful to your friends; let your conduct be courteous and frugal, and love others as yourselves; attend to your studies and practice your respective callings, cultivate your intellectual faculties and train your moral feelings, foster the public weal, and promote the interest of society, ever rendering strict obedience to the Constitution and to all the laws of Our Empire, display your public spirit and your courage in behalf of Our Country, whenever required, and thereby give Us your support in promoting and maintaining the honor and prosperity of Our Empire, which is coeval with the heavens and the earth. Such conduct on your part will not only be what is fitting in Our good and loyal subjects, but will also suffice to make manifest the customs and manners bequeathed to you by Our Ancestors. These instructions bequeathed to Us by Our Imperial Ancestors, to indicate the course of conduct which We and Our subjects are bound to pursue, have been of unfailing validity in all ages past as in the present, and in all countries whatever. Consequently We trust that neither We nor Our subjects shall at any time fail to observe faithfully these sacred principles. Given at Our Palace in Tokyo this 30th day of the 10th month of the 23d year of Meiji."




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human ruler, and the gracious help of that divine love and compassion which have been the support of the human heart and the inspiration of heroic service among the most advanced nations of the earth.

The Department of Education, in 1899, under the influence of a narrow and An extreme reactionary policy may sometimes gain the ascendancynationalistic policy, promulgated a restrictive "Instruction " concerning education, prohibiting, in fact, all religious teaching, not only in State institutions but in all the private and mission schools of the empire.1 This was made a subject of respectful remonstrance by missionaries, as well as by some of the leading liberal spirits of the empire. The remonstrance did not concern itself so much with State education, but insisted that private teaching in mission and other schools entirely dissociated from the State system should be relieved from such a prohibition, on the ground that it was an infringement of the religious liberty embodied in the Constitution of Japan. Such enlightened non-Christian educators in the empire as Mr. Fukuzawa and Count Okuma were equally strenuous in deprecating this reactionary policy of the Educational Department. The prohibition was finally repealed, so far as private schools were concerned. This result is clearly an advance in the direction of a more liberal interpretation of religious liberty in Japan.

The facilities provided by the State represent a completely graded Japanese State education elaborate and extensive ladder of educational agencies, from the kindergarten to the university, providing every opportunity for a generous and quickening intellectual culture through the channel of a broad and varied curriculum. The latest statistics of education under governmental auspices, as furnished by His Excellency Kogoro Takahira, Japanese Minister to the United States,2 are as follows: 2 universities, with 4046 students; 57 normal schools, with 19,194 pupils; 258 middle schools, with 95,027 pupils; 859 industrial and technical schools, with 57,855 pupils; 80 higher schools for girls, with 21,523 pupils; 50 public and private special schools, with 16,390 pupils; 8 government teachers' training institutes, with 319 pupils; 27,154 elementary schools, with an attendance of 5,135,487 scholars. The total State educational plant

1 The text of the " Instruction " is as follows: " It being essential, from the point of view of educational administration, that general education should be independent of religion, religious instruction must not be given, or religious ceremonies be performed, at government schools, public schools, or schools whose curricula are regulated by provisions of law, even outside the regular course of instruction."

2 See article in The Churchman, August 6, 1904.




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would, therefore, be represented by 28,468 schools of all grades, with 5,349,841 pupils. State education is compulsory, and the above attendance represents a very large proportion of the children between six and fourteen years of age. The total of children within the school age amounts in round numbers to 7,500,000. The technical, commercial, and special schools have increased rapidly in numbers, and are in prosperous condition, the courses offered being remarkably complete and thorough, giving to graduates at once a professional and commercial standing, which is of great value. As for the training given in the military, naval, and engineering schools, no one is to-day likely to doubt its practical excellence. A fine Agricultural College at Sapporo is a State institution conducted with great efficiency. Under the presidency of William S. Clark, Ph.D., LL.D., from the State Agricultural College at Amherst, Massachusetts, it assumed an importance among the public institutions which has made its record especially honorable. It bids fair to develop into a university in the near future. Christian influence has been strong, and many of its students have become men of prominence in the Christian community of the empire.1 The two State universities are at Tokyo and Kyoto. The facilities, especially in higher education, are so complete that there has been a large influx of students from China, who are seeking a foreign education under Japanese auspices. The expenditure of the Department of Education increased from about $8,500,000 (gold), in 1896, to $18,000,000, in 1900.

Educational provision for girls has claimed a Abundant facilities for the education of womengood share of this amount, as the cause of female education has been remarkably vindicated in Japan, so much so that a University for Women (Joshi Dai Gakko) was established at Tokyo in April, 1901.2 The founder is Professor Naruse, an enterprising Japanese Christian, who has made a special study of the facilities for female education in Christian lands, and has devoted himself to this line of service at home. His undertaking has proved immensely popular, an attendance of more than eight hundred pupils being already reported. It is supported by Japanese funds contributed by men of wealth interested in the education of women. Christian students have every opportunity afforded them, and enjoy religious freedom. Count Okuma is Chairman of the Board of Trustees, and is deeply interested in the undertaking. Among its departments is one devoted to domestic

1 The Japan Evangelist, August, 1901, p. 236.

2 Ibid., December, 1901, p. 368.




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science. There are other notable efforts on behalf of female education, independent of the government scheme: we may mention the School for Peeresses, and the admirable institution recently established by Miss Umé Tsuda, at Tokyo. The city of Tokyo has become the educational centre of the empire, and is estimated by a prominent Tokyo journal to contain a student population of about fifty thousand. We have spoken of two State universities, at Tokyo and Kyoto; the University for Women, it may be said, makes a third. There are still two others, the one founded by Mr. Fukuzawa, and another by Count Okuma, making in all five Japanese universities, three of which are independent of State aid.

In view of the naturalistic basis of morals which underlies Mission efforts among students in JapanState education in Japan, and the absence of a religious impress upon the character in its instruction, the function of mission education appears all the more needful in the moral interests of the nation. Special usefulness attaches also to Christian work among students. The Young Men's Christian Association has an important sphere in the collegiate and university life of Japan. It has been organized with a view especially to its efficiency among the student body. Mr. John R. Mott, of the Student Volunteer Movement, has visited Japan at intervals, in the capacity of a Student Evangelist, with memorable and cheering results. The Christian instruction in mission schools, with its moral anchorage and religious incentive, is, therefore, in some measure, an offset to the obscurantist policy of government education. It is coming more and more to be recognized among thoughtful moralists everywhere that the education which does not touch, inform, and develop the spiritual and religious faculty in the young is, however elaborate its scope, partial and defective, and in certain vital respects profitless. Distinguished leaders in Japan speak very plainly of the peril of the present situation. Baron Iwasaki has recently Said on this point: " In all the essentials of outward improvement, there has been remarkable progress—remarkable to a degree quite out of proportion to what might have been expected. But it is otherwise when one looks below the surface, and searches for those qualities without which there can be no solid advance, nor any legitimate enlightenment. In these essentials the record is not encouraging. A marked absence of the sense of responsibility is necessarily accompanied by want of respect for one's self, and a failure therefore to win the respect and confidence of others. The low value set upon integrity destroys mutual trust. The defect is not in the basis of Japanese character; in




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the days when the old samurai spirit prevailed, loyalty, self-sacrifice, faithfulness to promises, and courageous perseverance were conspicuous traits of the educated man. But in the rush of modern materialism these qualities have been submerged. The great wants of the time are earnestness of purpose and integrity of conduct. The lack of a sense of responsibility and the indifference to moral restraints displayed by leading Japanese are not due to deficient learning."

Under such conditions it is manifestly from the mission schools that Christian workers will be supplied. The Imperial University has, as yet, made but a nominal contribution to the distinctively Christian forces of the empire.1 The record of several mission schools The Christian forces of the empire recruited from mission schoolsshows that they are nurseries of Christian character. Sixty-five per cent, of the students who have been connected with the Ferris Seminary at Yokohama have become Christians, and of those who have been graduated the proportion is ninety-five per cent. The record of the Joshi Gakuin, of the Presbyterian Mission at Tokyo, is even more remarkable, nearly every graduate having become a professing Christian. The Kobe College for Girls has a record of more than ninety per cent, in church-members. The Joshi Gakuin up to 1900 had graduated 48, and of this number 41 had become Christian workers, and of 164 graduates of the Kobe College 100 have been in Christian service. Still another example of the social stimulus and extended utility along various lines of service is furnished in the following record of students of the Anglo-Japanese College of the Methodist Mission at Tokyo. Among them are found five professors in the Imperial University, fifty-six teachers in middle- grade schools, twenty-one Christian preachers, seventy-seven in business life, six editors, five physicians, twenty-three government officials, ten officers in the army, five officers in the navy, and a scattering representation among lawyers, artists, engineers, explorers, legislators, and diplomatic officials.2 This is surely ample testimony in vindication of the far-reaching influence of missionary education.

1 "Report of the Tokyo Conference, 1900," p. 353. The following classified returns of the graduates of the Imperial University were made by Mr. Tokon Yamagata, in 1903. He says: " During the 27 years that have elapsed since the first batch of 56 graduates from the course of Law and Medicine was turned out in 1876, the University has produced no less than 4995 graduates, classified as follows according to the courses of study: Law, 1481; Engineering, 1200; Medicine, 815;Literature, 609; Sciences, 392; Agriculture, 498; Total, 4995."—Quoted in " The Christian Movement in its Relation to the New Life in Japan," 1903, p. 8.

2 World- Wide Missions, October, 1900, p. 7.




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Dr. Neesima founded the Doshisha at Kyoto in 1875, and its Educational facilities of missions in Korearecord is already remarkable. About 5000 students have been connected with this notable University, and its graduates number over a thousand. Out of this list, 93 have become preachers, and 161 teachers. Scattered throughout Japan there are 148 merchants, 19 journalists, 34 bankers, and 28 government officials, who are representatives of its graduates. In a single year—the one preceding Dr. Neesima's death —172 conversions were reported among its students. Its last Report gives its student enrolment as 522. Under its new President, Mr. Shimomura, continued and satisfactory progress seems assured. Among other leading missionary institutions in Japan, in addition to those already mentioned, may be noted St. Paul's College, Aoyama College, and the Meiji Gakuin, of Tokyo, the Anglo-Japanese College at Kobe, Steele College at Nagasaki, the Anglo-Japanese College at Nagoya, and the Tohoku Gakuin at Sendai, reporting in all about 1400 pupils. There are 38 theological and training schools, with some 600 students. Boarding and high schools number 55, with 6682 pupils.1

1 The following, in addition to those already mentioned, report over fifty pupils each:

...............................................................Society...........Males...Females...Total
Fukuoka ...... Boarding and High School.... M.E. M. S ...........X...... 60 ......60
Hakodate ..... Caroline Wright Memorial .... M.E. M. S ............X.. 186......186
Himeji .......... Boarding School .................... A. B. M. U .........X..... 56 ..... 56
Hirosaki ....... Boarding School ................... M. E. M. S ..........X... 188... .188
Hiroshima .....Boarding and High School.... M.E. S .................X... 130......130
Kanazawa ......Girls' School .......................... P. B. F. M. N ...X..... 70 .... 70
Kofu ............. Boarding School .................... C. M. M. S ........X...... 93 .... 93
Kyoto ........... St. Agnes' Boarding School.....P. E. M. S .........X.... 140... 140
Maebashi ..... Girls' School .......................... A. B. C. F. M. ....X.... 107... 107
Nagasaki ..... Boarding and High School.... M.E.M. S ..............X.... 208.. ,208
Nagasaki ..... Chinzei Gakkwan ................... M. E. M. S ....... 264 ...X...... 264
Nagasaki ..... Jonathan Sturges Seminary.. Ref. C. A .............X..... 80 .... 80
Nagoya ........ Boarding and High School..... P. B. F. M. S ........X.... 66 .... 66
Nara ............ Boarding School ..................... P. E. M. S ....... 100 ....X..... 100
Osaka .......... Naniwa Girls' School ............. P. B. F. M. N .......X..... 66 .... 66
Osaka .......... Bishop Poole Memorial ......... C. M. S ..................X.... 93 .... 93
Osaka .......... Baikwa Jo Gakko ................... A. B. C. F. M ........X...... 214...214
Osaka ......... Momoyama Boarding School,. C. M. S .............. 364 ....X..... 364
Sapporo ..... Northern Star Boarding School .P. B. F. M. N .........X.... 115...115
Sendai ....... Boarding School ...................... Ref. C. U. S ............X... 57 .... 57
Shizuoka ... Boarding School ...................... C. M. M. S .............X.... 64 .... 64
Tokyo..: ...... Joshi Gakuin ........................... P. B. F. M. N ..........X.. :219....219
Tokyo..: ...... Joshi Gakuin ........................... P. B. F. M. N ..........X.. :219....219




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The total number of evangelical mission schools of all grades, reported in the latest statistical tables, is as follows: schools, 173, with 13,196 pupils.1Nearly half of these schools are for girls, with, approximately, 5000 pupils.

In Formosa a suitable location for a new college, in connection with the Mission of the Presbyterian Church of England, has been selected at Tainan, and a handsome and commodious building is now ready for occupancy. The same Mission has a theological training school, and a training home for Bible-women, as well as a boarding school and a girls' high school, all at Taichu (formerly called Tai-wanfu). The Canadian Presbyterian Mission has at Tamsui the Oxford Theological College, and a boarding school for girls. Both missions have schools of the elementary grade. The Japanese are themselves giving attention to educational matters in Formosa. A number of schools have been established in various parts of the island, and facilities for normal training are provided.

Missions in Korea have been especially fruitful in evangelistic results, Educational facilities of missions in Koreabut education has not been wholly overlooked. An ingathering of about 12,000 church-members, representing a Protestant community of over 30,000, in twenty years (1884-1904) has so taxed the working force of missionaries that the development of an educational plant has not progressed rapidly. Presbyterian missionaries have given special attention to primary schools, and report 90 in all, with 1661 pupils.2It is a gratifying fact that the support

1 "The Christian Movement in its Relation to the New Life in Japan" (Second Issue, 1904), p. 245.

2 "Minutes of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Council of Missions in Korea," September, 1903.




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of these schools is contributed largely by the Koreans themselves. Methodist missions have turned their attention chiefly to advanced education, with only a small quota of lower-grade schools. They planted in 1886, at Seoul, the first higher institution of learning in the country, known as the Pai Chai College, with which is connected also a theological department. The full name of the College is Pai Chai Hak Tang, a title happily suggested by the Emperor, signifying "Hall for Rearing Useful Men." An excellent boarding school for girls, founded in 1886, in the capital, is also conducted by the Methodist Episcopal Church Mission. The higher institutions of the Presbyterians consist of a boarding school for girls, opened at Seoul in 1889, and what was formerly a boarding school for boys, opened in 1886, but since then reorganized and now known by the title of the Wells Memorial Training School. Theological and normal training classes are informally conducted at various stations from year to year. The record of some of these classes is remarkable. The one held at Pyeng Yang in December, 1903, enrolled 610 members. Its curriculum was confined largely to biblical themes and those having a practical bearing upon Christian life and service. A special course, announced in the programme for 1902, was one not usually listed in our American theological schools, namely, "The Attitude to be taken in Times of Persecution." In addition, 135 study classes were held, during the year 1903, in the country districts, with an aggregate enrolment of about 4500 men, while a more select class of 58 normal and theological students was also gathered at Pyeng Yang. In 1902 a class for women, with the same general aim, had a membership of 302; another numbered 329, while several held throughout the country districts included an attendance of 600. There is also a flourishing Academy for Boys at Pyeng Yang, with an industrial department, and a total enrolment of 86. The Anglican Mission has a boarding school for boys at Kanghoa, and an orphan boarding school at Mapo. An interesting fact is the establishment, in 1898, of a school—in reality a missionary project—by the Japanese Foreign Education Society, which is largely a Christian association in the neighboring empire. Its teachers are graduates of the Doshisha, and its aim is to train mature students in Western learning, through the medium of the Japanese language.

The Korean Government has made sundry movements in the direction of State education, but with only indifferent results as yet. Government instruction is usually through the medium of Chinese characters, and the subject-matter of study has been largely the Chinese




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classics. Efforts have been made to substitute the No adequate system of State education in KoreaKorean language, and the native script, known as Unmon, as more practically useful, but so strong as yet is the traditional admiration for Chinese learning that the plan has not been received with favor by the educated classes. The education given through the medium of the Chinese is empty and useless, save that it holds out the promise of government employment, as all official documents are written in the Chinese language. The whole system of Korean education has been described as a "wandering through the wilderness of Chinese characters to arrive at the desert of Chinese classics." According to these old traditional methods, Korea hitherto was practically without an educational opportunity of any value from the modern point of view. A few years ago a reform movement began, largely stimulated, no doubt, by the educational methods of the missionaries. The Government established a few primary schools, and here and there a normal school, to supply teachers for government service under the new system. A normal school at Seoul has been for some years under the charge of the Rev. Homer B. Hulbert, and is efficiently conducted. Schools in which the Japanese, Russian, German, French, and English languages are used have been opened. Each school gives special attention to its own language, and makes that the medium of its instruction. These schools are of service to the Government in training interpreters and diplomatic agents. Korea as a nation is still lamentably destitute of educational facilities. It is to be hoped that the educational reforms which the Japanese may introduce will prove of the highest value to all classes of the people. The total missionary plant of Korea numbers 110 schools of all grades, with 1944 pupils.

Missionary education, admittedly, has had a powerful influence Missionary education a valuable national asset in Siamin the development of modern Siam. In 1851 the King died, just as diplomatic complications threatened war with Great Britain, and it happened that the young Prince who succeeded him had been under the instruction of the Rev. Jesse Caswell, a missionary of the American Board. An enlightened and liberal policy, in consequence, characterized the new reign, with the result that cordial relations based upon treaties have been established with Great Britain and the United States. Favorable consideration has also been shown to missionary projects, and the young King, whose acquaintance with Mr. Caswell had ripened into attachment, manifested an inclination to be friendly with missionaries. The Government ever since has re-




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garded missionary work with interest, and has advanced especially its educational and philanthropic features. The present King is the son of Mr. Caswell's pupil, and preserves the same attitude of confidence, cordiality, and esteem towards the missionary body. He has given liberally to advance their educational plans, and many of his high officials have done likewise. In 1878, Dr. McFarland, of the Presbyterian Mission, was appointed Principal of the Royal College at Bangkok, and served for a time as Superintendent of Public Instruction. The Queen, in 1899, gave on her birthday 2400 ticals ($1440, silver) to the Harriet M. House School. This has been reserved as an endowment for a system of prizes to be given annually in honor of the Queen.

The American Presbyterian Mission has had charge almost A vigorous educational movement in the Laos communityexclusively of the educational interests of missions among the Laos people in Northern Siam. The theological school at Chieng Mai was established in 1890, and now reports eighteen students. The Mission has also at that place two crowded boarding schools for boys and girls, with 113 and 71 pupils respectively. Similar institutions are conducted at Lakawn, with an aggregate attendance of 111 pupils. A system of self-supporting parochial schools has, moreover, been introduced, and is working successfully. It promises to initiate a self-governing, self-propagating, and self-supporting educational policy throughout the native Christian community of the Laos people. In Siam, the Harriet M. House Boarding School for Girls at Bangkok, with 114 enrolled pupils, has the distinction of being entirely self-supporting,1and in the same city is a high school for boys, with 186 in attendance. At Pitsanuloke is also a boarding school, built on the grounds of an old palace, presented by the Government, in 1899, for this purpose. The Suriwong School at Rajaburee has been conducted, with an enrolment of 92. The Howard Industrial School for Girls at Petchaburee is a useful institution. Elementary schools are

1 "The influence of this school is tremendous. Half of its pupils come from the families of noblemen, five are royal princesses, the daughters of brothers of the King, and others are daughters of governors and ministers to European capitals. The powerful High Commissioner of Pitsanuloke sends his three daughters here. The entire teaching force of the Bangkok public government schools, thirteen in number, are graduates of Wang Lang, twelve of them being Christians. At the recent government examinations our Wang Lang school elicited the outspoken admiration of the Prince Director-General of Public Instruction by excelling all other schools in the kingdom, including the Prince's own college, in the proportion of pupils who creditably pass the examinations."— The Rev. Arthur J. Brown, D.D., in The Missionary Review of the World, May, 1903, p. 358.




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found in numerous villages of Siam and Laos, with a total of about a thousand pupils. Dr. Brown, of the Presbyterian Board, remarks: "Our whole educational work occupies a unique position in Siam and Laos, as the only Protestant Christian schools in the entire kingdom. Our missionaries are educating the leaders of Siam. The graduates are already occupying influential positions in many places, and they are so manifestly superior to the products of the other schools that a Siamese Commissioner has said that he will take at sight for government service all the boys we can educate." The present Crown Prince of Siam is receiving a liberal education, having spent eight years of study in England, part of which was passed at Oxford University. He has travelled extensively throughout Christendom, visiting America in 1902, and there is good reason to expect that he will continue the friendly and enlightened policy of his father.

In Malaysia the American Methodişt Episcopal Malaysia a scene of educational activity on the part of American, British, Dutch, and German missionsMission has some excellent schools, with a student enrolment of 1470. Its Anglo-Chinese School at Singapore reports 927 pupils, and the girls' school 150. On Penang Island, under the same auspices, is also an Anglo-Chinese School, with 520 Students, and boarding schools for boys and girls. At Ipoh there is a high school, with a boarding department, having 300 in attendance. All of these institutions are largely self-supporting. The English Presbyterians conduct a school at Singapore, with 300 pupils. In addition, the British authorities support 209 government schools in the Straits Settlements.

In the larger islands of the Malay Archipelago, five boarding schools for boys are conducted in British Borneo by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, the largest being at Kuching, with 113 pupils. The societies of the Netherlands, and the Rhenish and Neu-kirchen Missions, have large educational plants in Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Celebes, Nias, and the smaller outlying islands. They report a gratifying total of 384 primary schools, with 18,713 scholars, and a few higher institutions, with about a hundred pupils. At Pantjur-na-pitu, in Sumatra, is a training school of the Rhenish Mission, with 60 pupils, and also a similar institution at Silindung, with 66 in attendance. At Depok, in Java, under the Depok Seminary Committee, is a flourishing seminary, and another at Tomohon, in Celebes, among the Ali-furs. The Reformed Church in the Netherlands has also a training school at Poerworedjo, in Java, with 60 pupils, and at Mergaredja, in the same island, is a boarding school, reporting 149 pupils, under the Mennonite Missionary Society of the Netherlands. The Sangir and




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Talaut Committee report twenty-five schools in the islands under their charge, with over 4000 pupils.

Education in the Turkish Empire has been largely, though The debt of Turkey to missionary educationnot exclusively, in the hands of missionaries. It may be safely said, however, that so far as its social helpfulness is concerned, as a ministry of progress and enlightenment, it may be regarded as wholly a missionary importation. Mohammedan schools established by the Government are of comparatively recent origin, and they are practically for Moslem children only, as the subject Christian races of the empire cannot either wisely or safely patronize them. From a modern educational point of view they cannot be regarded as ministering to progress or tending to profitable mental discipline, being innocent for the most part of useful knowledge, devoted to parrot-like repetition of Koranic formulæ, and to the minute study of the rhetorical and poetic refinements of classical Arabic, while dominated rigorously by the unprogressive traditionalism of Islam. This verdict should be understood as applying to the village schools of an elementary grade. In the important cities of the empire are some schools of a higher grade where instruction of a more modern type and of broader scope is given. Mr. D. M. Thornton after a careful study of the trend of Moslem education in Turkey gives a highly unfavorable report of its practical helpfulness either as a mental discipline or a social benefit.1

American, British, and German missionaries have planted schools and higher institutions—some of them the peers of our best modern colleges—all through the Turkish Empire. Moslem children do not, as a rule, avail themselves of these facilities, but the subject Christian nationalities are eager to secure for their children the advantages they provide. Systematic gradation, modern text-books, the best methods of scientific pedagogy, the most complete and instructive devices in the line of apparatus, an attractive and stimulating esprit de corps, a picked band of teachers, foreign and native, a predominant ethical and religious aim—in fact, all the essentials of rounded intellectual training and helpful soul-culture—are marked characteristics of this energetic educational campaign of missions in Turkey. A mighty revolution has already resulted—not military or political, but reformatory and progressive—tending to the lifting up of the standards of life, the creating of a new social outlook, and the ripening of humanity in intelligence, capability, and refinement. The higher life of a whole

1 The Church Missionary Intelligencer, June, 1901, p. 458.




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generation has practically been set in motion aspirations have been kindled, spiritual energies have been awakened; and that to such an extent as to save Turkey from again sinking into the dreary, indolent stagnation of the old times of ignorance. Despite the cruel assaults of despotic power, and the depressing terrors of relentless caste domination, the Christian communities of Turkey are awake and alert in the midst of an encouraging intellectual revival.

Look at the brilliant record of such an institution as the Syrian The brilliant record of mission colleges in Turkey Protestant College at Beirut. It was incorporated in 1863, and was fairly in working order about 1870, yet in a single generation, under the long presidency of Dr. Daniel Bliss (now succeeded by his son, Dr Howard J. Bliss), it presents a stately array of thirteen handsome buildings, a teaching faculty of nearly sixty eminent foreign and native instructors, and an enrolment of 750 students, crowding every inch of its dormitory and class-room capacity. It reports since its organization 3122 different students under its instruction, and has graduated 205 physicians, 102 pharmacists, 221 bachelors of arts, and 513 preparatory students. The stimulating and molding influence of an educational plant like this is practically immeasurable. Notice furthermore Robert College, at Constantinople, with its 338 students. Since the date of its foundation, in 1863, by Dr. Cyrus Hamlin (it was incorporated in 1864), under the fostering care of such men as Washburn, Long, Van Millingen, Grosvenor, Anderson, Ormiston, and recently Dr. Gates, its new President, with a corps of able native professors and instructors, it has had a mission of enlightenment which any nation might welcome as a valuable aid to progress. It has enrolled since its organization 2575 students, with 450 graduates. President Washburn has given the following terse summary of the work of Robert College: "We have won the confidence and sympathy of the people of all nationalities. We have educated two thousand young men under Christian influences from the éliteof different nationalities, most of whom would otherwise have been educated under anti-Christian influences. We have led the way in a great educational movement in all that part of the world. We have done something to break down the antagonisms of race and religion, which are the great curse of the East. We have had no little influence in the movements which are going on in the old Christian churches of the East to revive their spiritual life and teach the people that religion is not in creed and form, but in the heart and life."1Similar institutions,

1 The Intercollegian, February, 1901, p. 108.




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as yet less favored with facilities to develop their resources, but planted with the same high aims, and destined to render in their own spheres a service not less useful, are scattered throughout the empire. Euphrates College at Harpoot, with over a thousand pupils, Central Turkey College at Aintab, Anatolia College at Marsovan, and the International College, Smyrna, are prominent examples.

Higher institutions for boys not yet in the collegiate grade Excellent higher institutions for boys and girlsare, moreover, to be found at Bardezag, Bitlis, Brousa, Cesarea, Erzerum, Gurun, Hadjin, Iconium, Marash, Mardin, Mersine Sivas, Talas, Urfa, Van and Yozgat in Asia Minor, with the St. Paul's Institute at Tarsus (now under the care of the American Board), and the Collegiate Institute at Samokov, in Bulgaria, Syria presents another equally gratifying list in the Gerard Institute at Sidon, the schools at Suk-ul-Gharb, Shweir, Brummana, Damascus, Latakia, and Suadia, and the new boarding school at Tripoli, recently opened. In Palestine, the first educational effort dates from Bishop Gobat's School, founded in 1852, and now there are several flourishing institutions in Jerusalem alone.

To this list of higher institutions for young men can be added a group of excellent schools for girls, not surpassed in value in any mission field. The American College for Girls at Constantinople, with 128 pupils, under the presidency of Dr. Mary Mills Patrick, is easily comparable with the best of women's colleges at home. Another fine institution is the Central Turkey College for Girls at Marash. Then there are flourishing colleges or seminaries for girls at Adabazar, Adana, Aintab, Bitlis, Brousa, Cesarea, Erzerum, Gurun, Hadjin, Harpoot, Mardin, Marsovan, Sivas, Smyrna, Talas, Urfa, and Van, and in Bulgaria at Kortcha, Loftcha, Monastir, and Samokov. In Syria are also admirable seminaries for girls, under the charge of the American Presbyterians at Beirut, Sidon, and Tripoli, and others conducted by the British Syrian Mission at Beirut and Shimlan, besides its high schools at Tyre, Hasbeiyeh, Zahleh, and Baalbec. The Beirut Seminary of the American Mission has alone furnished a quota of 162 teachers to Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, and the Sidon Seminary is represented by 158. The Kaiserswerth Sisters' Institution at Beirut is well conducted. Miss Taylor's St. George's School, also at Beirut, is doing a beneficent work for Moslem and Druse girls. Miss Procter's School at Shweifat, that of the English Friends at Brummana, of the Irish Presbyterians at Damascus, and of the American Reformed Presbyterians at Latakia and Suadia, all deserve fuller mention than




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we can here give them. In Palestine, the Church Missionary Society has a girls' boarding school at Jerusalem, as has also the London Society for the Jews. The Tabeetha Boarding and Training School at Jaffa, the Training Home for Girls conducted by the American Friends at Ramallah, and that of the Church Missionary Society at Bethlehem, are also rendering valuable service.

Theological training is conducted at Harpoot, Marash, Mardin, Many training schools theological and industrialMarsovan, Samokov, Suk-ul-Gharb, and Jerusalem. There are, in all, four industrial schools and orphanages at Jerusalem, and similar institutions at Bethlehem and Nazareth, besides the large and admirable orphan training school of the Kaiserswerth Deaconesses at Beirut. Numerous orphanages—all of them educational to some extent—are scattered through Asia Minor. Enough has been said to indicate the educational labyrinth into which one enters when undertaking to recount the facilities so freely and generously provided for the younger generation throughout Turkey. The array is bewildering, and we must take refuge in a statistical grouping of this aggressive educational campaign. In all Turkey we find eight collegiate institutions, with 2726 students, eleven theological and training schools, with 261 students, sixty boarding schools and seminaries, with 5000 pupils, and 767 elementary day schools, with 36,719 children in attendance. When we think of the crushing disabilities which handicap the population of Turkey, especially those of non-Moslem affinities, it seems an immeasurable benefit to begin the twentieth century with an outlook like this.

The commercial value of this education is worthy of notice. "I know of no import," writes Mr. T. H. Norton, American Consul at Harpoot, "better adapted to secure the future commercial supremacy of the United States in this land of such wonderful potential possibilities than the introduction of American teachers, of American educational appliances and books, of American methods and ideas."1Consul-General Charles M. Dickinson, of Constantinople, writes that he considers American educational missions in Turkey as "worthy of the most cordial support," and that both he and his family" have come to regard this work with an interest which approaches enthusiasm." Its moral value is inestimable. "The missionary teacher," writes one who has long resided in Turkey, "uses for such culture of the moral sense the instrument which served in his own case—the teachings of Jesus Christ. He uses these teachings also as Jesus Christ used them

1 The Missionary Herald, July, 1903, p. 298.




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—in the form of plain statements of duty which every conscience must and does approve, whatever its religious citizenship."1As elsewhere, so in Turkey, missionary education has proved a model, and has served as a resistless stimulus to general education under government or private auspices, and thus forces the hand of those in authority, and quickens the liberality and ambition of all classes of society.

Persia is another illustration of an unprogressive nation, The missionary an educational pioneer in Persia caught long ago in the toils of a decaying civilization, hampered by absolutism, and lying in intellectual stagnation under the incubus of a narrow and persecuting religious cult, which has received at the hands of missionaries at least the initial benefits of modern education. As yet these benefits have been enjoyed by the Nestorian, Chaldean, and Armenian populations, and the evangelical converts, rather than by the Mohammedans; but the establishment of this educational plant, with its stimulating forces and its modern appliances, will no doubt ere long arouse the whole nation to an appreciative estimate of its value. There was little, if any, common-school education to be had in all Persia before the advent of the missionaries, and a violent prejudice was found to exist against the instruction of girls. That small school opened in a cellar, in 1836, by Justin Perkins, a missionary of the American Board, was the first step towards realizing the Urumiah College of the present day, with its 73 students, and a record of 302 graduates, of whom 62 have entered the ministry, 122 have become teachers and lay preachers, and 12 have been trained as physicians. Again, the little school for girls begun by Mrs. Grant at Urumiah, in 1838, has developed into the Fiske Seminary, reporting to-day 80 pupils in attendance, and having a noble record of spiritual fruitage and educational success during its past sixty years, since Miss Fiske opened it as a boarding school in 1844. Both of the above-mentioned institutions are now connected with the American Presbyterian Mission ; while identified with the same Mission may be named the Memorial Training and Theological School, and the girls' boarding school, at Tabriz, each with over a hundred pupils, the Iran Bethel for girls, and also the high school for boys, at Teheran, with an attendance of 61 and 121 respectively, the Faith Hubbard Boarding School for girls, at Hamadan, with 115 pupils, and also the high school for boys, with an enrolment of 53. In addition to these higher institutions, the Mission conducts ninety-seven elementary schools, with a total attendance of about 2500 children. The Archbishop's Mission to the Assyrian

1 Dwight, "Constantinople and its Problems," p. 234.




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Christians has a theological school at Urumiah, with 46 students, and a high school for boys, with 52 pupils. This Mission also conducts elementary schools, with about 500 pupils. The Church Missionary Society has seven schools in Southern Persia, with an aggregate attendance of 537 pupils. The total missionary educational work of all societies in Persia now numbers nine higher institutions, with 851 students, and 158 village day schools, with, in round numbers, 3500 pupils.

The stimulus already given by this educational initiative in Urumiah College and its fruitful workPersia is illustrated by the fact that within six years thirty schools, under various auspices, have been opened in Teheran alone. The last Report of the Urumiah College contains the following paragraph: "In the College itself, there is a grand chance to build up character. The very best in the nation in the way of its youth are gathered here for self-improvement. Great changes are taking place, and a progressive spirit is in the air. It is impossible, nor is it right, to expect that many of our young men will settle down here with the terrible restrictions that are placed on them by their Moslem masters and neighbors. The situation gets more unbearable every day, and all who have been awakened to the possibilities of life and caught the vision of liberty cannot but be restive. Some will stay and fill greatly needed places, but only by such a readjustment of the situation as will make it possible to do so. Others will go abroad or into the professions. It is given to us to have them during their formative period and to influence their characters for life." We find in Persia the same bright story that has greeted us throughout the mission world—the power of Christian education to develop manhood and womanhood, and lead the nations into the paths of higher culture.

Into Arabia, that wilderness of ignorance, and one of the Educational beginnings in Arabiafew remaining fastnesses of barbarism in the world, some bold and determined pioneers of light have already entered. The martyr-like heroism of Ion Keith-Falconer will be forever identified with the effort of the Scotch Free Church to reach the interior tribes by way of Aden and Sheikh Othman. The little school at the latter place has been, as it were, the entering wedge. The Arabian Mission of the Reformed Church in America has chosen its point of contact on the eastern coast of the great peninsula. Its three stations, at Busrah, Bahrein, and Muscat, are scenes of devout labor, partly medical and partly evangelistic, but to some extent also educational, as the schools




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at Bahrein and Muscat indicate. The school at Muscat was established as a training home for freed slaves rescued from Arab slave-dhows. Many of these have now been graduated, and have found places of service in India or elsewhere, with the boon of freedom brightening their lives.

The education of an ignorant continent is a mighty task, calling Vigorous educational efforts on the part of missions in Egypt for age-long patience and devotion; yet there is no part of the great mission field into which a more dauntless entrance has been made than into the vast realm of continental Africa. A suggestion of its illiteracy was evinced by the status of Egypt just before the English occupation of 1882. This land may be regarded as one of the more advanced sections of the Continent; yet ninety-one per cent. of the males and about ninety-nine and one half per cent. of the females at that time could neither read nor write. The Church Missionary Society opened schools in Cairo as early as 1825, the chief one being the "Coptic Seminary." The Society about 1862 suspended its operations for a time, but reëntered the field in 1882. It conducts now schools for boys and girls in Cairo and Old Cairo, with over three hundred pupils. The United Presbyterians of America opened their mission to Egypt in 1854, and have carried on a vigorous pioneer work in education. Their Assiut Training College is a superior institution, which has grown out of a little school for boys, started by that indefatigable missionary, Dr. John Hogg, in 1865, and it now reports an enrolment of 570. It has trained a whole generation of men who, as pastors, teachers, men of affairs, leaders in journalism and literary activity, and servants of the Government in numerous departments, have been an honor to the College, as well as a power in the social and civil progress of the country. The Pressly Memorial Institute for girls is also at Assiut, and is an excellent school, reporting an attendance of 192. Boarding schools for girls are in operation at Cairo and Luxor, with 374 and 149 pupils respectively. Six high schools for boys and thirteen for girls are at various centres in Lower Egypt, and a theological seminary is conducted in Cairo. To this list add 147 village schools, with 8759 pupils, and we have a total of 170 schools, 351 teachers, and 12,942 scholars. Some of the smaller missionary societies have also joined in this good work, increasing the total of mission schools to 187.

The British officials are encouraging general popular education, especially of an elementary grade, and grant financial aid to schools in numerous places. The Gordon Memorial College at Khartoum is




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still in the experimental stage of its usefulness, despite the costly plant bestowed A new era in Egyptian State educationupon it. The complete equipment of a new building for a girls' school at Khartum is soon to be an accomplished fact, under the auspices of the Church Missionary Society. The Egyptian Ministry of Public Instruction conducts eighty-seven schools of the lowest grade, and thirty-five of the highest grade, three of the secondary, two institutions for girls, and ten schools for higher or professional education. In addition, it has under its inspection 845 primary schools of an elementary grade, and 23 primary schools of a higher grade, with a total attendance of 30,000 pupils. Jesuit, Coptic, Greek, and Jewish schools have multiplied within a decade. There are also many institutions under Moslem auspices, ranging from those of an elementary village grade up to the theological schools connected with the mosques, such as El Azhar in Cairo, which dates back nearly a thousand years, and now reports over ten thousand students—all Mohammedans.1The status of priest; teacher, or student is popular in Egypt, as it secures exemption from military service. The conditions of admission to this latter strange university are that the candidates must be fifteen years of age, able to read and write, and know at least half of the Koran by heart. Its curriculum is limited almost entirely to Moslem theology and jurisprudence, combined with the usual delving into Arabic philological lore. The exegesis of the Koran and of the Hadith (traditions traceable to Mohammed as their source) seems to open a boundless realm of dogmatic research.

Along the northern coast of Africa to the Atlantic Ocean is a region where as yet missions are struggling with many and serious difficulties. The North Africa Mission has secured a foothold at various prominent centres, but it engages only to a limited extent in educational work. It reports eight schools, with 265 pupils. Along this northern coast-line, there are four other missions with a somewhat limited sphere of operations, besides two especially for Jews, but they are still facing much opposition, and give their attention chiefly to evangelistic and medical labors.

Returning now to the eastern borders of the Continent, we find southward of Egypt the Swedish Evangelical Society at Massowah, on the Red Sea, with several inland stations, conducting fourteen schools, with 305 pupils. A long stretch further to the south brings us to British and German East Africa, where we find the Neukirchen,

1 Cf. article entitled "A Muslim University," by Adolph Heidborn, in The Imperial and Asiatic Quarterly Review, October, 1903, pp. 300-326.




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Leipzig, Moravian, Berlin, German East African, and Methodist Free Church, Educational progress in East Africamissionary societies. The educational efforts of these agencies in the British and German East African possessions are for the most part elementary, and as yet not very extensive. The Church Missionary Society and the Universities' Mission may properly be considered the foremost missionary agencies in East Africa. The latter reports 146 schools and 5079 scholars, chiefly on the Island of Zanzibar, and in German East Africa as far south as Lake Nyassa. Its principal institutions are St. Andrew's College at Kiungani, with high-grade schools at Kilimani, Kiungani, and Mbweni, all on the Island of Zanzibar, and at Kologwe, Magila, Mkuzi, Masasi, Misozwe, and Newala, in German East Africa. In the region of Lake Nyassa are also schools of the upper grade, at Likoma and Unangu.

The earlier field of the Church Missionary Society on the East Coast The phenomenal work of the Church Missionary Society in East Africa and Ugandawas in the vicinity of Mombasa, but in 1876 it was extended to Uganda by that bold and memorable move into the interior. Uganda itself has become a centre of marvellous missionary activity, and already supplies a chapter in modern church history which cheers the heart of every Christian who has taken the pains to inform himself concerning its remarkable religious development. So rapid has been the evangelistic growth that the emergencies of the work have impelled to direct Gospel instruction rather than to educational outlay. The returns in the Church Missionary Society's Report for 1904 indicate a total of 5492 adult converts baptized during 1903, and it begins to look as if an evangelistic entrance into the Soudan would eventually be made from Uganda as a base. The native Christians (Protestant) now number over 50,000. There has been a singular and resistless passion on the part of converts, young and old, to learn to read and write. These simple accomplishments have come to be esteemed by the natives as among the insignia of Christianity, and the first step in the direction of Christian faith is to become a "reader," of whom there are now (1905) at least 60,000 connected with the Mission.1Thus

1 "It is astonishing what an educational value this reading of God's Word has ; their [the pupils'] very physiognomy seems to be changed by it, so that it is almost possible to tell a reader by his outward appearance. And in no other way does the reality of God seem to impress itself so forcibly on the native mind as by the daily poring over the pages of the New Testament, at first mechanically, and then with more and more glimmering of meaning, until at last the Divine message of love is intelligently grasped, and perhaps driven home by some sermon or meeting or the faithful words of a friend, and another catechumen is added to the roll, and, we trust, another soul to the company of Christ. It is a noticeable and deeply instructive fact that profession of conversion never, or hardly ever, has been made by a Muganda who cannot read, except, of course, a few special cases of blind or old." — Pilkington, "The Gospel in Uganda," p. 20.




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the educational policy of the Society has been largely concerned with the Scotch Presbyterians in the British Central Africa Protectorateelementary schooling of the entire body of inquirers, rather than with the opening of schools for the young. It is estimated by Sir Harry Johnston that about 200,000 have been taught to read since the commencement of missionary work. A broader educational campaign is, however, already in motion, as is apparent in the boys' school at. Mengo, which has increased its attendance in three years from less than one hundred to over five hundred pupils. The pleasing statement is made that corporal punishment is unnecessary, since no more severe chastisement can be administered to a pupil than to forbid his attendance at school for a few days, until he is ready to conduct himself properly. Teachers are sent from this Mengo school to open other schools in various parts of the country, and from it tutors have been supplied to instruct King Daudi and his younger brother Suna. Altogether, three thousand boys have received therein a fair elementary training without the slightest compulsion. School attendance is not considered a task, but rather a pleasure. The total school plant of the Church Missionary Society in British East Africa, including Uganda, is 262 schools, with 26,847 pupils.

The London Missionary Society has had a long and hard struggle on the shores of Tanganyika. It has now begun to reap some evangelistic reward, but its educational work has, so far, been attended with great difficulties, although steadily advanced. Its schools at present number 18, with 2453 scholars.

The British Central Africa Protectorate, to the west and south of >Lake Nyassa, is the scene of characteristic Scotch enterprise and triumph. The Established Church of Scotland has its headquarters at Blantyre, and conducts fifty-seven schools, with 3643 scholars. The United Free Church of Scotland is devotedly attached to its Livingstonia Mission on the western shore of the lake, which reports phenomenal educational progress, with 207 schools and 15,765 pupils. As late as the year 1875, there were in all that region "no schools, no teachers, no pupils, and nobody who could read." The Livingstonia Institution at Kondowi, above Florence Bay, is a model school of its kind, with normal, theological, and industrial departments, reporting 357 pupils. The Zambesi Industrial




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Mission has thirty-seven schools in Angoniland, southwest of Lake Nyassa, with an aggregate of 1600 pupils. To the southwest of the British Protectorate is the French Mission among the Barotsi (founded some twenty years ago as an extension of the Basuto Mission), lying within the territory of British Central Africa. It has labored in its hard field with great devotion and patience, and reports at present ten schools, with a contingent of 1200 pupils.

South Africa from the Zambesi to Cape Town, including German Education in South Africa from the Zambesi to Cape TownSouthwest Africa, is, furthermore, a scene of varied and energetic missionary enterprise. It is not necessary to delimit the sphere or to refer in detail to the work of the numerous missions which occupy and minister to this vast territory. Almost all are engaged, to some extent at least, in educational effort. Those especially prominent in this department are the South African Wesleyan Missionary Society, the United Free Church of Scotland, the American Board, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, the London Missionary Society, the Wesleyan Missionary Society, the Moravians, the French Evangelical, Rhenish, Berlin, Hermannsburg, Romande, Norwegian, and Swedish missions, and the American Methodists. The import of an educational crusade among the indigenous races of South Africa is manifest, in view of the fact that the native problem is a momentous factor in the general welfare, the economic progress, and the political stability of that entire division of the Continent. The Government throughout South Africa has established excellent educational facilities for the colonists, but has not given the attention which one would naturally expect it to bestow upon the promotion of education among the native races. It is true, however, that the undertaking is a vast one, and has been attended by many practical difficulties, hampered by race prejudice on the part of the colonists, and hindered by an indisposition to appropriate the funds necessarily required. Under these circumstances the educational work of missions, since the time of Bishop Gray, who was consecrated in 1847, has proved a valuable stimulus, fixing the attention of the State upon promising results attainable among the natives, and demonstrating that systematic efforts in behalf of public instruction would not be in vain. As yet no system of public education for the native races is in operation, the Government having contented itself with appropriating financial grants in aid of mission and private schools. A great point has been gained, however, in the fact that the desirability of native education has been recognized by the Government, responsibility in that direction ac-




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knowledged, and a tentative policy adopted. It is not too much to say that all this has come about, in the main, through the example and influence of missions in conducting a successful and manifestly useful educational work among the colored races. Besides the financial grants, government agents are employed regularly to visit and inspect the mission schools for natives in Cape Colony, Natal, and Basutoland.

In Basutoland the French Evangelical Mission has become virtually a government educational agency, at the same time conserving rigidly its missionary policy. In Bechuanaland there are no educational facilities to be The beneficent function of missionary education among South African racesfound other than those provided by the missionaries, In Rhodesia the mission schools gather in a large following of native children. A recent volume on the social and economic condition of South African natives sums up the situation in the following statement: "Excellent work is carried on at some of the larger missionary institutions. The work indeed is almost entirely in the hands of missionaries of various denominations, but it is recognized by the State, and is aided and supervised by Government."1The consensus of opinion upon education in this instructive compilation is that missionary enterprise is doing a beneficent work in furthering the cause of native instruction in South Africa. It urges also the establishment of a government system of schools, with compulsory education, and special attention to certain technical and industrial features. The following quotation from the Hon. John Tudhope, one of the contributors to the volume, well expresses the trend of the chapter on "Education": "If the natives," he observes, "are to be preserved, it must be by an enlightened system of education, fitting them to take their proper place in the political system, sharing its duties and responsibilities and also its privileges. But they cannot be expected to achieve this without careful preparation. No nation has ever passed from heathenism to civilisation per saltum. It is only by a slow and sometimes painful process that this can be accomplished, and the natives of South Africa are no exception to the general rule. The efforts of individuals and missionary societies, supplemented by government aid, have shown us what can be done, and that the results are sufficiently encouraging to warrant us going further in this direction." 2Still another testimony, by a Government Inspector of Education, may be quoted: "I was most favourably impressed by Keiskama Hoek and

1 "The Natives of South Africa: Their Economic and Social Condition," edited by the South African Native Races Committee, p.182.

2 Ibid., p. 184.




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Lovedale. The latter works on a grand scale. A visit to Lovedale would convert the greatest sceptic regarding the value of native education. The great organising power of Dr. Stewart appears on every side. The staff is large and able, and the civilising effect of the whole institution is remarkably felt. It may have its defects, but the scheme is at present the most complete, the largest, and most successful of its kind in the country, and the institution, as a whole, is probably the greatest educational establishment in South Africa." 1These considerations all point to the import of missionary enterprise as a beneficent factor in furthering the settlement of the grave questions which environ the education of the South African. It is conceded by all that the native problem is one of the most pressing and perplexing, as well as difficult, aspects of South African development. It resembles, in some respects, the American Negro problem. Missionary education, therefore, has a field of great opportunity and far-reaching influence in South Africa; and when a government school system for native races shall be finally established, it will undoubtedly be traced in large measure to missionary appeals and labors on their behalf during the past half-century.2

No complete summary of missionary education in South Africa is possible within the limits of treatment which must here be observed. Higher institutions are numerous, many of them in the first rank of excellence, such as that noble institution of the United Free Church of Scotland at Lovedale, Cape Colony, which reports a total of 753; pu-

1 "The Natives of South Africa," p. 188.

2 The Rev. G. J. Pugh, in a communication to the South African Native Races Committee, expresses himself as follows: "I am of opinion that the Government of the colony should undertake the education of the natives. At the present moment not a single government school exists for them. The missionaries of the country are doing work which the Government ought to be responsible for; they are educating the people as best they can, while receiving a small government grant —viz., 15s. per head on the average per annum. We wish the, colony to recognise its responsibility to the black population, and to realise that, just as we have a strong nation if an educated one, so we shall have strong supporters in the natives of the country if they are given privileges which our own people enjoy. They are capable of a very high standard of education, and I for one feel, and feel strongly, that we must not only Christianise the aborigines of the country, but train them to become worthy citizens and leaders amongst their own people. We must once and for all admit their powers and possibilities, and give them, a place in the general development of the country fitted to their station and condition of life. Freedom and liberty will raise the native population, and give them a place in the future of the land which will prove to be a blessing and a source of power."— "The Natives of South Africa," p. 335.




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pils in 1903. These students are drawn from almost every section of Some representative institutions of South African missionsAfrica south of the Zambesi, with a number of lads from the far-off region of Lake Nyassa. It has nine industrial departments, and in its intellectual curriculum there is a broad graded course of study, at once highly educational and thoroughly practical. Then there is St. John's College of the Scottish Episcopal Church at Um-tata, the McKenzie Memorial College—a diocesan institution at Isandhlwana, Zululand, and the Kaffir College of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel at Zonnebloem. At Wellington is the Huguenot College, an admirable institution, not intended for native Africans, but rather for the daughters of Huguenot and other European residents. Its usefulness, however, in the furtherance of missions is undoubted, since it has been a training-place for at least 550 pupils who are now engaged as teachers or mission workers throughout South Africa. It has, moreover, branch institutions at Paarl, Bethlehem, and Greytown.

The educational work of the Scotch Presbyterian Missions, now in connection with the United Free Church of Scotland, is as prominent as it is extensive. In addition to Lovedale, previously mentioned, there are large and flourishing schools at Blythswood, Cunningham, Duff, Emgwali, Impolweni, Main, Pirie, Somerville, and Umsinga. These nine institutions alone report a total of 4616 pupils, about one half of whom are girls.1

The American Board has boarding schools at Amanzimtote, Inanda, Mount Silinda, and Umzumbe, with a total of 530 pupils. The South African Missionary Society of the Wesleyan Methodist Church of South Africa has training schools, chiefly industrial, at Bensonvale, Butterworth, Clarkebury, Healdtown, Lesseyton, Peddie, and Shaw-

1 "These South African native peoples are, we believe, worth saving. They are probably the finest black race in Africa. They have proved it as warriors and thinkers. The slave-trade never touched them. They are monotheists, and were uninfluenced by the idolatry and fetich-worship of most Africans. In the whole history of European colonization they alone have proved strong enough to survive contact with civilization. They have it in them to survive as a people, being neither merged nor submerged among the Europeans. All this we may well hold as proved. We must therefore take count of them as a growing factor in the development of Africa. They may spread a material, non-Christian civilization; this means future disaster. They may spread a Christian civilization; this was Livingstone's ideal."—Article on "The Educated South African Native," by the Rev. Brownlee J. Ross, in The Missionary Record of the United Free Church of Scotland, May, 1903, p. 202.




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bury. Other schools of the higher grade for natives are those of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel at Grahamstown, Keiskama Hoek, Maritzburg, Pretoria, and Thlotse Heights; those of the Scottish Episcopal Mission, in coöperation with the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, at Gala, Engcobo, and Tsolo; those of the French Evangelical Mission at Morija, Thabana-Moréna, Massitissi, and Thaba Bossiou; those of the Leipzig Mission in German East Africa; those of the Berlin Society at Botsabelo, in Transvaal Colony, and Riversdale, Cape Colony; and finally those of the Hermannsburg Society at Bersaba, in Transvaal Colony, and at New Hermannsburg, Natal. The Primitive Methodists have a normal school at Aliwal North; the London Mission a Training Institution at Tiger Kloof, Cape Colony; the Moravians another at Genadendal; the Rhenish Mission has institutions at Okahandja, in Southwest Africa, and at Stellenbosch; the Congregational Union of South Africa has a similar institution at Peelton; the Wesleyan Missionary Society at Pretoria; the Romande Mission at Shilouvane, in Transvaal Colony; and the Dutch Reformed Church of South Africa has its theological seminary at Stellenbosch. In addition to these institutions of a higher grade, elementary village schools have been established, with hardly an exception, by every missionary agency.

It is not possible to give an exact summary of statistics, but an approximate estimate of the educational work in South Africa represented by the societies named, including a few others of minor importance, may be stated as follows: schools of all grades, 1860, with scholars in attendance, 110,895. It will be seen that the educational campaign in that portion of the Continent lying between the Zambesi and the Cape is a work of large magnitude and ample promise. The various religious denominations established in South Africa have also numerous colleges and schools, but they are virtually self-supporting institutions for the education of the children of the white colonists, and can hardly, therefore, be listed as belonging to the roll of foreign missions. We might name as examples St. Andrew's College at Grahamstown, Michaelhouse School in Natal, and the Diocesan College at Rondebosch, all under Anglican auspices, and the Normal College, Cape Town, with the Victoria College, Stellenbosch, under Dutch Reformed management.

As we move northward along the West Coast into Portuguese Angola we find the American Board in the vicinity of Bailundu, with twenty-one schools and 2216 pupils, and also the Methodist Episcopal Missionary Society, having its sphere of operations at São




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Paulo de Loanda, and a few inland stations, with eleven schools and 135 pupils. Mission schools in the Congo StateImmediately to the northward is the Congo Free State, occupied by the missionary forces of several societies, including the English and American Baptists, the Regions Beyond Missionary Union, the Southern Presbyterian Church of America, the Foreign Christian Missionary Society of the Disciples, the Christian and Missionary Alliance, the Swedish Missionary Union, and the Swedish Baptist Mission. The English Baptists report 161 teachers and 4289 pupils in their schools. Up at Yakusu, their eastern frontier station on the Upper Congo, twelve hundred miles from the sea, it is pleasant to read of the recent opening of a girls' school, with 70 pupils. The novelty of the experience is revealed in the following comment of the missionary: "The girls are more in love with their school than ever. The Yakusu girls do not believe in holidays; nothing short of a tornado is sufficient excuse for one." The American Baptist Missionary Union has 109 schools, with 3285 pupils. The Regions Beyond Missionary Union is almost entirely an evangelistic mission, reporting only six schools, with 900 pupils, and the same may be said of the American Presbyterians (Southern), with two schools and an enrolment of 382 pupils. An approximate estimate of the total educational plant of missions in the Congo Free State would include 318 schools and 10,471 scholars. In French Congo, and extending into German Kamerun, is the Mission of the American Presbyterians (Northern), with twenty-two schools and 984 pupils. The French Evangelical Mission has also five schools in the French Congo.

Beginning with German Kamerun, we approach the southern coast of the great The educational movements on the West Coast from Kamerun to Senegalwestern bend of the Continent. Nigeria, Northern and Southern, Lagos with its hinterlandof Yoruba, Dahomey, Togoland, Gold Coast Colony, the Ivory Coast, Liberia, Sierra Leone, the Guineas, French and Portuguese, Gambia, and Senegal, are before us. Like South Africa, it is a region where missionary agencies are multiplied, and heroic work has been done, amidst discouraging difficulties, for nearly a century. Kamerun is the scene of operations on the part of the Basel and the German Baptist missions, and of the English Primitive Methodists on the Island of Fernando Po, off its coast. The United Free Church of Scotland, since the union, has the long and devoted labors of the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland to its credit in historic Old Calabar, now included in the British Protectorate of Southern Nigeria. The Church Missionary Society is iden-




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tified also with Nigeria, Southern and Northern, and shares with the Wesleyans the occupation of Lagos and Yorubaland. In the latter country are also mission stations of the Southern Baptist Convention of the United States, and a group of independent African churches known as the Native Baptist Union of Lagos. In this region, moreover, are several smaller missions, as the Qua Iboe, the Niger Delta Pastorate, and the Lagos Native Pastorate Auxiliary Association. The two latter are in connection with the Church Missionary Society. The Wesleyans are at work in Dahomey and Togoland, and in the latter country is also a mission of the North German Society. The Wesleyans and the North Germans again, with the Basel Society, are in the Gold Coast Colony. The Ivory Coast is not as yet the scene of missionary activity, save that in the extreme southwestern corner the American Protestant Episcopal Mission has entered from Liberia. In Liberia we find missionary occupation by the American Protestant Episcopal and American Methodist Episcopal churches, with the Lutheran General Synod, and the African Methodist Episcopal Church of America. In Sierra Leone the Church Missionary Society, and its offshoots, the Sierra Leone Native Pastorate Auxiliary Association and the Sierra Leone Church Missionary Society, and also the Wesleyans, are prominently engaged; the American Wesleyan Methodist Connection, the United Methodist Free Churches, the Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion, the United Brethren in Christ, and the Christian and Missionary Alliance, have also missions in Sierra Leone, while the African Methodist Episcopal Church of America has, in addition, a considerable constituency. The S. P. G. has just reopened its Sierra Leone Mission. In French Guinea the Pongas Mission has a number of stations. In Gambia we find the Wesleyans; while the French Evangelical Mission has a few stations in Senegal.

Among the higher educational institutions of these West Coast Prominent institutions of the various missions on the West Coastmissions are Fourah Bay College, the grammar school, and the Annie Walsh Institution, all at Freetown, Sierra Leone, the grammar school and girls' seminary at Legos, the training institution at Oyo in Yorubaland, and the girls' school at Onitsha, Southern Nigeria-all connected with the Church Missionary Society. The Wesleyans have a flourishing high school and training institution at Freetown, with high schools at Bathurst and Lagos; the Basel Missionary Society has high-grade institutions at Abetifi, Abokobi, Aburi, Akropong, Begoro, Bonaberi, Buea, Christiansborg, Kyebi, Nsaba, and Odumase; and the United Free Church of Scotland has the Hope Waddell Train-




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ing Institution at Duke Town, Old Calabar, with a department for girls at Creek Town. Among the American schools in West Africa, the Methodists support the College of West Africa at Monrovia, and the Cape Palmas Seminary; the Presbyterian Church (North) has boarding schools at Baraka, Batanga, Benito, Efulen, and Elat; the Protestant Episcopal Missionary Society claims the Hoffman Institute at Cutting-ton ; and the United Brethren conduct the Clark Training School at Shengeh (Shaingay), Sierra Leone, and have recently opened a superior institution at Freetown. In several of these West Coast protectorates and colonies the Government has interested itself in native education, and supplemented mission efforts by financial appropriations. The Gold Coast Colony, for example, has a system of government education, and gives grants to mission schools. The African Institute, located at Colwyn Bay, Wales, is a valuable auxiliary to these West Coast missions, serving as a training school for native Workers. The total aggregate of the educational work of these societies, from Kamerun westward along the coast to Gambia, may be estimated approximately, so far as statistics are attainable, as follows: schools conducted, 873; scholars in attendance, 37,940.

We are now prepared to estimate approximately the entire educational plant of Educational summary for the African Continentevangelical missions on the African Continent. The total number of schools may be reckoned as 4127, and of this number 118 may be counted as institutions of a higher grade than the elementary village school. The total of pupils under instruction is 223,084, and of this number 15,699 are in the higher institutions.

The neighboring Island of Madagascar is associated with heroic mission history, A long and fruitful educational work in Madagascarand has been the scene of long and valuable educational work by the London Missionary Society, with which the French Evangelical Missionary Society of Paris has coöperated since the French occupation in 1895. Other agencies which have contributed to the intellectual progress of the people of the island are the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, the Friends' Foreign Mission Association of England, the Lutheran Board of Missions of the United States, the United Norwegian Lutheran Church in America, and the Norwegian Missionary Society of Norway. The London Society was the pioneer, having entered the field in 1818. Its Mission was suspended in 1836, on account of difficulties with the Malagasy Government, but it was reopened in 1862. A report in 1824 mentions twenty-two schools, with 2000 pupils; another, in 1888, re-




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fers to 900 schools, with 87,000 pupils. The French Government assumed control of the island in 1895, and unfortunately adopted arbitrary and repressive measures, greatly to the injury of the English missions. The French Evangelical Society of Paris, however, to whose care was committed much of the London Society's work, by its generous help and coöperation tided over the emergency, and was eventually influential in greatly modifying the restrictive attitude of the French authorities. The London Society finally took back under its own supervision a large share of the plant it had handed over to the French Society. A Jesuit raid for the purpose of taking wholesale possession of the English missionary establishment and work was thus thwarted, and the English and French Protestant societies, through friendly coöperation, held their own in the field. A growing liberality and friendliness on the part of the French Government officials of late have been much appreciated, so that the long-established Protestant missions in the island have been firmly reinstated, and now enjoy a fair and, so far as one can see, an unobstructed opportunity to conduct their work.

The London Society, in 1903, reports 630 schools, with 31,774 pupils, and the Superior instruction and crowded schools French Society 481 schools, with 29,341 pupils. Next in importance is the work of the Norwegian Missionary Society, with 950 schools and 57,475 pupils. The English Friends have 188 schools and 12,558 pupils. Thirty-one schools are reported by the American Lutherans, and about thirty-eight by the American United Norwegian Lutherans, with some 900 pupils under the care of each mission. We may add to this an estimate of sixty schools and 3000 pupils under the care of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. The total mission educational plant in Madagascar would therefore amount to 2369 schools and 135,945 pupils.1Among the higher institutions of the missions may be noted the London Missionary College at Faravohitra (Antananarivo), St. Paul's College, of the Propagation Society, at Ambatoharanana, thirteen training schools for pastors and teachers in various places, and nine high-grade schools for boys and girls, chiefly at Antananarivo. The recently opened high school for boys at Ambatonakanga, con-

1 In 1899, General Gallieni, the Governor-General of the colony, recognized the excellent educational work of the Protestant schools in the following statement: "Protestant missions are making now great progress by reason of the very evident superiority of their instruction." See article on "Madagascar: A French Colony," in The Edinburgh Review, April, 1899, p. 485.




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ducted by the London Mission, has an exceptional record of 700 boys on its register. "In less than two years since its opening," observes the Rev. J. Sharman, "nineteen have passed the difficult examination for the teacher's diploma; twenty have been received into the Government Professional School, and a large number into the Government College; nine of our old boys have in recent years passed to the Theological College at Faravohitra, and eight are preparing to enter the same institution; sixty-seven of the scholars have expressed themselves as desirous of becoming teachers; of these thirty-nine are in the first two classes. In the French Medical Academy, nine of our old students are taking their course. For these results we are profoundly thankful."1In the neighboring Island of Mauritius the Church Missionary Society reports, in 1904, twelve schools, with 1092 pupils. The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel has also some educational work on the island.

We turn now and cross the Indian Ocean due eastward to Australia and The first chapters of the educational story of New Guinea the island world of the Pacific. In Dutch New Guinea the Utrecht Missionary Union has a few schools, and in German New Guinea the Neuendettelsau and the Rhenish missions have a small but efficient educational work. In three of the adjacent islands of the Bismarck Archipelago, New Pomerania, New Mecklenburg, and New Lauenburg, now also German territory, the Australasian Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society is doing faithful and arduous service, having an educational plant which embraces 103 schools, with 3063 pupils. The entire provision for the instruction of natives in both Dutch and German New Guinea is exclusively missionary, and is valued by these governments as an important aid to the progress of civilization and commercial development.

In British New Guinea the London Missionary Society reports a patient and diligent effort to extend the privileges of education among a densely ignorant and, for the most part, savage population. The printed Report for 1903 of its work in New Guinea is unfortunately incomplete, as are also the returns of 1902, but the record of the latter year indicates forty-six schools and 1501 scholars. In the same year the Australian Wesleyans were conducting thirty-six schools, with 2341 pupils, in their island reserve of the D'Entrecasteaux group, at the eastern end of the British territory. The theological and training college of the London Missionary Society at Vatorata is dedicated to the education of native preachers and teachers, and has an enrolment of

1 "Report of the London Missionary Society for 1903," p. 231.




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twenty-six students, with their wives also under instruction. It should not be forgotten, however, that the pioneer needs of New Guinea were nobly met by South Sea Island teachers, imported chiefly from the Malua Training Institution in Samoa, and the Navuloa Training Institute in Fiji. It is one of the finest stories of heroism to the credit of missions, that natives lifted out of the depths of South Sea savagery have caught the spirit of Christian devotion with such loyalty that they have faced the perils and sacrifices of martyr-like service in so distant and forbidding a field as New Guinea. The Anglican Mission of the Diocese of New Guinea has its sphere on the northeast coast, extending from the German boundary line to the eastern extremity of the island. It has found the field one of extreme difficulty, but educational work is already well established at its several stations. The British officials of the island have expressed warm appreciation of the value of this service. Lieutenant-Governor Le Hunte speaks of it as "the dawn of the coming day for this youngest generation wherever the Mission has planted its cross."

In Australia the Moravians, Wesleyans, Baptists, Presbyterians, and Anglicans, with Schools for aborigines, Kanakas, and Chinese immigrants in Australia some minor local agencies, are engaged in behalf of the aborigines, the Kanakas, and the Chinese Immigrants. The work is largely evangelistic and philanthropic, supported in part by financial aid from the Government, and the industrial feature in education is prominent. Serious difficulties have hampered all attempts to reach the aborigines, but, thanks to devoted men like the Rev. F. A. Hagenauer, the Rt. Rev. Gilbert White, Bishop of Carpentaria, and other faithful missionaries of various societies, considerable success can now be recorded, and the more recent policy of the Government in behalf of the aborigines is in the line of practical coöperation with missionary effort. The Bishop of Carpentaria is giving special attention to the development of aboriginal missions in North Queensland and the District of Carpentaria. A successful mission is reported at Yarrabah, near Cairns, where, under the fostering supervision of the Rev. E. R. Gribble, "we find a settled, industrious, and willing, self-supporting community, containing two hundred happy and well-conducted aboriginals, who have cleared, and are cultivating, some seventy acres of rich jungle land."Schools are the order of the day, or at least part of it, for adults as well as children.1A system of

1 Article by the Bishop of Carpentaria, on "The Australian Aborigines,"in The East and the West: A Quarterly Review for the Study of Missions, published by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, issue of January, 1903, pp. 65-74.




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government schools is now in operation, and a benevolent provision for the aged, crippled, and infirm has been made. This is especially true of New South Wales, and is in striking contrast to the early treatment of these unfortunate tribes by the original settlers.

In New Zealand the work of the Church Missionary Society has been the most important factor in educational progress, though equally devoted efforts have been put forth by the Wesleyans, the Presbyterians, and others. The first-named society has a long record of labor among at least three generations of Maoris. Owing to the present strength of the Anglican churches of An educational record in New Zealand covering three generations of Maoris New Zealand, the work of the Church Missionary Society has now been committed to the care of the New Zealand Maori Mission Trust Board, representing the Anglican churches of the colony, which are happily prepared to continue a zealous missionary campaign. The State educational system of New Zealand is very efficient, and ready for aggressive service, its rule being that wherever twenty-five children can be collected in one neighborhood a school shall be provided for them. In 1901 the total returns of education in New Zealand, including all educational efforts under whatever auspices, were 2135 schools and 155,000 scholars, education being compulsory between the ages of seven and fourteen. The Government, moreover, now makes provision for the instruction of natives, its plant consisting of four boarding and ninety-one village schools, with 3273 pupils. The Te Aute College, founded by Archdeacon Samuel Williams, in 1871, although not connected with the Church Missionary Society, has been a thoroughly missionary institution, and has accomplished an admirable service in the education of Maori young men, especially the sons of chieftains who occupy positions of influence in the native community. The Government, in 1903, opened the Victoria College for Maori girls at Auckland. The excellent school for Maori girls long conducted at Napier by Miss Williams, sister of the Bishop of Waiapu, is always crowded, and unable to meet the demands of the situation. In addition, there is St. John's College of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, at Auckland, which has trained many Maori young men, and the Gisborne Training Institution of the Church Missionary Society, for the education of native pastors and teachers. Recent statistics mention that ninety-six per cent. of the population of the colony over five years of age are able to read and write. We have here indicated an educational triumph for which missionaries are no doubt entitled to their proper share of credit as pioneers and co-laborers. Their sustained




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and diligent efforts during nearly a century were manifestly of value in preparing the way for the present elaborate State system, until now their services are largely dispensed with, owing to the vigor and enterprise of the local churches, and the readiness with which the State has assumed its function as an educator. The Church Missionary Society still reports, in 1903, seven schools, with 295 scholars. Several excellent private schools for Maoris are conducted independently, under the inspiration of individual Christian effort.

The Wesleyan Missionary Society of England opened its mission in New Zealand as far back as the year 1822, when the Rev. Samuel Leigh, a friend and fraternal co-worker with Marsden, was its pioneer. Schools were established almost immediately, and successful educational work was conducted for many years. In 1842 the Society reported 4000 children in its schools, and in 1848 the enrolment was 6719 pupils. At that time the Church Missionary Society reported 113 schools and 7724 pupils. The magnitude of the educational work conducted by these two societies during the first half of the past century is thus indicated. Sad interruptions came in the latter half of the century, through wars and fanatical tumults, but the progress towards intelligent citizenship has, nevertheless, been maintained, and a worthy place in the religious and political life of the colony now appears to be not merely a possible, but an assured, destiny for the Maori. There are at the present time at least 25,000 Maori Christians in the country, and they have their representation in the Parliament of New Zealand. Upon the formation of the Australian Wesleyan Conference, in 1855, the English Wesleyans handed over their missions in Australasia, including New Zealand, to its care, though it should be said that the New Zealand Wesleyans no longer seek for help in their local missions. The Presbyterians have their sphere of work in a mission on Stewart Island, at the extreme southern end of the colony.

In connection with New Zealand and Australia, we may properly refer to two The Melanesian Mission and its "Iona of the East"missions closely identified with these two countries, the Melanesian Mission and the New Hebrides former was founded by Bishop Selwyn, of New Zealand, in 1849, and its history is associated with the labors and martyrdom of Bishop John Coleridge Patteson, of noble memory. Its distinguishing feature has been the development of native workers in its isolated island field, extending from the northern end of the New Hebrides, where it has three islands under its care, through the Banks, Santa Cruz, and Solo-




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mon groups. One of its first undertakings was to bring Melanesian boys to St. John's College, Auckland, for special training. In 1859, however, under the lead of Patteson (not yet a bishop), a training school of its own was founded at Kokimarama, near Auckland, which, in 1867, was removed to Norfolk Island, where it is now known as the St. Barnabas Training College. It has been called the "lona of the East,"and has been the retired home of many hundred Melanesian pupils, gathered from numerous islands, and brought there for a residence of nine years, to be educated for service as native clergy and teachers in the scattered parishes of the Mission. A recent report shows that there were 547 teachers then in active service on numerous islands. In 1895 another more central training school was established at Siota, on Florida Island, in the Solomon group., The entire educational plant of the Melanesian Mission, according to the latest available report, includes 247 schools, with over 15,000 scholars.

The New Hebrides Mission Synod represents the final ecclesiastical organization of the Mission begun in the New Hebrides by the London Missionary Society in 1839. In 1848, Presbyterian missionaries from Scotland and Nova Scotia, through an amicable adjustment, entered the field, and, building upon the foundation laid by the London Society, put new The educational taming of wild tribes in the New Hebrides life and energy into an enterprise which had hitherto struggled with almost crushing disaster. In 1864 another change occurred, when the work was assumed by the Australian Presbyterian churches, aided by the coöperation of churches of the same denomination in New Zealand, Tasmania, Scotland, and Canada. The first year of the early efforts of the London Mission witnessed the martyrdom of John Williams and his colleague Mr. Harris, on November 20, 1839. The former was the missionary whose name had been so long associated with the work of the Society in the South Seas. Since then the struggle to win these wild and fierce islanders, described as "the washed-up foam and débrisat the margin of sand and wave,"has been a long record of heroism and martyrdom, involving not only English, Scotch, and Canadian missionaries—among them Geddie and the Gordons—but also between fifty and sixty South Sea Island teachers, who either died or were martyred at their posts before the year 1856. The devotion of these men, brought from the training institutions of the London Society in Samoa, Fiji, and Rarotonga, should never be forgotten in the history of Polynesian missions.1The New Hebrides Mission has an admirable record of zealous and faithful work

1 King, "Christianity in Polynesia,"p, 129.




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in the line of education. It has its native training school, with 66 students, at Tangoa, an islet off the south coast of Santo, where Dr. J. Annand has been in charge since 1895. The entire educational work of the Mission embraces 204 schools, with 4873 pupils.

In the South Seas the London Missionary Society was the pioneer, and in both its evangelistic and educational work it has contributed an inspiring chapter to modern missionary history. In 1796 the "Duff" sailed from A bold venture and a noble outcome in the South Seas England with the first missionaries of that Society, and on March 5, 1797, it anchored off the Island of Tahiti. This was a bold venture, hardly twenty years after the historic voyages of Captain Cook. The London missionaries did good service in the Society Islands for nearly half a century, but in 1842 a French protectorate was declared over the islands, and the English missionaries were obliged to retire. The demoralizing influence of the French occupation has been much modified by the entrance of the French Evangelical Mission, in 1863, which later extended its operations to the entire groups of the Society, Austral, and Marquesas islands, these having all become French territory. The London Society continued its labors in the Hervey group, on Savage Island, and in the Samoan and Loyalty islands. In Samoa, the Society has extended itself to northern out-stations, in the Tokelau, Ellice, and Gilbert islands. At the close of nearly a hundred years of fruitful labor, the Society's Report for 1903 indicates a total of 269 schools and 14,837 pupils in the different islands under its care. The number who have received the advantages of education at the hands of this Society during the past century can hardly be less than several hundred thousand. The French Society reports in the groups under its care twenty-seven schools, with 1698 pupils. Among the higher institutions of the London Society are the Malua Training Institution at Upolu, Samoa, its theological institution at Rarotonga, where also is situated the Tereora Boarding School, and its training school at Lifu, in the Loyalty Islands. There are high schools for boys and girls at Upolu, and also at Aitutaki, in the Hervey Islands, and a new and promising educational field has been entered in the island out-stations of Samoa. The Malua Institution, just mentioned, has a record of sixty years of usefulness.

The Wesleyan Missionary Society of England followed the London Society, establishing itself in Fiji, Tonga, and Samoa. It has accomplished a service of great fruitfulness and power. Soon after the middle of the century its work in the South Seas was committed to




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the Australasian Wesleyan Missionary Society, and has since been administered by that organization. The record of missions in Fiji may be summed up in the fact that "ninety-five per cent. of the Fijians attend public A minimum percentage of illiteracy in mission fields in the South Pacificworship in the Wesleyan churches, and 44,000 are fully accredited church-members."To this day education in the group, although a British colony, is still almost entirely in the hands of missionaries. The percentage of illiteracy in the islands has, happily, become less than in many countries of Christendom. The Australasian Methodist Report for 1903 indicates in Fiji 1383 schools, with 24,261 pupils under supervision. In Samoa there are sixty-two schools and 1485 pupils. The Wesleyans have a flourishing training institution at Navuloa, in Fiji, with a record comparing well with that of the Malua Institution. There are also normal training institutions in each of the eleven circuits in the islands, besides another training school at Lufilufi, in Samoa.

The American Board, whose first field, entered in 1820, was the Hawaiian Islands, extended its operations in 1852 to the Micronesian groups in the Western Pacific. The Protestant churches of Hawaii early in the century undertook some mission work on their own account, through of the Hawaiian Board of Missions, which in 1863 was reorganized under the Missionary education of the Hawaiians name of the Hawaiian Evangelical Association. It entered both the home and foreign fields by coöperation with the American Board in Micronesia. In 1903, however, it with drew from its Micronesian work in favor of the American Board, by which it had been partly supported, and it has now become exclusively a home missionary agency, in affiliation with the Congregational Home Missionary Society of the United States. The story of Hawaiian missions is familiar; it illustrates in a striking way that there is a national as well as an individual fruitage to missions. A nation of educated men and women has come out of those mission schools within the last century. The higher educational institutions of the present day, scattered throughout the group, are the outcome of the schools the missionaries established, being now indigenous and almost entirely self-supporting. Chief among these is the Oahu College at Honolulu, originally a mission institution, although at present under government auspices. A prominent academy, upon a private foundation, is the Karnehameha School, founded by the late Mrs. Charles R. Bishop, who was one of the royal princesses of Hawaii.

The system of State education in Hawaii was evolved before the




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middle of the last century; now of course it is under American direction. In 1898 H. S. Townsend, then Inspector-General of Schools, reminded us that the first Hawaiian spelling book was published in 1822, and Its sequel in a well-organized system of public instruction stated that under of the prevailing system education was compulsory between the ages of six and fifteen, and that of the native children of school age ninety-eight per cent. were in attendance; while out of 26,495 people of pure Hawaiian blood, over six years of age, 83.97 per cent. were able to read and write, and of 5895 people of part Hawaiian blood, also over six years of age, 91.21 per cent. were able to read and write.1It will thus be seen that the literacy of Hawaii approaches very nearly to that of our own country. The government report on education records a total of 189 schools, with 15,490 pupils. This superstructure has been built, as is evident, upon the foundations patiently laid by missionary workers through the greater part of the last century. At present only a few higher training institutions, and some elementary schools for Japanese and Chinese immigrants, remain under missionary auspices. Prominent among them are the Mills Institute and the boys' boarding school at Hilo, together with seminaries for girls at Kawaiahao, Kohala, and Mau-naolu, on the Island of Maui. The North Pacific Missionary Institute at Honolulu is a divinity school. The latest report of the Hawaiian Evangelical Association indicates as under its care a total of eleven schools, with 643 pupils. The Church of England missionaries established educational work, which has now been handed over to the charge of Bishop Restarick, of the American Protestant Episcopal Church, Iolani College and St. Andrew's Priory School are the more prominent educational agencies in this connection. A Free Kindergarten Association has been formed in Honolulu, an outgrowth of mission work, and numerous kindergartens are conducted under its auspices, with several also for the Chinese and Japanese under the Hawaiian Evangelical Association.

The work of the American Board in Micronesia has for American mission schools in Micronesiaits field the Gilbert, Marshall, Caroline, and Ladrone islands. Its educational plant is summed up in 117 schools, with 4062 pupils. Four of these schools are for training Micronesia. native agents, and five of them are boarding or high schools of superior grade. On the Island of Kusaie, at the extreme eastern end of the Caroline group, training

1 The Forum, July, 1898. Cf. also The American Monthly Review of Reviews, April, 1899, pp. 457-459, and The North American Review, July, 1897, pp. 20-25.




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institutions have been established: one for the Marshall Islands teachers, and another for those of the Gilbert Islands. A boarding school for girls from both these groups is also situated at Kusaie. Two other centres of normal training are at Ponapé and Ruk, among the Carolines. There are besides boarding schools for girls at Ruk and Ponapé and another for boys at Ponapé A new school, moreover, has recently been opened on the Island of Guam. The teachers of the elementary schools throughout these islands are all natives, educated either in Hawaii, or at the training schools of the Mission just mentioned.

The statements given concerning the educational work of Educational summary for the Pacific Islandsmissions among the Pacific Islands, including New Guinea, New Zealand, and efforts among the aborigines and Kanakas in Australia, enable us to make an approximate summary of the present provision of missions throughout this broad island domain, as follows: schools of all grades connected with various missionary efforts, 2511; pupils taught in these schools, 73,909.

The above summary of the current educational operations of A remarkable record of progress from cannibalism to culturemissions in the South Seas is, after all, only a partial presentation of the real historic scope of the enterprise. We have, in fact, the labors of an entire century in contemplation covering at least three generations of native education, with its beneficent fruitage among the primitive tribes of this island realm. The moral uplift of the century's effort, and its civilizing power, are revealed in several remarkable effects. We may note as conspicuous among them the missionary spirit and activity of the South Sea pastors and teachers, who have toiled so earnestly in numerous islands, some of them far distant from their homes, and under circumstances of great personal sacrifice and peril. From the Malua Institution, founded in 1844, over twelve hundred men and seven hundred women have gone forth on this kind of service. At the training school for native pastors, founded in 1839, on Rarotonga Island, 536 men and women have been graduated and sent forth as evangelists and teachers, many of them to neighboring islands, and numbers of them also, since 1872, proceeding as far as New Guinea. There are three hundred towns in Fiji, and in every one a native pastor and schoolmaster, supported by residents of the town. Among the people of Samoa there are 180 native pastors and 341 lay preachers, and a very large majority of the inhabitants of the islands are at least nominal converts to evangelical Christianity, while ten thousand of them are regular Protestant church-members. In




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numerous communities an astonishing social transformation is manifest. It is here that one often meets with that striking social anomaly— "a quiet and cultured gentleman, agreeable in his manners, unexceptionable in his behavior, and upright in his character, whose grandfather, nevertheless, was a cannibal."Every village on the Island of Rarotonga "has its church, school-house, and manse, built and kept in repair by the people of the village."These things indicate a remarkable receptivity for what is best in Christian civilization and well-ordered government. There is noticeably also a profound appreciation of the benefits of culture, and an earnest desire that their children should have every opportunity for improvement. On the Island of Tutuila, which has fallen to the United States as its share of the Samoan Archipelago, a new boarding school for girls has recently been erected and dedicated, towards which the natives themselves have contributed over fifteen hundred pounds.1Remarkable liberality has been shown by the Fijians in large gifts to outside missions. The churches of Fiji not only support themselves, but forward generous contributions to the Australasian Methodist Society, with which they are connected, averaging four hundred pounds ($2000) a year. With the growth of education may be discerned an eagerness in all directions to secure a supply of useful literature, which has been met by the translation of the Bible, and the preparation of many other excellent books, with a goodly amount of current literature, much appreciated by the native communities. Results like these are among the most significant and gratifying signs of progress. They indicate social betterment of a high order, which, moreover, let it be noted, has supplanted with remarkable rapidity a condition of primitive savagery.

Educational progress in the Philippines under the new régime of A vigorous educational policy in the PhilippinesAmerican control has been hastened by prompt and vigorous missionary occupation, and by the efficient and liberal efforts of the United States Government to establish a system of public schools. Under the new conditions in the Philippines it is self-evident that education will be an immense factor in preparing the people for their responsibilities in the new career which opens before them. Nothing will contribute more towards fostering a national growth worthy of their unique and magnificent opportunity than a system of general education, combined as it should be with moral training in that righteousness which "exalteth a nation."The educational efforts of the missionary organizations are as yet in their initial stages, as much in the

1 The Chronicle of the London Missionary Society, January, 1901, p. 13.




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line of evangelism was necessary before the sphere of education could to any extent well be entered upon. All the prominent denominations are now engaged in missionary effort, special care having been taken to secure federated and coöperative relations in an ecclesiastical union of forces. The missionary plant, as yet, is represented only by 112 schools and 3519 scholars; but larger plans are in process of formation, and will soon be accomplished. The educational policy of the United States Government has developed rapidly and generously. Its schools at the present time (1905) number about 2000, with an aggregate enrolment of over 260,000 children. The teaching force includes nearly a thousand American educators, aided by about 3400 Filipinos, many of whom have been trained at the excellent Normal School at Manila. In addition, some four hundred night schools for adults are conducted, with from fifteen to twenty thousand in attendance.

Missions in South America are represented by thirty-six societies; but only about half of this number engage to any extent in educational work. The impulse given to the cause of education in general throughout South and Central American missions, and their educational plansSouth America by Protestant missions has been invaluable as offsetting the depressing policy of the Roman Catholic Church in hampering intellectual progress. The principal organizations having school plants of any noticeable size are the Northern Presbyterian, the Methodist Episcopal, the Moravian, and the South American Missionary Society. In connection with the latter Society, although conducted on a somewhat independent basis, are the excellent schools of the Rev. W.C. Morris, at Buenos Ayres, in the districts of Palermo and Maldonado. The Wesleyan Methodist Church of the West Indies has also considerable work in British Guiana. The American Presbyterian, Methodist, and Baptist churches of the South, the Canadian Presbyterian, the Regions Beyond Missionary Union, the American Church Missionary Society, and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, are engaged in educational missions to a more limited extent, but chiefly in elementary teaching. The Synod of Brazil has its own theological and training schools.

The leading mission institution of South America is Mackenzie College (formerly known as the Protestant College of Sao Paulo), with nearly seven hundred students in its varied departments. It had its origin in Presbyterian missionary effort, but has now its own Board of Trustees in the United States. It is conducted with energy and ever-expanding usefulness under its President, Dr. H. M. Lane. The Methodist Episcopal Mission has a college for girls at Santiago, and




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one for boys and another for girls at Concepcion, Chile, besides a large coeducational college at Iquique. The Southern Methodists conduct Granbery College, now known as "The Granbery,"at Juiz de Fora, Brazil. Six theological and training schools, and twenty-six higher institutions, nine of them for boarding pupils, complete the list of advanced schools under mission care.1The statistical outcome of the

1 The following is a list of these institutions of the higher grade : TEXTTheological and training schools at Juiz de Fora, Porto Alegre, and Sao Paulo, in Brazil; Paramaribo, in Dutch Guiana; Santiago, in Chile; and at Mercedes, in Argentina.

Statistics of higher institutions are as follows :




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entire educational campaign of all the societies in South America is now represented by 225 schools of all grades, with 18,623 pupils.

The educational department of missions in Central America is not extensive, including only forty-seven schools, all told, with 2156 pupils. Of this number the English Wesleyans conduct twenty-six, and nine are under the care of the Moravians. The Moravian schools on the Mosquito Coast—now the Province of Zelaya, under the Government of Nicaragua—have been so hampered by that Government that it has been found necessary to close them.1The Church of England has also some schools under local auspices in British Honduras.

In Mexico mission education is, to a preponderating extent, in the Excellent mission schools in Mexico hands of the Methodists (57 schools) and the Presbyterians (29 schools); the entire missionary plant of all societies in the line of education being summed up in 153 schools, with 8579 scholars. The Mexico. Methodist Institute and the Female Normal Institute are large training schools under Methodist auspices at Puebla. The Sarah L. Keen College occupies its beautiful new building in Mexico City. High schools of the same Mission, with a large attendance, are located at Guanajuato, Pachuca, Querétaro, and Mexico City. The Southern Methodists have excellent schools for girls at Saltillo and San Luis Potosi, also coeducational institutions at Mon-

1 The Missionary Review of the World, November, 1900, pp. 859-864.




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terey and Guadalajara, and a boys' boarding school at Chihuahua. The American Board has a fine training school at Guadalajara, and boarding and high schools for girls at Chihuahua, Parral, and Guadalajara. High-grade institutions are also conducted by the Cumberland and the Reformed Presbyterians, the Friends, the Methodist Episcopal Church, and the Boards of the Northern and Southern Presbyterian Churches. Mission effort has undoubtedly given an impetus to general education under State auspices in Mexico, where a public school system has been organized, with generous provision for its support.

In the West Indies a fruitful educational discipline has been in operation for over a century, conducted by various missionary organizations, with the result that the intellectual and social status of half-caste and Fruitful educational efforts in the West IndiesNegro races has been greatly improved. Almost all denominations have participated; but the Anglicans, Moravians, Wesleyans, Canadian Presbyterians, and the United Methodist Free Churches seem to have given attention more especially to education. The local church organizations of the Congregational, Baptist, and Presbyterian bodies are also devoting themselves to the extension of school facilities for their native and Negro constituencies. The work of the Wesleyan Conferences in the West Indies reverted in 1904 to the Wesleyan Missionary Society of England. The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel administers the trust by which Codrington College in Barbados has been supported. This institution has performed a useful function in training both white and colored students for missionary service. Calabar College, at Kingston, for training native ministers, has just entered new and spacious buildings, and is under the care of the Baptists of Jamaica, with some financial aid from England; while, in the same city, the Lady Mico Charity Fund now supports a training college for colored students. Almost every denomination has its own theological and training school. Missionary education in many of the West Indian Islands has also opened the way for general education under government auspices. The Rev. W. Y. Turner, M.D., of Castleton, Jamaica, a resident Scotch missionary, writes that the schools for the native races were "entirely initiated and supported by the churches, and then the matter was forced upon the attention of the Government by the ministers, and the agitation was kept up until the Government adopted a scheme of education. At present there are upward of nine hundred elementary public schools supported by Government in the Island, but they are almost all held in




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church buildings, and managed by the ministers."The Protestant Episcopal Church of America aids in an educational work in Haiti. The resultant achievement of missions in the field of education in the West Indies is 485 schools of all grades, with 54,998 scholars. The "British Empire Year Book for 1904"reports a government plant for the British possessions in the West Indies of 1412 schools, with 190,318 scholars.

In Cuba and Porto Rico mission effort, mostly under the auspices A new start in Cuba and Porto Ricoof American home missionary organizations, has entered upon a vigorous campaign. On the latter island (Porto Rico) the United States Government is giving much, attention to the establishment of a thorough educational system; already there are in operation 1200 schools, with over 60,000 children in attendance, out of a total population of 350,000 within the school age. The University of Porto Rico has been lately established, and will no doubt soon demonstrate its efficiency and usefulness. In Cuba, during the period of United States military government, a public school system was organized, with an enrolment of 175,000 pupils; since the withdrawal of the military régime the control of public affairs has been handed over to the Government of the island.

Among the aborigines of America—Indians and Eskimos in Canada and the United States, including Alaska—a long and faithful work in the interests of education has been conducted through missionary agencies. In the United States this service is now usually credited to home missions, although it was for some time under the care of the foreign missionary boards. Efforts among the aborigines of North America In Canada, on the other hand, the distinction between domestic and foreign missions is not emphasized in the case of the Indians, as the enterprise is regarded as for the benefit of a heathen race; it is both domestic and foreign, albeit geographically located within the spacious bounds of the Dominion. So far as the work of British societies is concerned, Indian education is still deemed to belong to foreign, or rather to colonial, missions. Efforts to instruct the Indians began in colonial times, and many of the most valuable educational movements in the early history of our country were prompted, in part at least, by a desire to benefit the aborigines. Wheelock's Indian Training School, at Lebanon, Connecticut, although removed subsequently to Hanover, New Hampshire, and built into the foundations of Dartmouth College, is an illustration of the fusion of plans for the missionary education of both the Indian




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and the colonist. The American churches in the United States, first through their foreign boards, and later through their home missionary organizations, have long given assiduous attention to the education of the Indian races.

In Canada the Church Missionary Society of England has a large work, and the Missionary Society of the Church of England in Canada is also actively engaged, while the ancient New England Company still conducts Indian schools at Brantford and the vicinity. Other denominational organizations of the Dominion are almost all busily occupied in this line of service, although quite the largest share seems to belong to the Canadian Methodists. Under these various auspices, schools, as well as industrial homes of superior excellence, are available throughout the length and breadth of the Dominion for the training of Indian pupils of both sexes. A remarkable feature is the proportionately large number of higher educational institutions in Canada and the United States, numbering in all about thirty-five training schools. In Alaska missionary efforts under the auspices of all the prominent denominations have pioneered the cause of education. The United States Government, in due time, interested itself, as is its custom, in promoting educational progress, by establishing a system of public schools, with Dr. Sheldon Jackson, a former Presbyterian missionary, as the General Agent of Education.1

A general summary of the educational forces of missions throughout the world is Educational summary of the mission fields of the worldnow in order. All available reports indicate that the nearest approximate estimate would give the number of schools of all grades as 24,557 and the total attendance of scholars as 1,170,707. Out of this total, 1339 institutions may be ranked as of the higher, or academic, grade, with 130,217 students in attendance, leaving the sum total of elementary, or village, schools and pupils as 23,218 and 1,040,490, respectively.

This must surely be reckoned a most impressive achievement in the contemporary history of human endeavor. Its significance cannot be challenged; its import is immense, and full of ideal possibilities. The value of education, after all, is in its moral impress, as well as its ethical emphasis—in other words, its capacity to develop true manhood and womanhood. It becomes an instrument of constructive evolution working in the realm of the higher life of man, and bestowing upon the soul an endowment of power for successful living and effective ser-

1 Cf. pamphlet on "Education in Alaska,"published by the Presbyterian Woman's Board of Home Missions, 156 Fifth Avenue, New York City.




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vice, second only in its value to the spiritual indwelling of God. Its sublimely beneficent function is to confer upon lives, otherwise depressed and halted, the quickening boon of an acquaintance with the accumulated wisdom gathered by the race, and make them sharers in the inspiration of lessons learned by humanity as a whole, perhaps through suffering and arduous toil during long ages of struggle and achievement. It offers to isolated and ignorant nations, still dwelling under the ban of primitive barbarism, the good hope of joining at last in the joyous "songs of humanised society," and in their turn receiving in full measure those helpful and refining influences which

"Shall fix, in calmer seats of moral strength,

Earthly desire; and raise, to loftier heights

Of love divine, our intellectual soul."

2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL TRAINING.—In the section treating of the Cultivation of Habits of Industry and Frugality (Volume II., pp. 152-167), we have spoken of the industrial stimulus and the economic benefits which may be properly credited to missions, in so far as they are revealed in the characters and lives of individual converts. Readers who are interested in this special aspect of missions are requested to refer to the pages indicated, since we shall omit in the present connection much that has already been presented in the section above specified. Here, in what immediately follows, we shall confine our attention to summary statements showing the remarkable growth and actual status of industrial education in the various mission fields.

This very practical problem of technical training has forced itself An urgent economic problemupon the attention of missionaries in many fields, and in some of them with great urgency. The situation of the convert, owing partly to false sentiments which he often entertains on the subject of labor, and partly to his own helplessness, besides ostracism by others, has become such that industrial training seems to be a necessary part of his education. He needs it that he may adjust himself to his material environment, and be fitted for usefulness, as well as saved from possible declension and disaster. This is especially true among savage races, where war and slavery have generated many foolish miscon-




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ceptions concerning labor, and much false pride in the hearts of those who regard it as beneath them to engage in it. It becomes, therefore, a question of living and pressing interest among warlike African tribes, or in the presence of caste ostracism in India, or in the case of the victims of famine and calamity, what shall be the outlook for those who become identified with Christian communities.

It is manifest that a part of the service which missions must render to their native following is to overcome as far as possible the false idea that there is something demeaning in labor, and also to furnish converts with such manual training in some useful trade or industry as will fit them for self-support, and enable them to utilize technical skill in developing the material Industrial training essential in some mission fieldsresources which lie about them. This situation was met, in its earlier stages, by adding to the ordinary educational curriculum certain hours of instruction in manual training, in order to provide the pupils with a working knowledge of some art or trade. The entire education of the Scotch Mission at Blantyre is now proceeding along these lines. It is based "on a combination of education with training in manual and industrial work in one form or another." In fact, in the British Central Africa Mission of the Church of Scotland, of which Blantyre is the chief station, artisan missionaries have their place on both the European and the native staffs. We read of carpenters, printers, gardeners, blacksmiths, agriculturists, and other artisans, as being regularly enrolled in the service.1So essential has this feature of manual training become that in many mission fields special and separate schools on an industrial basis have been established, not to the neglect, however, of the higher spiritual and intellectual interests of pupils. In time several industrial plants of considerable extent were formed, and thus this feature of education has come more and more into prominence, and claims a large share of attention. The movement has now been still further expanded by the establishment of societies specially organized to conduct industrial missions, whose declared purpose is to engage exclusively in this department of useful activity.

Another and further step has lately been taken towards the The notable industrial record of the Basel Missiondevelopment of industrial facilities in mission fields by the formation of independent and distinct business organizations, under the direction of laymen, to conduct special industries with a view to providing work on a business basis for native converts, thus supplementing ordi-

1 "Report of the Church of Scotland Missions, 1903," pp. 45, 46, 52, 53.




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nary mission effort by furnishing additional trade opportunities. The conviction steadily grows that among certain races the Gospel must go hand in hand with the inculcation of habits of industry, self-discipline, and fruitful toil.1These independent companies, formed to conduct business operations for the benefit of native employees, selected usually from the ranks of mission converts, have been spoken of as a recent development; but, in fact, under the auspices of the Basel Missionary Society, a pioneer organization of this kind has been actively at work for over half a century. It is entitled the "Missions-Handlungs-Gesellschaft," and has its headquarters at Basel. It has been thus constituted, in connection with the Indian and African missions of the Basel Society, for the double purpose of benefiting natives by providing industrial opportunity, and of turning into the mission treasury financial profits in support of the Society's general work. It has conducted printing-presses in India, and industries such as carpentry, tile-making, weaving, and various other technical arts and occupations. It has been organized on strictly business principles, and is under skilled lay management; Its former master-weaver, Haller, brought the textile products of the Company to a point of excellence which has happily secured for them a ready market. He it was who discovered the peculiar fast-brown dye to which he gave the Kanarese name of khaki. The police of Mangalore were the first to be clad in this now popular material, which has been adopted as part of the uniform of the British Army, and is found exceedingly serviceable in warm climates. The Company now employs nearly fifty European agents, and in Africa alone about four hundred natives are engaged in various trades, chiefly in the West Coast missions of the Society. It employs over 2400 natives in India, and of this number 2126 are Christian church-members. The profits of the Company for 1901 amounted to £9656 in

1 "In every part of the world to-day the civilised races are coming into closer contact with the uncivilised, and unless earnest effort is made to fit our converts to become useful, self-reliant, and intelligent members of the new communities, they can only remain the hewers of wood and drawers of water, and are thus in danger of becoming in some respects more degraded than they were before. The French Government in Madagascar, the German Government in its recently acquired territories, and our own Government in South Africa, recognize the importance of encouraging technical training for natives under their rule, in the interests of good government and of the prosperity of the State. Ought not the Church of Christ, which has a still higher, and an absolutely unselfish, interest in these people, as men made in the image of God, and intended to take their place in the great kingdom of renewed humanity, to take the lead in trying to fit them for a worthy place in the brotherhood of the new life?"—The Chronicle of the London Missionary Society, January, 1904, p. 9.




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Africa, and £5340 in India. If we add to this over £12,000, representing profit in the Company's home operations, a total of over £27,000 is recorded. After deducting all expenses, a surplus of £11,576 was handed over in the year cited to the Basel Society for its regular missionary treasury.1

Another important enterprise of a like kind is the Industrial Missions Aid The Industrial Missions Aid Society and its workSociety of London. It was formed in 1895, and incorporated in 1897, for the express purpose of developing the industrial element in missionary operations. It is confessedly a business project on its own financial basis, for the promotion of native and other industries, maintaining at the same time a sympathetic coöperation with foreign missionary efforts. The Society is prohibited from accumulating its own profits, which must be devoted, after payment of expenses and a certain percentage of interest on capital, to aiding missionary operations. It seeks to establish facilities for technical education, and to operate industrial plants offering employment for native converts in their own environment; so that it amounts practically to an investment scheme in mission fields for the promotion of industrial enterprises. It has its own board of directors, and is in all respects a business corporation, its unusual features being that its aim is to benefit missions by providing industrial facilities. A factory for the production of rugs and carpets has been established at Ahmednagar, India, employing at present about two hundred hands. It has recently extended its operations, at the solicitation of Bishop Peel, to Frere-Town, East Africa, and also to China and the West Indies, and has received further urgent invitations from numerous mission stations widely scattered throughout Asia and Africa. Mr. Henry W. Fry, one of the founders of the English Society, has lately established the Foreign Missions Industrial Association of America, with its headquarters in the United Charities Building, New York City, the scope and aim of the American Association being similar to that of the Industrial Missions Aid Society of London.

The flourishing industrial work of the Church Missionary The "Uganda Company, Limited" Society in Uganda has now been committed to the administration of the "Uganda Company, Limited," the object of which is to assume the business industries hitherto conducted by the Church Missionary Society in the Uganda Protectorate. Its capital is £15,000

1 The Missionary Record of the United Free Church of Scotland, December, 1902, pp. 533-536; Stewart, "Dawn in the Dark Continent,"pp, 243-245.




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in £1 shares, and for the present its industrial scope includes building, brickmaking, carpentry, printing, and bookbinding, with a commission to seek for and secure further openings for the beneficent employment of capital.1This, it will be noted, is a movement similar in purpose to those before mentioned. A word in passing should be said, however, in reference to the magnificent outcome of the original industrial work of the Church Missionary Society in Uganda, before its transfer to the control of the "Uganda Company, Limited."Under the direction of Mr. K. E. Borup, it came into prominence about 1900, and has grown by leaps and bounds since that date. The immense new cathedral near Mengo is a practical and realistic result of the industrial training of the Mission. It was built by natives with brick of their own manufacture, and in all its wonderful proportions is a most creditable native product. Mr. Borup constructed a machine which would turn out 3000 bricks a day, and as three quarters of a million were needed, the work was thereby much facilitated. The foundation stone of the edifice was laid June 19, 1901, by the youthful King of Uganda, and this imposing building will accommodate from 3000 to 3500 worshippers. A coronation service, held in connection with the enthronement of King Edward of England, crowded it to its utmost capacity, and as the prayers of the Church of England were read in the musical Luganda language grand responses arose to the lofty roof from the great congregation. Outside the building were thousands more unable to gain admittance. The foundations of a new hospital have also just been laid, to be built by natives industrially trained by the Mission. Besides brickmaking and building, printing, carpentry, and improved agriculture have been experimentally taught.

The industrial mission at Onitsha, in Southern Nigeria, Other lay movements in support of mission industriessupported hitherto by Bishop Tugwell's Diocesan Mission Fund, has also been taken over by a lay committee formed in Liverpool, and will be conducted as a business organization, coöperating with the established missions in that section of West Africa. The industrial work of the United Free Church of Scotland Mission in India, if present plans are carried out, will soon be committed to "The Scottish Mission Industries Company,"an incorporated organization formed for the purpose of assuming the management of these business interests. The first move will be to take over the printing-presses at Ajmere and Poona. New Guinea also is to have the "Papuan Industries, Limited,"a similar project to facilitate the growth and prosperity of the indus-

1 "Report of the Church Missionary Society, 1904," p. 102.




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trial efforts of the London Missionary Society.1The institution formerly known as the African Training Institute, Colwyn Bay, North Wales, has, moreover, been recently reorganized under the name of "The British and African Incorporated Association "for the purpose of extending its industrial efforts at home and abroad.

Among special missions which have been organized are the Zambesi Industrial Mission, the Nyassa Industrial Mission, and the Baptist Industrial Mission of Scotland, all of which have their field of operations in the The rise of industrial missionary societies British Central Africa Protectorate. These missions aim exclusively to promote industrial enterprise, though the spiritual interests of the natives receive careful attention in connection with such training as shall make them skilled agriculturists, artisans, and tradesmen. A further object in view is self-support, coupled with the extension of financial aid to missions. The Zambesi Industrial Mission has thousands of acres under its control, and is engaged largely in the cultivation of coffee and cotton, and the promotion of useful trades. It has ten principal stations, with three hundred villages within visiting distance. It conducts forty schools, and more than five hundred natives have been baptized in its connection, while thousands have been in its employ. A recent report announces that a quality of cotton has been produced which is declared to be of commercial value, the Zambesi Industrial Mission having already ginned and pressed ten bales, the first from British Central Africa to be placed on the home market.2A still later report states that in the year ending June, 1904, twenty tons of cotton were prepared for the market on the Mitsidi estate of the Mission. Industrial features have been made a specialty also by the East Coast Mission of the English Friends on the Island of Pemba, and by the recently established Friends' Africa Industrial Mission (American) in British East Africa, among the Kavirondo people. The latter Mission has chosen its field of operation about twenty-five miles, in a northeasterly direction, from Florence Bay on the Victoria Nyanza, the western terminus of the Uganda Railway. In Northern Nigeria an interdenominational Canadian industrial mission among the Hausa race has been established, supported largely in Toronto; it is known as the Africa Industrial Mission. In Southern Nigeria the Delta Pastorate, representing a native church organization, the

1 The Chronicle of the London Missionary Society, March, 1904, p. 70, and April, 1904, p. 100.

2 "Report of the Zambesi Industrial Mission, 1903,"in The Zambesi Industrial Mission Monthly, November, 1903, p. 2.




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outgrowth of the Church Missionary Society missions in that section, has industrial work which the British Government has been pleased to favor with a substantial grant-in-aid. In South Africa a Christian Industrial School, after the pattern of Hampton Institute, has been established for Zulus, by the Rev. John L. Dubé and his wife. It is located at Ohlange, Phoenix P. O., Natal, and represents a flourishing and successful industrial enterprise, having already 219 pupils. Mr. Dubé is a graduate of Tuskegee, entitled to the rank of a chieftain among the Zulus, and his inspiration in the line of his present work came from his acquaintance with Tuskegee and Hampton, during a few years' residence in America.1

The American Methodist Society has recently established an important industrial mission at Old Umtali, in Mashonaland, Rhodesia, under the supervision of Bishop Hartzell. The Mission has been singularly Enlarged industrial efforts on the part of established societiesfavored by a donation on the part of the British South Africa Company of 1300 acres, with twelve substantial buildings for its permanent occupancy. These buildings were formerly used by the Company, but since its removal to New Umtali, a few miles distant, they were no longer required. At the Hon. Cecil Rhodes's suggestion, the abandoned property was deeded to the Methodist Episcopal Church for mission purposes. The original cost was $100,000, and the present market value is estimated at $60,000. Old Umtali is situated in a magnificent valley, with beautiful and healthful surroundings, about two hundred miles from the port of Beira, and 3500 feet above the sea-level. The region is populous with natives, and the industrial opportunities afforded at the Mission are eagerly sought by the native constituency. Around on the West Coast another industrial enterprise has been established, also under Methodist auspices, in connection with the work of their West Coast Conference in Angola. It is sometimes difficult to distinguish an industrial mission, separately organized, from the efforts put forth by regular missionary societies in this special sphere. The work has grown so rapidly that the industrial departments of the great missionary societies have in many instances assumed the proportions of separate enterprises. In some instances, as in the one connected with the Church Missionary Society in Uganda, and others already mentioned, these special departments are being taken over bodily by corporations specially organized for their management.

1 The Outlook, February 22, 1902, p. 455; The Missionary Review of the World, March, 1903, p. 212, and September, 1903, p. 719.




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In connection with many missions extensive industrial plants have been established, notably in the case of Muhlenberg, on the West Coast of Africa, under the auspices of the General Synod of the Extensive industrial plants now a feature in many mission fieldsEvangelical Lutheran Church of the United States, where a farm of five hundred acres is being cultivated, and where facilities for the teaching of various trades are now in operation. Similar industrial establishments are those of the Primitive Methodist Church of England on the Island of Fernando Po, and at Aliwal North, Cape Colony. The Qua Iboe Mission in Nigeria, and the United Brethren in Christ in Sierra Leone, are also active in the same department of mission operations. The American Board at Mount Silinda, Rhodesia, and at Lindley (Inanda), Natal, the Basel Mission on the Gold Coast, the Universities' Mission at Zanzibar and in German East Africa, the Established Church of Scotland at Kikuyu, in British East Africa, under Dr. Ruffelle Scott, the Rhenish Mission among the Hereros, in German Southwest Africa, are all interested in industrial training. The Moravians, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, the South African Missionary Society, and the Wesleyan Methodist Church of South Africa, at numerous stations in Cape Colony, the London Missionary Society in Matabeleland, Bechuanaland, and German East Africa, the French Evangelical Mission in Basutoland, the American Baptist and Presbyterian, and the English Baptist, missions on the Congo, the Colwyn Bay Institute at its various stations on the West Coast, are also all committed to and deeply interested in industrial education as a feature of their missionary policy.

The character of the work undertaken naturally Lessons in scientific agriculture, and schooling in model workshopsvaries at these different centres. In some it is agricultural, in others technical, and in others still it embraces useful trades. At Ibange, in the Congo Free State, the Rev. W. H. Shepard a colored graduate of Hampton Institute, has charge of a farm, where the practical benefits of his previous training are apparent. It may be noted also in this connection that three of the graduates of Tuskegee were engaged in 1900 by the German Colonial Economic Society to proceed to the German Colony of Togo, in West Africa, to teach cotton culture to the natives. Mr. J. N. Galloway, one of the teachers of agriculture at Tuskegee, accompanied them as a member of the party. Other young men from Tuskegee followed, and this special industry is becoming established in that section of the West Coast. Prominent among those educational institutions of the African Continent in which




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industrial training is made a specialty, we may name the Lovedale Institute, with its model workshops and farm, and the Blythswood Institution, in Kaffraria, both of the United Free Church of Scotland; the Kaffir College of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel at Zonnebloem; the Hope Waddell Institute of the United Free Church of Scotland at Duke Town; the Livingstonia Institute of the Livingstonia Mission at Kondowi, British Central Africa; and the industrial school of the Protestant Episcopal Mission at Cape Mount, Liberia. In addition to these, a number of orphanages and widows' homes might be mentioned, as in almost every instance some kind of industrial work forms part of the curriculum of these charitable institutions.

The beneficial results of industrial training in Africa can hardly be challenged.1We discover in America the advantages of such a drill in connection with schools like The undoubted benefits of industrial training in Africa Carlisle, Tuskegee, and Hampton, and it is the testimony veteran observers on the mission staff in Africa that the practical benefits of industrial missions among African races are manifest and beyond question. The Rev. George Grenfell, of the English Baptist Missionary Society on the Congo, writes that " the skilled labor market of the West Coast is mainly supplied by men trained by the Basel missionaries at Accra; and although those trained are British subjects, there are as many of them who find employment in the German, French, Spanish, and Portuguese colonies as under their own flag. The mission-trained mason, carpenter, cooper, blacksmith, or engineer, is found in the employ of nearly every business house along two thousand miles of coast, and, while pursuing his handicraft, he demonstrates to the untutored natives, with whom at hundreds of different points he is brought into contact, what they themselves might do in the way of utilizing their long-neglected resources. He also accustoms them to the use of hitherto unknown tools and mechanical forces, and, at many points, to the use and control of the more mysterious power of steam." It is, in fact, questionable whether in a continent like Africa education of a purely intellectual character is of benefit to uncivilized natives, or is in its final result a blessing. They need, above all things, the ideals of Christianity, as well as the incentives to useful occupation. Habits of industry are to them even more important than intellectual attainments, and an education which does not carry with it some kind of industrial acquisition, and open the path to useful employment, is, at the present stage of their development,

1 Cf. article on "Industrial Training in a Mission to Uncivilized People," by the Rev. George A. Wilder, in The Missionary Herald, March, 1902, pp. 100-105.




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and in their primitive environment, more apt to be a snare than a benefit.

The industrial aspects of the Mission of the London Society, and of the Friends' Foreign Mission Association, in Madagascar, are worthy of a more extended reference than we are here able to furnish. Mission industrial schools honored in MadagascarThe French authorities have placed some of the schools of the London Society in the first catégorie, on account of the excellence of their technical instruction, thus insuring to them considerable grants from the official treasury. The same honor has been assigned to the industrial efforts of the Friends' Mission, concerning which it is stated in their last report that the visit of the Government Inspector brought forth favorable comment, in that he declared himself "completely satisfied with the arrangements for instruction in carpentry and agriculture "1The missions of the United Norwegian Lutheran Church of America, and of the French Evangelical Society, also conduct industrial schools.

Turning now to India, we are impressed at once with the value of the industrial element in its missions, as affording relief in some measure to the ostracism which the caste system imposes upon Christian converts, The exceptional value of industrial training in Indiathe helplessness of the people on account of almost universal poverty, and the recurring calamities of famine and pestilence. The British Government has recognized the imperative need created by these conditions, and appointed, in 1901, an Industrial Education Commission, whose report has stimulated the organization of an industrial policy as a feature of State education. Lord Curzon, who has given special attention to the educational requirements of India, was much interested in the promotion of manual training as an accredited department of government education. It is conceded on the part of many who have given thoughtful study to the subject that the higher literary and academic departments of education have been subsidized to a disproportionate extent by the government policy, and that a change in favor of the industrial element is demanded.2Lead-

1 "Thirty-sixth Annual Report, 1903, of the Friends' Foreign Mission Association,"p. 35.

2 The Hon. Sir Alexander Mackenzie, K.C.S.I., late Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, in an address delivered in connection with the distribution of prizes at Duff College, Calcutta, in November, 1896, remarked: " Literary education, I believe, has been carried far enough. Government cannot hope to provide for all the youths that are being poured out after completing their education from colleges like this. The hope of India in the future must be in the development of industries."— "Free Church of Scotland Missionary Reports (Foreign), May, 1897"p. 19.




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ers in the missionary ranks have come to the same conclusion, and seem to realize that the missionary enterprise, in justice to itself, if for no other reason, is bound to furnish aid in some way to a persecuted and distressed following whose condition calls for training in self-help rather than for the doles of charity.1The requirement has been very generally recognized by missionary agencies, and the industrial schools, plants, and settlements, now numbering about 170, widely dispersed over India, give happy and inspiring evidence of able administrative wisdom, and judicious economic adjustment to an urgent condition of need,2The Deputation appointed by the American Board to visit its missions in India, in its official report, presented in 1902, among other recommendations has this to say in support of the movement: "We recommend that the missions in India so modify their courses of instruction that all male pupils aided through the Mission shall have some practical instruction in productive manual labor adapted to the conditions and needs of the country. This should apply, with necessary modifications, to female pupils."

We may note that an industrial conference of missionaries assembled at Bombay in January, 1901, for the special consideration of this

1 " The relation of Industrial Missions to other branches of missionary activity may be considered from three points of view:—First, as affording the only proper solution to the difficult problem of providing for the many thousands of children now dependent on Christian philanthropy. Second, in view of the relatively small number of Indian Christians, industries conducted on approved methods would enable Christians, after thorough and careful training, to enter into a healthy competition with others engaged in local crafts. As is usually the case in India, crafts are hereditary, and, consequently, for outsiders to take up such, places them at a serious disadvantage. Third, Industrial Missions should be regarded as being a necessary branch of higher education, and an integral part of missionary policy."—Extract from article on " The Growth of Missions in Western India, " by the Rev. T. Davis, in The Church Missionary Intelligencer, January, 1902, pp. 19, 20.

2 Cf. article on " Industrial Missions in India," by the Rev. Edward Pegg, in The Church Missionary Intelligencer, October, 1903, pp. 722-729.

Dr. Charles Cuthbert Hall, during his recent visit to India as Haskell Lecturer, was a careful observer of the workings of industrial mission effort; he expresses his convictions concerning it as follows: " I have had excellent opportunities for observing the industrial element that is, at present, entering largely into many missions. All that I have seen commands my full confidence. So far from looking upon Industrial Missions with distrust, so far from sharing the fear that they mark a departure of the Church from her mission to evangelize, I believe that the introduction of the industrial element into missions is as truly a work of the Holy Spirit as preaching, or healing the sick. Any one who is acquainted with the economic problem of India at the present time must, I think, rejoice that Christian missionaries have identified themselves with the industrial development of young Indians."




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aspect of missionary effort. It was followed not long after by another conference, which convened at Mahableshwar, called by Dr. J. E. Abbott, Chairman of the Industrial Permanent Committee appointed by the Increased attention to an industrial programme Bombay Conference. During the same year, the Marathi Mission of the American Board, aided by generous gifts from American friends, and by the coöperation of prominent British officials in India, secured the services of two expert instructors, one mechanical and the other agricultural, and placed in their hands the industrial work of the Ahmednagar Station. Mr. D. C. Churchill, a graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Mr. J. B. Knight, an alumnus of the Massachusetts Agricultural College, were secured to assume these duties. The British Government has since shown much favor towards this movement, and has rendered substantial aid in promoting its interests under the supervision of Mr. Knight. The Decennial Missionary Conference of Madras (1902) passed a series of weighty resolutions on the subject of technical training.1

While it is conceded that the industrial feature in missions has its limitations, and should be conducted with spiritual insight and practical wisdom, it cannot be doubted that it has proved truly helpful to native converts, and has already to its credit a measure of experimental success which guarantees its permanent usefulness. No one could guard against its peculiar dangers more carefully than the missionaries themselves, and no one could be more anxious than they to make it subservient to the training of character as its supreme aim. The English missionary societies in India are naturally the leaders in this practical department, and the services they render are of undoubted

1 The first and second resolutions at Madras deal with fundamental principles in the following emphatic and significant language: Resolution I. " This Conference, recognising that the social progress and material well-being of the Christian community is a matter of deep importance to all missions, is of opinion that the provision of efficient industrial training, and the promotion of measures for the industrial development of the Indian Christian community, constitute an essential element in mission enterprise, and would strongly urge upon the several Missionary Boards the necessity of giving such work a recognised place among their agencies in India, and of affording it adequate support. " Resolution II. " This Conference, recognising the important part which manual labor plays in the development of the noblest Christian virtues within the Church, desires to emphasise the essentially spiritual character of the work of those missionaries who are engaged in the industrial side of mission enterprise. Whether their efforts be directed to the training of the young or to the amelioration of the material condition of the Christian community, their ultimate aim and the powers upon which they rely to attain it are spiritual."—Report, pp. 139, 140.




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value in the alleviation of some at least of the economic miseries of India and hence are greatly appreciated by the British Government. If we could make a hasty round of the busy industrial centres of the various missions,1 and see the happy throngs at work, under kindly Christian guidance, in an atmosphere of cheerful encouragement and scrupulous fairness, we are sure that the impression made would be one of predominant hopefulness and gratitude. The industrial system of India under caste restrictions is tyrannically depressing, as well as unfair to the lower orders of Hindu society; and it is significant that there is no little outcry in high-caste circles that industrial education and agricultural settlements under the auspices of the missionaries are unsettling the social status of the Panchamas (Pariahs), and affording them an unheard-of opportunity to better their condition, and to engage independently as free men in the struggle for a livelihood.

Exhibits of Indian Christian art and industry, and domestic arts Growing appreciation of the economic benefits of technical trainingprize competitions, in connection with missionary institutions, it is gratifying to state, are springing up in different parts of India. The second exhibition at Lucknow held in 1902, surpassed that of 1895 by the presentation of 1803 exhibits, as compared with 461 on the list of the earlier one. Since then, still another similar display has been arranged at Lahore, and one was successfully opened at Madras, in December, 1902, under the auspices of the Madras Native Christian Association.2 Wealthy natives of India have been quick to discover the peculiar benefits of these industrial movements, and some of them have founded technical schools, with philanthropic, if not in all cases Christian, motives. The Sir D. M. Petit School of Arts at Ahmednagar, conducted under the auspices of the American Board, and named after the generous Parsi gentleman who was largely instrumental in founding and endowing it, is a cheering illustration of this recognition and aid by wealthy natives. The industrial factory for native Christian famine boys, opened at Ahmednagar, under the supervision of Mr. S. Modak, aided in part by the financial coöperation of the American missionaries, should also be mentioned. The Diamond Jubilee Industrial Institute at Lahore is another hopeful experiment, and to this may be added the proposed Indian Institute of Science, to be established at Bangalore, which was planned and endowed by the late Mr. J. N. Tata, of Bombay. The Christian

1 Cf. The Missionary Review of the World, May, 1903, pp. 367-371.

2 Ibid., October, 1903, pp. 764-767.




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village settlements in the Chenab Colony in the Punjab are agricultural and industrial.1

The work of the English societies includes institutions like those of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel at Cawnpore, Chaibassa, Allahabad, Ahmednagar, Kolhapur, Ramnad, and Madras, and its Art Industrial English societies and their industrial activitiesSchools at Nazareth. We find at these centres groups of busy workers engaged in printing, bookbinding, leather-work, wood-carving, weaving, tailoring, shoemaking, blacksmithing, carpentry, cabinet-making, lace-making, embroidery, typewriting, and stenography. The Church Missionary Society has Christian industrial settlements at Clarkabad, Montgomerywalla, and Isanagri, industrial schools at Chupra, Lahore, Sharanpur, Aurangabad, and Cottayam, besides industrial classes for the deaf and dumb and the blind at Palamcotta. In connection with its school at Chupra has been arranged a system of apprenticeship, by which the Christian boys are received at the railway workshops of the Eastern Bengal State Railway at Kanchrapara, adjacent to Chupra. The plan has worked successfully, and the Society has put up a hostel at the works for the special oversight and Christian training of these boys. Closely connected with the work of the Church Missionary Society is that of the Church of England Zenana Missionary Society, which is engaged in industrial education for women (chiefly widows) at Amritsar, Calcutta, Bangalore, Peshawar, Masulipatam, and Palamcotta. It has also a Converts' Industrial Home at Baranagore, and an Industrial Home for the Blind at Rajpur, besides making an interesting effort on behalf of Mohammedan women at Madras.2The Oxford Mission to Calcutta has its industrial school in that city, and the Cambridge Mission to Delhi gives special attention to this department in its boarding school for poor Christian girls in Delhi, and in the boys' industrial school at Gurgaon. The Zenana Bible and Medical Mission has the Paton Memorial Industrial Home for widows and orphans at Munmar.

The London Missionary Society conducts its well-known lace industries at Nagercoil, established as far back as 1821, and, in addition, has industrial plants at Mirzapur, Neyoor, Pareychaley, Attingal, Salem, and Kaurapukur, near Calcutta. The Wesleyans have made an industrial experiment at Karur, exceptional in its extent and efficiency,3

1 Cf. article on " Christian Village Settlements in the Punjab," in The East and the West, January, 1905, pp. 30-35.

2 India's Women, October, 1903, p. 236.

3 Work and Workers, April, 1902, p. 163, and October, 1902, p. 428.




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besides conducting their workshops at Indur, in Hyderabad, and at Secunderabad, Siddipett, and Medak. The English Friends have established the Rasulia Industrial Works, near Hoshangabad; the Zenana Mission of the English Baptists have an industrial settlement at Palwal; the Irish Presbyterians have an industrial school at Wallacepur, in Kathiawar; the United Free Church of Scotland reports similar schools at Toondee, Chingleput, Udaipur, Chakai, Jalna-Bethel, Pachamba, and Ajmere, an Industrial Home for Women at Beawar, a peasant farm colony at Melrosapuram, and Christian farm settlements at Ashapura and Chajawa.

European Continental societies are also actively engaged, Continental societies and their large and varied workespecially the Basel Mission, with large industrial works in Calicut and vicinity, a trade establishment at Codacal, its workshops, long in operation, at Mangalore and Cannanore, and its tile-works at Palghat, with, all told, about 2400 native workmen under its direction; these collectively contribute an important share to this special and utilitarian department of service. The Leipzig Society, with its schools at Erukadtantjeri and Porayar, and the Danish Mission at Tirukoilur and Tiruvannamalai, should also be mentioned, together with the school of the Hermannsburg Mission at Naidupet.

American societies have not been less prominent and energetic in American societies extensively engaged in industrial trainingadding their quota to the volume of industrial training, which has become such a feature of Indian missions. The American Board conducts the Sir D. M. Petit School of Industrial Arts, with over 413 pubils, engaged for the most part in metal-embossing and wood-carving. It has also an agricultural school, and lace industries for women, all at Ahmednagar.1Under its care is another Petit Industrial School at Sirur,2and similar institutions at Manamadura, Roha, Vadala (Wadale), and at Bombay, long supervised by Mrs. Edward S. Hume; besides an industrial school for the blind in the same city, in charge of Miss Anna Millard. The Methodists have a large institution, resembling the Industrial Alliance in New York, at Calcutta, not forgetting their industrial work at Kolar, Baroda, and

1 Cf. The Missionary Herald, September, 1901, p. 362.

2 " We were looking over the list of the boys who had been through the course of our carpenters' department, and we found that there is not one who has been graduated who has not had constant and permanent employment. And, what is better, nearly all these young men and boys have become Christians while with us. They often write us, thanking us for all our efforts on their behalf."— Statement from Mrs. R. Winsor (A. B. C. F. M.), Sirur, India.




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Bowringpet, the peasant farms at Pauri and Vikarabad, and the workshops at Cawnpore. The self-supporting farm settlement of the Rev. and Mrs. C. B. Ward, at Yellandu and Jagdalpur, is now on an independent basis, although in affiliation with Methodist missions. The Presbyterians, moreover, are engaged in conducting industries at Lodiana, Saharanpur, and Sangli; the Reformed Church in America has the large and flourishing Hekhuis Memorial School at Ami; the Lutheran General Synod has an industrial school for women and trade classes for boys at Guntur; the American Baptist Missionary Union gives manual instruction at Kanigiri, where all kinds of household furniture are made, and at Darsi and Bapatla; the Christian and Missionary Alliance conducts an industrial school and workshops at Akola ; and the Mennonites have one at Dhamtari. The Canadian Presbyterians have two large establishments at Indore, one an industrial home for widows, and the other a similar institute for famine boys; while they also conduct industrial schools at Dhar, Amkhut, Mhow, Rutlam, and Ujjain, Central India. The Canadian Baptists, furthermore, have a manual instruction department at Samulcotta Seminary, and a school of industries at Cocanada, and the Indian Home Mission to the Santals has an industrial school at Benagaria, where the trades of printing and bookbinding are carefully taught. There are, besides, a few independent industrial missions, such as the Faith Orphanage at Ongole, in charge of the Rev. H. Huizinga, which has made aluminum ware a specialty, and the Industrial and Evangelistic Mission of the Rev. J. C. Lawson at Pilibhit. We may add here also the undertaking of a recently organized American Committee to support a newly christened institution to be known as the Bombay Christian School of Arts and Crafts, to be placed in charge of Mrs. Edward S. Hume, nor should we overlook the farm settlement of the Bethel Santal Mission at Bethel. In addition there are numerous educational institutions where industrial work is a regular part of the curriculum, but not sufficiently prominent to place the schools in the industrial, as distinguished from the educational, list.

The department of printing is one that requires more than a passing notice Numerous printing-presses a special feature in Indiaamong the general industrial features of Indian missions. It has developed, in connection with several of the missions, into extensive business plants, not in surpassed in their facilities by any in India. Such an establishment, for example, as the Methodist Episcopal Publishing House at Madras, with its capacity for publication in numerous languages, and its phenomenal annual output,




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is a prominent illustration. Dr. A. W. Rudisill, the efficient director, has so thoroughly trained native Christian boys (many of them from the Tamil Boys' Orphanage at Madras) that in some instances they deserve to be ranked " among the most skilled compositors. " The Methodists have other presses at Lucknow, Calcutta, and Bombay. At Allahabad is the press founded in 1839 by the American Presbyterians, but leased since 1872 to native Christians, who now successfully conduct its business. A recent report indicated that 94,000,000 pages were printed by this press during a single year. The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge has a large establishment at Madras, founded in 1828. Since 1841, the Basel Mission press has been busy at Mangalore, and, since 1823, the London Mission has assiduously been driving its presses at Nagercoil. Similar work is done by the United Free Church of Scotland at Ajmere, Poona, and Toondee; by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel at Cawnpore and Ramnad; by the Gossner Mission at Chhota Nagpur, Mozufferpore, and Ranchi; and by the American Board at Pasumalai and Satara. Other presses are in operation by the English Baptists at Calcutta and Cuttack; the American Baptists at Ramapatam, Rangoon, Burma, and Gauhati, Assam; the American Lutherans at Guntur; the Wesleyans at Mysore; the Canadian Presbyterians at Rutlam; the Irish Presbyterians at Surat; the Reformed Church at Arni; the German Evangelicals of the United States at Bisrampur; the Leipzig Mission at Tranquebar; the Scandinavian Alliance at Ghoom; while the Church Missionary Society has its large press at Cottayam, founded in 1821, and similar establishments at Gorakhpur, Palamcotta, and Secundra. There are others, numbering, all told, over forty mission presses, or publishing-houses, in India.

Mission orphanages scattered throughout India are usually Useful industries in many orphanagesplaces of industrial training. It would be impossible to mention in detail the 130 institutions of this kind connected with the various missions. We can only record, as among those where industrial training is made a specialty, such fine institutions as that of the English Baptists at Agra, the American Baptists at Palmur and Bapatla, and the United Free Church Presbyterians at Poona, Bhandara, Nasirabad, Kota, and Ashapura. The American Methodists have similar institutions at Aligarh, Bareilly, Ajmere, Tilaunia, Phalera, Narsinghpur, Nadiad, Baroda, Shahjahanpur, and Kolar, besides the Tamil orphanages for boys and girls at Madras. The Church of the Disciples has an orphanage at Damoh, and the Wesleyans have like institutions at




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Benares, Raniganj, Hassan, and Jabalpur. The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel has orphanages at Cawnpore, Nazareth, and Roorkee, where special attention is given to industrial training. The English Friends have likewise large institutions for boys and girls at Hoshangabad, and a boys' refuge and orphanage at Seoni Malwa. The American Reformed Episcopalians are engaged in this form of service at Lalitpur, as is also the American Board at Sholapur and Bombay. The American Presbyterians make industrial work a specialty in their boys' orphanage at Saharanpur, as does the Church Missionary Society in its overflowing institutions at Secundra, Gorakhpur, and Sharanpur; the Canadian Presbyterians have industrial orphanages at Mhow and Neemuch, and the Irish Presbyterians at Ahmedabad, Anand, Rajkot, Borsad, Broach, Parantij, Dohad, and Surat. The Kurku and Central Indian Hill Mission has an industrial orphanage at Ellichpur, and the Balaghat Mission has its farm and orphanage at Nikkum, and its orphanage at Baihir, among the Gonds. These are but a few of many notable instances of a mutually helpful combination of philanthropy and industry.

The establishment of industrial hostels in centres where Christian boys Valuable work in the hostels are engaged as apprentices, or are attending technical schools or colleges, is a movement deserving to be ranked with orphanages in its kindly and practical usefulness. These residence clubs are Christian homes for homeless boys, where, in a cheerful and sheltering environment, they may find good fellowship, innocent recreation, and effective moral restraints. The hostel erected by the Church Missionary Society for its boys apprenticed in the locomotive works of the East Bengal Railway Company at Kanchrapara, and a similar building just completed by the same Society on the grounds of the Divinity School at Lahore, are illustrations of alert interest in the moral and spiritual opportunities of industrial training. The religious influence which may be wisely associated with industrial training is cultivated assiduously by missionary agencies, and while careful attention is paid to technical proficiency, the development of character is at the same time everywhere a supreme aim. It is not mere skilful craftsmen that India needs in her industrial ranks, but Christian men.

An interesting effort, kindred in its scope to the provision for orphans, has recently been inaugurated by the Church of Scotland Guild Mission at Kalimpong. Up among the peaks of the Himalayas, the St. Andrew's Colonial Homes have been opened for the training of Eurasian children for future residence in the English.




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colonies outside of India. The plant, while under the auspices of the Church of Special efforts for Eurasian children and Indian widowsScotland Mission, is supported apart from the mission treasury, being independently conducted. Through the efficient initiative of the Rev. J. A. Graham several buildings are already erected, and one hundred children of mixed parentage have been gathered therein, to be trained industrially and morally, with a view to preparing them for entering successfully upon the struggle of life in the British colonies of Canada, Australia, South Africa, or elsewhere. The scheme has met with the cordial approval of the Indian government officials, and there is reasonable hope that the outcome will be beneficial and practically helpful. An estate of two hundred acres at Nimbong, not far from Darjeeling, has been presented by the Government of Bengal to the Church of Scotland Mission for this purpose, and Sir John Woodburn, the late Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, A. Pedler, Esq., Director of Public Instruction, and a number of Calcutta merchants, each presented a building in 1902. It is a colonial reproduction of Dr. Barnardo's work in London. The Pundita Ramabai, in her Mukti Mission, conducts a farm and gives practical training in numerous industrial occupations. Many of the widows and girls under her care learn the processes of making oil; others are taught laundering, cooking, weaving, sewing, dairy-work, and other industries; while some are trained to be nurses.

Missions in Ceylon have also given attention to industrial work. The Mission industries in CeylonWesleyans at Batticaloa, Kalmunai, Galle, Badulla, and Kandy, and at their Wellawatte Industrial Home, with its large cotton-mill, occupy an advanced position in this department. The Church Missionary Society at Dodanduwa and Kandy has also prosperous institutions. A new building for the extension of its industrial work has just been erected at Dodanduwa. In the manual training school of the American Board at Tellippallai (Tillipally) the work is entirely self-supporting, and instruction is given in the three useful trades of carpentry, printing, and bookbinding. A large industrial school has been established at Colombo under the direction of a local committee representing different Christian denominations. Various trades are taught to both boys and girls.

The American Baptist Mission in Burma has an admirable record in this special line of work. As long ago as 1878, fifty years after the baptism of Kothahbyu, the first convert among the Karens, his Christian fellow-countrymen built with their own contributions a Memorial




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Hall at Bassein, named in his honor, for the use of a normal and industrial institute. Varied industrial projects in Burma and LaosThis industrial work is still continued, and one of its latest developments is the erection of a saw-mill operated by native Christians, which has proved a profitable investment.1The educational work of the Baptist Mission in other localities, as at Toungoo and Thayetmyo, embraces certain industrial features as a part of the school curriculum. The Woman's Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church has an industrial orphanage and school for girls at Thandaung, and at this isolated hill station the Rev. Julius Smith, of the Methodist Society, also conducts an industrial orphanage and school for boys. In connection with the latter orphanage is a plot of ground, fifty acres in extent, which was presented by the Government. Twelve of these acres are already cleared, and under cultivation for raising coffee and fruit. Among the Laos at Chieng Rai Dr. and Mrs. Briggs have just matured and put in operation some plans for industrial training. The attempt to conduct a missionary farm at Lakawn has not proved successful, but the establishment of trade schools is thought by Dr. Arthur J. Brown, who has recently visited the Laos Mission, to be a most useful method of training for the missionaries to adopt.

The situation which confronts industrial missionary effort in China presents China eager for mental culture, but averse to manual trainingunusual difficulties. In hardly any other land do we find such a rigid separation between education and manual labor. The result is that the literati, and all who boast of any scholarship, look upon labor as incompatible with their standing as men-of-letters. The rôle of the cultured and long-nailed gentry is to give themselves exclusively to literary or political spheres of service; while, on the other hand, those who toil consider themselves as belonging to a class far removed from the status of the learned fraternity. The result of this situation is undue exaltation, vanity, and superciliousness, on the part of the educated, and excessive servility, humiliation, and permanent

1 " The industrial work at Bassein, Burma, illustrates the highest development attained in any of our [Baptist] fields. Mr. Nichols reported recently: ' As regards the industrial experiment of the saw-mill and workshops, the year has been quite prosperous, especially on account of the building of the Bassein-Henzada railway. The property is now worth over $16,000, and has up to the present time aided the school to the extent of over $6000, about two thirds of its original cost. This work has revealed to the people capacities of which they would not otherwise have been conscious.' "—1The Baptist Missionary Magazine, March, 1904, p. 90.




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social abasement, on the part of the toilers. This view of the social degradation of labor is so pervasive that it hampers the efforts of missionaries to coördinate intellectual and industrial education. The pupil may be delighted with the prospect of educational advancement, but he is apt to view with dismay the introduction of manual training into his school curriculum. The Chinese masses are themselves an industrious people, accepting without protest the social status which is identified with labor. The problem of the missionaries has been to eliminate from education this proud and scornful attitude towards honest toil on the part of many under school training, and also to render to Christian converts some practical aid along economic lines.1

Several missionaries in China have given careful attention to plans for the Efforts to improve the industrial prospects of Chinese convertsimprovement of the industrial prospects of native converts. The Rev. A. G. Jones, of the English Baptists, at Chingchowfu, has sought to introduce a better quality of silkworm eggs, superior to those known among ordinary native dealers. Industrial farms have been here and there established, especially an extensive one at Tungcho, under the management of the American Board Mission, where the boys of the college have cultivated excellent fruits and delicious berries to the credit of their tuition account, as well as to the enjoyment of the foreign colony of Peking. In connection also with its college at Foochow, a number of students are trained in high-class work at the mission press. At Chefoo, Mr. James McMullan, of the Presbyterian Church of Ireland, has established a brush-making industry, while Mrs. McMullan has trained girls and women most successfully in the manufacture of torchon lace. The English Baptists also teach the art of lace-making at Yachow and Chingchowfu, and the China Inland Mission gives like training at Ninghai. Various trades are taught at the Sinchang Industrial Academy of the Southern Presbyterians, who also give instruction in useful arts suitable for girls at their Hangchow boarding school. At the Hinghua boys' school of the American Methodists, sixty of their students are at work printing and weaving, and at Chinkiang and Chungking many of their schoolboys graduate as cabinet-makers, carpenters, photographers, or tailors.

Industrial work for the blind is popular in mission circles in China. The Church Missionary Society has a school of about fifty pupils for this class at Foochow, and these sightless artists become adepts in bamboo-splitting, basket-weaving, and the making of matting, string,

1 Cf. article on " Industrial Education in China," by the Rev. William N. Brewster, in The Chinese Recorder, August, 1902, pp. 382-391.




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rope, and blinds. At Kucheng, under Miss Codrington, of the Interesting work for defective children in ChinaChurch of England Zenana Mission, the blind pupils learn to make sandals and mats. The American Episcopal Mission, in its asylum for the blind at Shanghai, gives manual training to sixty inmates. Several other similar schools are in existence, nearly all having some trade drill in the curriculum. In the school for the deaf, conducted by Mrs. A. T. Mills at Chefoo, photography is made a specialty. This technical education, however, as in all work for the defective classes in China, is only a secondary feature, the main aim being to give a Christian training to these unfortunate little ones, and prove to the millions of China that defective children are not worthless human waifs, doomed only to a hopeless and outcast life.

In Korea the industrial element in education is comparatively undeveloped as yet; but recent reports indicate that in what has been hitherto known as the Intermediate School of the Presbyterian Board at Seoul, An industrial beginning in Koreanow to be called the Wells Memorial Training School, it has been established, and in the Pyeng Yang Academy a manual labor department is also in working order, in which forty-three of the pupils are employed, and thus enabled to support themselves, thereby making good half the school expenses. The Southern Methodist Mission has in view the establishment of an industrial school at Songdo, towards the founding of which it has had a gift of land and a thousand dollars in money from General Yun and his son. The former was at one time the Minister of Education in the Korean Government. Some further endowments are needed, however, before this enterprise can be set on foot. An independent effort has been recently projected by Miss Jean Perry, designed as a Home for Destitute Children. It is situated on the outskirts of Seoul, and, according to the last statement available, had twenty-five inmates who were being trained in useful industries. The skill of some blind boys "in weaving colored mats and baskets is notable, while others of the children are taught to make shoes. A vegetable-garden is also among the industrial assets, and a laundry, much patronized by foreigners in Seoul."

The Japanese are, as a rule, distinguished for technical skill, so that missionary effort in that direction has been confined almost exclusively to aiding the destitute, and promoting industrious habits in combination with ordinary education. The Government has established a special industrial bureau in connection with its Department of Education, and has appointed experts to supervise and develop this fea-




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ture of the educational system. The Methodist Episcopal missionaries conduct the Harrison Memorial Industrial School, and have also a department of manual instruction in their college, both situated at Aoyama, Mission industries in JapanTokyo. The former has graduated thirty-six young women well trained some useful occupation insuring their self-support. The same Mission has also philanthropic work for the blind at Hakodate and Yokohama, where instruction is given in massage, an occupation in which this class of unfortunate pupils can be trained so as to give skilled service, which is much in demand. The Methodist institutions at Sendai, and at Koga, near Fukuoka, pay attention to knitting, embroidery, sewing, flower-making, silk-raising, poultry-breeding, and gardening. The Canadian Methodists have two prosperous industrial schools for girls at Kanazawa. The Southern Methodists in their Lambuth Memorial School at Kobe have an Industrial Department for girls, with fifty pupils. The American Presbyterians have a useful domestic training school for women, in charge of Mrs. T. C. Winn, at Osaka. The American Board is engaged in special efforts for poor children at Okayama, where they are taught straw-weaving, and it has also a technical school at Matsuyama. At the same place it conducts a Factory Girls' Home, with accommodations for twenty-five inmates. The Home, which is under excellent management, is a moral refuge where loving care seeks to bring hope and cheer into toiling lives. The Protestant Episcopal Mission has a school of manual training for women at Aomori, on the extreme northern coast, with forty-two pupils; while it has also similar schools at Kanazawa and Tokyo, with a printing and wood-engraving department in connection with St. Paul's College, Tokyo. The native Episcopal Church of Japan has a society for the promotion of industries at Osaka, and this training is also prominent in the Holy Trinity Orphanage at Oji; while at Sendai is an industrial home of the Reformed Church in the United States, where students in the North Japan College are enabled, when necessary, to secure work to aid them in paying their fees.

By far the most interesting and important mission enterprise Energetic work of Japanese philanthropistsof this kind in Japan, however, is the Okayama Orphan Asylum and School, in charge of Mr. J. Ishii, who has also an extensive farm colony at Chausubara, Hyuga. Varied and flourishing industries are under way in this institution, and orphan boys are thoroughly trained in the arts of printing, weaving, carpentering, farming, and the manufacture of straw hats and matches. Rice-mills and lumber-mills




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are also on the programme as projects about to be undertaken. No more useful and excellent work could be organized than that conducted by Mr. Ishii with so much skill and energy and in the finest spirit of Christian devotion. The Sugamo Katei Gakko, or Family School, of the Rev. Kosuke Tomeoka, at Tokyo, is another most admirable enterprise similar in purpose, being a reformatory institution for children between eight and sixteen years of age. In this connection also the work of Mr. T. Hara for discharged prisoners should be noted. He receives these social outcasts kindly, gives them religious instruction, and a moral impulse in the right direction, and then makes it his business to find some employment for them which will put hope into their otherwise despairing hearts. An interesting work of rescue for girls is conducted by the Methodists at Nagasaki, and by the Woman's Christian Temperance Union in their Home of Mercy and Love at Tokyo, where training in useful employments is given.

Before leaving the Continent of Asia, a word or two Industrial education a blessing in Turkeyshould be said of the industrial features of missions in Mohammedan lands. Public calamities and desolating persecutions have been almost continuous of late in these regions of unrest. An interesting story is told of Dr. Cyrus Hamlin, who early in his missionary life in Turkey had to provide some means of support for a number of his Armenian students, the latter, in addition to their poverty, being subjects of bitter persecution. He taught them to make sheet-iron stoves and stovepipes, which were much needed in Constantinople houses, and to this accomplishment he added the construction of rat-traps, which were also greatly in demand. He established besides a bakery, and a mill for the proper grinding of flour. His bread became very popular, and when the Crimean War opened the British soldiers were much in need of this commodity, as they loathed the sour bread which was then all that could be had. Tons-weight of bread were furnished daily for the use of the British Army.1Famine is not unusual in various parts of Turkey; if it is not famine, the visitation may be cholera; if not cholera, it may be locusts, or prolonged drought. If none of these, it is not unlikely to be civil strife, massacre, or the havoc of cruel marauding. The result is a pitiful array of widows and orphans in a state of helpless dependence, with widespread misery and industrial depression gnawing at the vitals of society. The missionary meets these conditions as best he can by providing a refuge for the homeless, and work for the helpless.

1 The Missionary Herald, October, 1900, p. 390.




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Industrial training for young waifs in many orphanages, as at Manual training in the orphanagesVan, Erzerum, Urfa, Marash, Harpoot, Sivas, and elsewhere, and suitable employment for widows and girls, are provided as far as possible. We read of orphanages with hundreds of inmates in training for various useful trades; and at Urfa 750 widows and young girls were reported, in 1902, as engaged in silk embroidery on the colored homespun cloth of the country, or on felts for cushions, footstools, and mats. Dr. Grace N. Kimball, after the massacres of 1895, organized an extensive scheme of relief at Van for the destitute and suffering survivors. Dr. and Mrs. George C. Raynolds still have hundreds under their care at the same place, all busy in various industrial occupations. At Marsovan over fifty families were almost entirely supported at that time of deep distress by engaging in such work as could be offered them by the Rev. George E. White. So great sometimes is the pressure of need that missionaries have occasionally invested in raw material, and in a small way undertaken the manufacture of useful commodities. Consul Norton, of Harpoot, in his report for 1902, speaks in high terms of the industries of the Harpoot Orphanage.1In the stress of such times industrial schemes are the most effective and useful recourse of the missionary, who, meanwhile, we may be sure, never misses the opportunity to teach the heart to trust and pray, as well as the hands to work. Several of the larger educational institutions in Turkey have manual departments in their curriculum, such as bookbinding, shoemaking, cabinet-making, tailoring, and carpentry. In the Anatolia College at Marsovan, forty per cent, of the students engage in work of some kind to pay their way in part; and the same plan is mentioned as in force at Samokov Collegiate Institute.

In Syria there are two centres of industrial education—Sidon and

1 " Mr. Norton says that, although his region produces an excellent grade of cotton, the native manufacture, which, owing to the abundant water-power, should be a large one, is quite the contrary, as it is dependent entirely upon hand-power. The only advance is due to the Harpoot Orphanage, which has introduced the weaving of attractive patterns to meet the popular taste, and is doing much to enable local industry to compete with English, German, and French looms. As to rug-weaving, the production from the Kurdish looms of the region extends but little beyond local needs, while the rug department of the American orphanage is steadily perfecting its work, and turning out products which find a ready sale in the United States. The Harpoot Orphanage is able to command a dollar per square foot for its rugs, a price much in excess of the average of Oriental make, and this is due largely to the fact that the yarns employed in our orphanage are dyed exclusively with vegetable coloring-matter."— The Outlook, January 10, 1903, p. 103.




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Brummana. At Sidon is the Gerard Institute, where students receive some instruction in masonry, carpentry, tailoring, and shoemaking; and not far away, among the foot-hills of Lebanon, is an agricultural farm for Industrial centres in Syria and Palestine orphans. Dr. George A. Ford has given special attention to the development of this new experiment in the missionary programme of Syria, and, thanks to the generous financial aid of Mrs. George Wood, and to his own assiduous supervision, its utility has been demonstrated, while personal and economic results of value have appeared. At Brummana the English Friends have introduced an industrial feature into the curriculum of their boys' school. In Palestine the London Society for Promoting Christianity amongst the Jews has its House of Industry at Jerusalem, established in 1848, the main purpose of which is to give Jewish converts such manual training as will guarantee their self-support, in spite of the racial ostracism which follows their conversion. The Society has, moreover, a department of industrial work for women. The orphanage of the Rev. Theodore Schneller, also at Jerusalem, is largely devoted to training its inmates in useful employments, and the American Friends at Ramallah teach trades in their homes for boys and girls. In Persia little seems to be done by the missions in the line of manual training. The Report of the Archbishop's Mission speaks of a girls' technical school recently opened, under the direction of a native Syrian, where carpets and rugs of the best quality are woven. An industrial department was begun at Urumiah College some years ago, but no report of recent activities is at hand.

Turning now to Malaysia, Australasia, and Oceania, we find that missionaries from the Netherlands have introduced industrial training in several of their educational institutions in the Malay Archipelago. Arts and crafts in the missions of the Malay ArchipelagoOn Sangir Island the novel plan has been instituted of gathering a group of young natives, sometimes as many as ninety, and giving them a special course in gardening and agriculture during the farming season. In the intervals when these labors have to be discontinued it is customary to devote the time to Christian instruction and moral training, and the inculcating of practical Christianity in the heart, so that it may bring forth its fruit in every-day life. The Rhenish Society has opened an industrial school among the Battaks, at Si Antar, on Lake Toba, in Northern Sumatra, where some of the technical arts and finer trades of civilization are being introduced among that isolated and backward people. At Kuching, in British




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Borneo, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel built in 1903 St. John's School, where students are to devote half their time to remunerative labor, and the other half to profitable study—surely a happy combination, which should produce intelligent craftsmen, and scientific agriculturists, who are withal well-trained Christians.

In British New Guinea the missionaries of the London Society Flourishing industries and reclaimed lives in British New Guineahave introduced flourishing industries at several stations, a movement which was regarded as essential to the prosperity of the Mission. Savages whose occupation heretofore has been war, marauding, and cannibal orgies, must not, when tamed and brought into sympathy with the moral standards of civilization, be left to become the victims of idleness and alluring temptations, or to return to the excesses and excitements of the old life.1Habits of industry are essential to sober living; a higher and more engaging aim must claim the attention, if the life is to be permanently saved. An effort must be made to kindle new economic desires, and to make a practical demonstration of the rewards which attend the subjection and utilization of natural forces, and the varied culture of garden and field. It is thus only that manhood and orderly living can develop into fixed and improved character. Large groups of young men at Vatorata, Fife Bay, and Kwato, along the southeastern shore of the island, are thus engaged. The work at the forge and the saw-pit, the re-roofed and re-thatched houses, the large clearings of scrub-land turned into banana and taitugardens, the five thousand rubber-trees, and the three thousand five hundred cocoanut-trees, all at Vatorata, tell a cheerful story of reclaimed lives, as well as of cleared and productive soil. Fife Bay, where a little community of almost a hundred souls has devoted itself to garden cultivation, is another example.2On

1 The Rev. F. W. Walker, one of the London Society's missionaries in New Guinea, writes on this subject as follows : " It seems to me that it is not much use getting the natives to give up their own evil customs unless you can give them something better to do with their time and their energies. It is the old story: ' Satan finds some mischief still for idle hands to do.' What is a Papuan to do when he gives up fighting, and no longer needs to make weapons for himself ? Very little labor will supply him with plenty of food, as the women do most of that kind of work! Unless therefore you set him to some occupation that will develop his character and make a man of him, he is bound to go to the bad. Besides, we want him to see that Christianity touches the whole life—that it is not merely a question of going to church regularly and saying his prayers: it must make him a useful member of society."—The Chronicle of the London Missionary Society, August, 1903, p. 198.

2 "Report of the London Missionary Society, 1902,"p. 307.




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the Island of Kwato the late Hon. J. H. Angas by a generous contribution made possible the erection of a splendid workshop and dock, and the building of boats and ships is already well established. The first boat ever built by the natives in European style—a large whale-boat—was launched in 1902. It was hardly a week afloat when orders for three others were received. As long ago as 1898, the Rev. C. W. Abel had developed in his native workers such proficiency in certain lines of industry that Sir William Macgregor, then Lieutenant-Governor of British New Guinea, after inspecting the work, "offered to give the boys an order for one hundred trade boxes, and the girls an order for one hundred police uniforms."Mission industry has, in fact, transformed that little island wilderness of Kwato, at the extreme southeastern point of New Guinea, until it promises to become a place of commercial importance.1

One of the enterprising missionaries of New Guinea, the Business enterprise invades a primeval wildernessRev. F. W. Walker, paid a visit to England during 1904, and the "Papuan Industries, Limited," to which reference has already been made, has been the outcome.2It is a business corporation, organized to take over the industrial work of the London Mission in New Guinea, as the "Uganda Company, Limited " has done for the Church Missionary Society in Uganda. It is not organically connected with the London Society, but is supported by substantially the same constituency.3On the north shore of the island, where the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel conducts its missions, plans for agricultural work have been matured. At Hioge, on Goodenough Bay, a

1 The Chronicle of the London Missionary Society, October, 1900, p. 252.

2 Ibid., March, 1904, p, 70, and April, 1904, p. 100.

3 " The main objects of ' Papuan Industries, Limited,' are:

"(1) To create a social environment for the natives of New Guinea favorable to the development of a robust Christian character.

"(2) To enable the native Christians to become independent, and the mission self-supporting.

"Two important, and from the practical standpoint equally necessary, considerations have to be kept in view to achieve these results :

"(A) The occupations and industries introduced must be conducive to the highest interests of the natives from the Christian standpoint.

"(B) They must be fairly remunerative and stable.

"The policy of the Company will in the first place be to encourage the natives to cultivate their land, and thus secure their right to that rich heritage which otherwise, sooner or later, through their ignorance or neglect, they must inevitably forfeit. New Guinea is a rich tropical estate, the full value of which is not yet generally known."




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Christian Industrial Settlement of one hundred natives has been formed, and a section of the primeval wilderness, one thousand acres in extent, has been granted by the Government for the uses of the Mission. This has been in part reclaimed, and is planted with five thousand cocoa-palms. On the mission staff, moreover, are a printer, a carpenter, and a boat-builder.1 We note in passing that some technical training schools have been opened in the Philippines. The Silliman Institute, Dumaguete, under the Presbyterian Board of Missions, is a high-grade institution, with a promising industrial department. The Government has already made a beginning in this kind of education by establishing a school of that class among the Mohammedan Moros.

The methods we are now studying have proved themselves very efficient and useful among the aborigines of Australia. As early as 1850, Bishop Hale inaugurated at Port Lincoln the first industrial community Industrial communities in Australia and New Zealandamong them.2 Several similar communities have since been gathered by Church of England missions in different parts of that vast island-continent. They are chiefly occupied in agricultural pursuits. 3 The Moravians at Mapoon, on Cape York Peninsula, have also a flourishing station, conducted along similar lines. The money earned by the natives all goes into a common fund, the Mission supplying them gratuitously with the tools and other necessary facilities for labor. Six months of work in the garden, or in clearing land, by any man of the community, will earn for him the privilege of marriage, and then a house is built for him and his bride. In return for the benefits of citizenship in the mission settlement, with its educational advantages and economic opportunities, a certain amount of labor is cheerfully rendered by every member of the community. The whole scheme seems to succeed admirably, since food, home, school, church, and the safeguards of a well-ordered communal life, are insured, in return for clearing and tilling the soil, the cultivation of the gardens, the care of the live stock, the running of the sawmill, and various other occupations which fill up the standard work-day of eight hours."To keep the black man in his proper place,"says a report of the station, "without disturbing the peace of his neighbor, until the grace of God gets hold of him; nothing is better than hard,

1 The Mission Field(S. P. G.), February, 1903, p. 43.

2 Ibid., May, 1895, pp. 180-183.

3 Article on "The Australian Aborigines,"by the Bishop of Carpentaria, in The East and the West, January, 1903, pp. 65-74.




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honest work, even better than police protection—at least in Mapoon."1These methods have been adopted successfully in other sections of Australia by German missionaries. The native aborigines of Australia, are estimated to number at the present time about fifty thousand. Their extinction, however, seems to be only a matter of time, as their number is steadily diminishing. Some of the earliest missionaries sent to New Zealand by the Church Missionary Society were artisans. They were contemporaries of Marsden, and sought diligently, and with much patience, to teach a few of the arts of civilized life to the rude Maoris. Some industrial schools were established by government aid, for the most part with farms attached to them.2Industrial training has no doubt served a useful purpose in the wonderful, though checkered, history of Maori missions.

If we continue our inquiries among the islands of the Pacific, Successful schooling in handicrafts among the Pacific islanderswe find that the study of handicrafts has been a feature of missions in the New Hebrides, and we note the adoption of an industrial policy as part of the programme of the London Mission at its numerous stations, long before the middle of the last century. The skilled carpenters of Rarotonga, taught by the Rev. Aaron Buzacott, were known far and near among the Pacific islanders. Samoan teachers, trained at the Malua Institution, were pioneers of the civilized arts wherever they were sent, and soon built good houses, which they filled with suitable furniture made by their own hands. The native boys under their care were instructed in various trades, and soon became excellent carpenters themselves. Matmaking was taught to the girls, and hat-making as well. The surprising statement is made that in a single year hats to the value of two thousand pounds ($10,000) have been exported from Niué3Other islands present a similar record of progress. The early missionaries of the London Society gave the

1Periodical Accounts Relating to Moravian Missions, December, 1899, p. 194. Cf. also article by the Rev. J. T. Hamilton, D.D., in The Missionary Review of the World, January, 1903, pp. 3-15.

2 Stock, "The History of the Church Missionary Society,"vol. i., p. 446, and vol. ii., p. 625.

3 "Every industry practised on Niué and every art known there was taught by the Mission. No outsider had any share in the industrial training and education of the people. Niué is only a fair sample of the Christianised islands of Polynesia. It stands as an instructive object-lesson in the industrial education carried on during many years by the missionaries of our Society, and the whole of this has been effected without additional cost to the L. M. S."— The Chronicle of the London Missionary Society, May, 1904, p, 120.




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impulse to skilled labor which "lives to-day in the improved homes and in the ready, clever craftsmen of the islands of the Pacific."At the present time, technical instruction at the Leulumoega School, and a large and busy workshop at Malua, both on Upolu, an island of German Samoa, are active features of the London Mission. An Industrial Christian Mission, somewhat after the pattern of the Papuan Industries scheme, is earnestly called for by missionaries in the Gilbert Islands.

In the Micronesian Mission of the American Board there is an industrial department at Bingham Institute, on the Island of Kusaie, in which printing is taught. The Report of 1903 states that nearly 177,000 pages were set up and printed during the previous year, entirely by the hands of the pupils of the school. In the Hawaiian Islands, under the care of the Evangelical Association, are several schools—the Kawaiahoa, the Maunaolu, the Kohala, the Hilo, and the East Maui—where children are trained in useful industries. At the Kamehameha Schools are three hundred Hawaiian children receiving an industrial training, after the model of Hampton Institute.

Missions among the Indians of North and South America have Transforming the Indian from a "pagan liability" into a "Christian asset" also utilized the industrial method with marked success. The Church Missionary Society in Canada has several schools where training in some useful trade is combined with intellectual and religious instruction. The boys of the Industrial Home at Alert Bay, it is recorded, made all the furniture of the hospital erected there in 1898. From Aiyansh, on the Naas River, one of the Church Missionary Society missionaries wrote, in 1899: "I am afraid you are slow at home to appreciate the immense importance of this sort of work among uncivilized races in connection with missions. . . . Humanly speaking, had we no saw-mill you would never have heard of a 'transformed people' at this out-of-the-way place."1Manual training is a part of the instruction in some of the Indian schools of the Presbyterian missions. The extensive Methodist missions are also to a considerable degree industrial. Seven institutions are noted where trades are taught, and with four of these farms are connected, varying in size from two hundred to twelve hundred acres. A recent Government Blue Book, in referring to this feature of the work of missions in Canada, remarks: "As a pagan, the Indian was a liability; as a Christian, he is becoming an increasing asset to the nation."

It has been one of the mistakes of the Indian policy of the United

1 The Church Missionary Gleaner, November, 1899, p. 174.




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States that the industrial capacities of the Indians have not been sufficiently cultivated, thus closing many opportunities of self-support.1Their native skill in canoe-building, blanket-weaving, basket-making, bead-work, and pottery—arts which they have cultivated from ancient times—could have been fostered by government patronage, and made of artistic and economic value, had not the reservation system tended to enforced idleness rather than wholesome industry. In Alaska various mission efforts have coöperated with the Government in introducing the arts and trades of civilized life. An industrial school has been established at Sitka by the Presbyterians, and the Moravians have several at their different stations. The Episcopal missions have one at Anvik, while Metlakahtla may be counted an industrial marvel in both its moral and economic aspects.

Among the Mapuche Indians in Chile is the Quepe Industrial Industrial efforts in South America, Mexico, and the West IndiesSchool, with extensive workshops and an agricultural farm; a Christian Colony for the prosecution of various industries has been also established, both conducted by the South American Missionary Society. The experiment of cotton-growing is about to be inaugurated in the Chaco country, west of Paraguay, which will prove, no doubt, a profitable opportunity for the Christian Indian. Mission industries have been in operation at Ushuaia, at the extreme southern point of the Continent, and sheep-farming at Keppel Island. In connection with Mackenzie College, at São Paulo, is a manual training department, as we find also at the new boys' school of the Southern Presbyterians at Lavras, Brazil. At Cuzco, Peru, the Regions Beyond Missionary Union has inaugurated industrial work which has now become entirely self-supporting. In British Guiana there are two Homes for Indian children, conducted by Mr. F. Harding—one at Cabacaburi, on the Pomerun River, and the other at Waramuri, on the Moruca River, both supported in part by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. In them, agriculture, carpentry, and hammock-making are taught. In Mexico the Cumberland Presbyterian Church has given attention to practical industry in its schools at Aguascalientes, as have also the Southern Presbyterians at several of

1 Cf. article on "Indian Industrial Development,"inThe Outlook, January 12, 1901, p. 101. The interesting work of Miss Sibyl Carter in teaching the lace industry among the Ojibways, the Dakotas, and the Chippewas, is described in The Outlook, September 1, 1900, p. 59. The art of bead-work has also been made a specialty among the Indians at "Mohonk Lodge,"Colony, Oklahoma. The work has been for six years under the charge of the Rev. and Mrs. W. C. Roe (Ref. C. A.), and is now entirely self-supporting.




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their stations, and the American Board in its Colegio Internacional at Guadalajara. In the Jamaica Mission of the Moravians, efforts have been made to introduce improved methods of agriculture.

The foregoing review of the industrial features now established in many mission fields indicates that this department of training has developed extensively of late, and that its substantial value and helpfulness are increasingly recognized.

3. MODERN METHODS OF UNIVERSITY EXTENSION.—In addition to what Extra-institutional methods for extension of culturemay be called the canonical efforts in behalf of education, identified as they usually are with permanent institutions, and conducted according to an established routine, we may note an increasing tendency in mission lands to adopt and utilize less formal methods, adapted to reach certain classes, and intended to extend the influence of education more generally among the people. Among these extra-institutional devices we may name conferences, summer or winter schools, lecture courses, plans for home culture, mutual improvement societies, and passing reference may be made also to mission conferences, and other more strictly ecclesiastical assemblies. These various gatherings are not designed in all cases simply to popularize secular education, or distribute broadcast the seeds of culture, but to a preponderating extent they are made the media of religious and spiritual instruction. In some instances they have a philanthropic purpose, being devised to ameliorate cheerless conditions, and put some brightness and the means of profitable entertainment into dreary and depressed lives. In most cases they are adjusted to the intellectual or spiritual needs of certain classes of workers, and so are addressed principally to this purpose.

In India these tentative facilities have been widely adopted, especially in Special efforts among Indian studentsbehalf of the educated classes, among whom they serve as a valuable means of influence. Numbers of missionary workers, especially those connected with Christian Associations for young men and young women, have devoted themselves with solicitude and evangelistic zeal to the welfare of students, both graduate and undergraduate. Lectures, or public addresses, within the precincts of some




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institution, in the hostels where students reside, in Christian Association halls, or in outdoor gatherings, are favorite methods of approach. Reading-rooms and Bible classes are also useful. Acquaintance is thus established, and the way is opened for further and more personal intercourse. Overtoun Hall, in the Young Men's Christian Association Building, Calcutta, is in constant use for such purposes. The London Missionary Society at Bangalore has organized a special department of activity among educated men, in which the Rev. T. E. Slater is a prominent and de0voted worker. It has instituted a campaign of lectures, conferences, study classes, literary unions, and mutual improvement societies, and is giving much attention to the distribution of suitable literature, in order to attract the educated Hindu mind.

The Oxford Mission to Calcutta, and the Cambridge Mission to Delhi, have made a Valuable work of the Oxford and Cambridge Missionsspecialty of work for the educated classes. In many of the large cities of India, notably in such student centres as Calcutta, Dacca, Lahore, Allahabad, Bombay, and Madras, careful thought is given to the needs of students. It is a notable fact that "there are more men receiving an English university education in India than there are in the British Isles."1At Allahabad, the Oxford and Cambridge Hostel, and also the Oxford and Cambridge Institute at the same place, both established by the Rev. W. E. S. Holland, M.A., of Magdalen College, a Church Missionary worker among young men, are scenes of tactful and earnest work among a large student body.2Free reading-rooms are also made available, such as the very successful one established at Madanapalle by the

1 The Rev. G. T. Manley, in The Church Missionary Intelligencer, June, 1902, p. 444.

2 Mr. Holland thus describes the workings of these institutions: "With the general body of students we can only get into touch by attracting them to some centre where we may get to know them. With this object we have turned the large room of our bungalow into a reading-room, supplied with English papers, magazines, and games ; and in the compound we have three tennis courts, which are in great demand. Inconveniently situated as our Institute is, we have now over seventy members, and numbers of men come round every evening. In connexion with this, the ' Oxford and Cambridge Institute,' we have organized a course of lectures, followed by discussion. Among our lecturers (past and present) are the Bishops of Calcutta and Lahore; the Revds. A. H. Bowman, J. P. Haythornthwaite, G. H. Westcott, C. A. R. Janvier, J. N. Carpenter, and G. T. Manley. The lectures have had an average attendance of about ninety. . . . The Hostel seems to me to afford unique opportunities for winning these men. They get to know us intimately; are under our constant influence, and can come to us at any odd moment for a talk."—The Church Missionary Intelligencer, July, 1901, p. 533.




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Rev. J. Chamberlain, M.D., of the Arcot Mission. The World's Student Federation, to which we shall refer more fully in the next section, is a forceful agency, and has accomplished a vigorous and, fruitful work among educated Indians. The Student Federation membership in India, including Ceylon, already numbers 2500.1

The Barrows lecturers—Drs. Barrows, Fairbairn, and Charles Efficient aid of lecturers on the Haskell foundationCuthbert Hall—have given most effective aid in this endeavor to reach the educated classes. They have presented Christian truth to the cultured minds of India with admirable tact, impressive eloquence, and foundation, winning attractiveness. The missionary body has welcomed these sympathetic coadjutors; and their powerful apologetic arguments on behalf of Christian truth, presented in a spirit of fine courtesy, have made a deep impression upon many Indian hearers. A prominent native Christian paper in India has expressed the hope that the Barrows Lectureship (often called the Haskell Lectureship) will eventually develop into a permanent mission for educated Indians.2Other lecturers have been heard in India with great acceptance; we may name as examples Dr. Ladd and Dr. Pentecost.

General conferences, conventions, and public gatherings for various The Decennial Missionary Conference of India, and other stated assemblies purposes, are numerous and popular in India. The most important of these is the regular Decennial Missionary Conference of all India, which began to be known as "The Decennial"in 1872, when this designation was first used. Since then it has assembled at the end of each decade, having met first at Allahabad in 1872, then at Calcutta in 1882, at Bombay in 1892, and at Madras in 1902. It is an interdenominational as well as an international gathering, and is attended not only by foreign missionaries, but by representative Indian Christians. The attendance increased from 136 missionaries, representing nineteen societies, at Allahabad, to 620 missionaries, gathered from forty societies, at Bombay. At the Madras meeting, in 1902, the attendance included only appointed delegates from the various missions, in the proportion of one delegate for every fifteen Europeans on the mission staff. Other general conferences had preceded this stated "Decennial,"among them one at Calcutta in 1855, one at

1 Upon this subject of work among Indian students of the educated classes in general, cf. article by Mr. George Sherwood Eddy, inThe Missionary Review of the World, December, 1903, pp. 922-927; also The Intercollegian, April, 1902, p. 171; and The Church Missionary Intelligencer, July, 1901, pp. 531-538.

2The Christian Patriot, January 24, 1903.




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Benares in 1857, and one in the Punjab in 1862. The South India Mission Conferences have convened at regular intervals since 1858. There are also local assemblies of missionaries and native workers held frequently in almost all the large cities of India, some of these, however, being exclusively native gatherings, as the Bengali Christian Conference, which met in 1904 for its twenty-seventh annual session at Calcutta. Numerous other strictly provincial or tribal gatherings are customary, such as the Tamil Christian Congress, and the Garo General Association.

It is worthy of special note that a representative Indian Christian National Council, intended to include all Indian Christians in its constituency, was formed in 1903, its design being to guard and promote the interests of the Indian Christian community as a whole. Prominent organizations of native Christians, such as the Madras Indian Christian Association, the Parsi Christian Association at Bombay, the Christian Literary Union of Bangalore, and the Bombay Indian Christian Association, are already in active existence. There are also native conferences of preachers, evangelists, teachers, colporteurs, and Bible-women. Moreover, the various missions, or denominations, arrange to meet at regular intervals, as the Conference of the Telugu Baptist Mission, the Quinquennial Conference of the Church Missionary Society, the South Indian Provincial Synod of the Wesleyans, and the Synod of the South India United Church, besides many other ecclesiastical assemblies. It may be noted also that important movements on behalf of church union have been consummated by Presbyterians and Methodists. The various branches of the Presbyterian Church engaged in mission work in India will hereafter coöperate in one General Assembly, composed of both native and foreign representatives.

Conventions for purely spiritual ends are Summer schools, harvest festivals, and students' camps in Indianumerous, among these aims being the deepening of the religious life, and the quickening of evangelistic zeal. Gatherings similar to camp meetings, and known as Christian melas, are held among rural communities. Harvest festivals are rallying-points for Christian delegations from neighboring villages, drawn together for spiritual instruction, and to present their offerings, usually in the form of living animals, the fruits of the soil, or articles of home manufacture. Summer schools are in vogue, for both biblical and secular study, and teachers' institutes are held, where normal and advanced instruction is given, and an esprit de corpscultivated. Conferences after the pattern of Northfield




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and Keswick are now annually convened. The programmes of these gatherings include the discussion of some great theme of Christian doctrine or history which is studied in its varied aspects. A similar assembly is the "Kodaikanal Convention for the Deepening of the Spiritual Life,"held at that mountain retreat every year. An annual Christian Students' Camp, initiated in 1898, under the auspices of some Young Men's Christian Association leaders, has proved a most popular as well as profitable experiment, having an attendance of about one hundred students. The Young Women's Christian Association has established a similar provision for the rest, recreation, and instruction of its members. "Friendly Clubs"have been instituted, which are both social and literary in their design and scope. Zenana visitation, now so extensively conducted, is also in this class of agencies supplemental to the regular educational programme, as is also village work by missionary ladies, or native Bible-women, who visit the homes of the peasant class with the same aims as impel them to enter the zenana. Classes for home culture are arranged for girls who have had some school advantages and are promising candidates for further improving study. A novel entertainment, called by the rather unusual name of a "Zenana Party,"has been tried at the Isabella Thoburn College in Lucknow. It is best described in the note appended.1

1 "Its object is to provide a form of entertainment which will also be instructive and educational. The most popular form, which has been tried on several previous occasions, was again used at the zenana entertainment given last Friday. Stereopticon views of Japan furnished illustrations for an interesting address, by one of the Professors of the College, on her own travels in that land. The dwellings, occupations, dress, and habits of the people were shown. The Japanese mode of salutation, the women's costumes and fashion of dressing the hair, and their manner of performing household tasks, evidently appealed strongly to the feminine interest. Their wonder at the pictures which appeared so mysteriously upon the screen did not prevent their showing a keen sense of the humorous whenever opportunity offered. Quite as interesting to the spectators was the music which was furnished at intervals during the address, by the students of the High School and College. Once it was a pretty Urdu song by Hindustani girls; again a violin solo; and then a rollicking plantation song by a group of English students. But perhaps the most pleasurable feature, and the prettiest expression of their enjoyment, was the scene after the close of the entertainment. It was bright moonlight as the women came out of the hall to the verandah. The garees and palkheesand dolees stood waiting just beyond the gate, but for a short quarter of an hour the younger ones among the crowd, to whom no doubt the moonlit lawn seemed a vast expanse compared with the tiny courtyards of their homes, hidden by the temporary screens put up for the occasion, danced out into the middle of the lawn, and laughed and played with a delight that was altogether charming."— The Indian Ladies' Magazine, December, 1902, p. 204.




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A missionary settlement of university women at Bombay is a Settlement work in Indian cities and villagesproject which originated, in 1893, with some of the lady students of Oxford and Cambridge identified with the Student Volunteer Movement. Other institutions coöperated, and ladies from Newnham, Girton, Somerville, and Alexandra colleges, connected with different universities, reached Bombay in 1896. They work under the general direction of a council formed in Great Britain, and are supported by the women students of the universities of the Motherland. An evangelistic, educational, and medical mission has thus been established among Parsi women of the better class, the design of the settlement being to benefit especially women of the higher grade of Indian society. In 1899, Mrs. Royal G. Wilder, and her daughter Grace, of the American Presbyterian Board of Missions, established a similar settlement for village work in Western India. Four young ladies went out in that year and were supported by the special gifts of generous friends. Their field is in the numerous towns and villages in the vicinity of Kolhapur, and they seek, by house-to-house visitation, Bible instruction, and informal religious gatherings, to enlighten the minds and win the hearts of the ignorant peasant women. Still another missionary settlement, intended for work among men, has been organized in Madras. In the neighboring Island of Ceylon we find like conferences and gatherings, especially for the instruction of native Christian workers. Prominent among them is a convention attended by fifty Bible-women connected with the various missions.

In Burma the Baptist Missions hold annual Bible institutes for preachers "Rainy Weather Bible Classes" in Burmaamong the Kachins, and pastors' Bible classes in connection with their work among the Karens, besides regular conferences attended by missionaries and native workers of all classes. Native Christians have their associations and gatherings in all parts of Burma. At a recent Karen Association meeting an attendance of 1950 persons was reported. When the rainy season prevails, Bible classes attended by native evangelists are held, to which the appropriate name of "Rainy Weather Bible Classes "has been given, since the touring trips are rendered impossible by the usually continuous downpour. Annual conferences in connection with the Methodist Mission in Malaysia assemble at Singapore. The Laos Mission of the American Presbyterians, in addition to their regular ecclesiastical gatherings, held a special convention at Chieng Mai during Easter Week




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of 1903, attended by over a thousand delegates from the mission churches. The mornings of five consecutive days were devoted to religious services, including a communion gathering on Easter morning, with an attendance of eight hundred. The week-day afternoons were devoted to social intercourse, interspersed with games and amusements. A spirit of liberality was manifested during the sessions, and generous contributions towards various church purposes were secured.

In China, some years ago, the Rev. Gilbert Reid, D.D., founded the Mission The Mission among the Higher Classes in Chinaamong the Higher Classes, designed to establish friendly relations with statesmen, literati, and men of rank, in the hope that their minds might become enlightened, and their views broadened, concerning the essential features of Western civilization. This Mission contemplates the establishment of an International Institute, containing a library, museum, auditorium, class-rooms for special study, and reception-rooms for social intercourse. It is hoped by these means to dissipate prejudices, and bring the higher classes of China into a more sympathetic attitude towards the West, and thus forward the introduction of Western learning into China, and establish more cordial international relations. When this is accomplished some of the barriers to mission progress in China will disappear, or be in part removed. Dr. Reid's project was in abeyance during the Boxer disturbances, but in accord with his general scheme he has been lecturing in the Shanghai Polytechnic, on a comparative view of the governments and customs of different countries. Large audiences have greeted these addresses. A new impulse has been given towards the accomplishment of his plans by the purchase of valuable property in Shanghai, which has just been effected with funds provided almost entirely from local contributions. One of the main buildings will soon be erected, and the prospects of further progress are understood to be bright. Dr. W. A. P. Martin has recently become associated with Dr. Reid in promoting the success of his scheme.

Conferences of various kinds are numerous and influential throughout the China Numerous conferences, associations, and institutes in Chinamissions. They are of comparatively recent origin, for although the first general conference of the Protestant missionaries was held at Peking in 1877, and the second at Shanghai in 1890, the movement for native conferences did not begin, save locally in a small way, until about 1896. In that year such gatherings of Christian workers convened at Chefoo, Peking, Shanghai, Foochow, and, in a less formal way, at Hankow, Tengchow, and elsewhere.




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They have been extremely useful, and have helped the Church in China to find itself, and be conscious of its solidarity, realizing the unity of Christian fellowship and the strength of oneness in Christ. The total attendance at the first four conferences was 2883, of which number 2382 were Chinese, 1000 of them being students. The presence of Mr. John R. Mott, then on one of his world tours, was a great help in the spiritual conduct of the meetings. Since then numerous like gatherings have assembled in all parts of China. Women's conferences are now an established order, as well as those for men; teachers' institutes convene from time to time for normal training and advanced instruction; while pastors' associations are forming in increasing numbers. All missionaries in China are looking forward with interest to the Centennial Conference, to be held in 1907—just a century after the inauguration of modern missionary effort in that land, when Morrison in 1807 entered upon his pioneer service. This Conference will take the place of the one which could not gather in 1900, owing to the Boxer troubles, The Province of Hunan, which has only recently been opened to missionary residence, has already become the scene of a fraternal gathering, showing how quickly this laudable feature is introduced. The numerous missions which have entered that fanatical, and until lately inaccessible, province in Central China, joined hands and hearts in a conference held at Changsha, in July, 1903, in which union, coöperation, and plans of brotherly comity were subjects of happy and harmonious action. The Yale University Mission was cordially invited to enter upon a special work among the literati of Hunan, hitherto a hotbed of anti-foreign sentiment. In all these varied conferences which we have noted, the keynote was the deepening of the spiritual life, and the perfecting of Christian service, combined with earnest searchings after a solution of the many militant problems which confront the mission worker in China.

The large interests involved in education have prompted the The Educational Association of Chinaformation of the Educational Association of China, which held its fourth triennial meeting at Shanghai in 1902. It has now 249 members, and finds an important sphere of service in giving systematic form to the educational movement in China, in fixing standards, arranging courses of study, superintending the publication of school literature, and bringing into agreement the educational terminology to be adopted in the arts and sciences. Aside from the special work of the Educational Association, the various missions utilize educational institutions for special Bible work among students, and for useful lec-




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tures, apart from the regular curriculum of studies. Here and there a Chinese "Chautauqua"is attempted, with a sui generis list of subjects for consideration, suited to the environment and needs of students. The Young Men's Christian Association has opened Bible institutes, and frequently holds student assemblies. The Morrison Society, an organization devoted to the investigation and study of the various problems directly or indirectly related to mission work in China, has been recently formed, and a special department of The Chinese Recorder is devoted to the promotion of its aims.

The opening of museums in some of the large academic centres, in which lectures are The academic utility of museumsdelivered on scientific and religious themes, has been found attractive to the Chinese. The attendance at these museums has been phenomenal, extending in some instances to seventy or eighty thousand annually. Special lecture courses present historical, economic, and scientific instruction, in a way to secure the delighted attention of large audiences. It often happens that in these lectures the superstitious notions lodged in the minds of Chinese listeners receive some staggering blows, and yet so deftly are the thrusts given that dazed minds hardly know where the paralyzing assaults come from, while no spirit of bitterness or antagonism is aroused. In some of these museums provision is made for a Gospel service, which multitudes attend.1The summer school is a favorite in China, and is held during vacations at some convenient educational institution, or becomes itself a vacation experience in the form of a camping-out party.

Informal classes in towns and villages, gathered in the evenings to study "Western learning,"often attract men of literary rank. It is interesting to note that a Chinese Choral Union was formed at Foochow in 1902 to develop a love of and a desire for good sacred music. It held its second Choral Festival in that city in 1903.2

1 A letter from the Rev. Hunter Corbett, D. D., who has charge of the museum at Chefoo, indicates that the holding of a religious service has been attended with excellent results. He says: "The first year we opened this place 71,500 visitors were received. Every one heard the Gospel preached, and received tracts and books to take home. We have had visits from officials and rich men, also from women and children, people whom we could not reach before opening the museums. . . .We have now some earnest Christian workers, who were brought to a knowledge of the truth through this work. The people as a class are much more friendly than formerly. Much prejudice has given way, and we are now greeted on the streets, and treated as friends, by many who used to pass us as unworthy of notice."

2 The Chinese Recorder, July, 1903, pp. 365-367.




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"Station classes" are similar adult schools devoted to Bible study, informing Informal classes among the Chinese for the study of "Western learning" lectures (often accompanied with an exhibition of lantern-slides), courses in "first aid"instruction, scientific experiments, instruction in singing, with now and then a Sunday-school lesson or a prayer-meeting as part of their varied programme. Women's classes are like station classes, but are attended by the married women only. Bible-women's institutes and schools are for special instruction to that class of workers, now becoming numerous in China. We find accounts of an "Autumn Reading Class" which gathered together forty members for six weeks at Swatow, with the Bible and Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Progress"as its text-books.

Japan has given a cordial welcome to the university extension scheme in its University extension devices popular in Japandiversified forms. It has a record for large general missionary conferences, which have been held in 1872,1883, and again at Tokyo in 1900. Its ecclesiastical gatherings are of imposing proportions, as those of the Kumiai Churches, and of the Church of Christ in Japan. An appreciative hearing is given to foreign lecturers of eminence who visit the Island Empire. Students' conventions, usually under the leadership of the Young Men's Christian Association, or of the Student Volunteer Movement, are largely attended. It had been arranged that the Conference of the World's Student Christian Federation should be held at Tokyo, in September, 1904, but owing to the Russo-Japanese War the project had to be abandoned. The American Episcopal Mission has recently opened a Church House in Tokyo for direct work among the students of the Imperial University. The first Christian Summer School gathered in 1889, and met for its sixteenth session in 1904. It has grown to such proportions that it now meets in two sections, one Japanese and the other foreign. Special schools assemble annually in the summer for pastors and evangelists of the various missions, and winter schools as well, such as the Bible School which meets yearly at Saga. A League of those who went out to the foreign field as Student Volunteers has been formed, and held a profitable conference at Karuizawa in 1902. The mountain retreat of Karuizawa promises to become a Japanese "Northfield,"a Japanese "Chautauqua"being already in existence.

Spiritual conferences for deepening the religious life, Bible institutes for special religious study, with an aggregate attendance in some instances of over nine hundred, Bible-women's conventions, ladies'




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clubs, mutual benefit societies in village communities, evening schools, Bible institutes and social settlements in Japanese citieswith now and then magic-lantern lectures, are other and well-known agencies. Formal lecture courses are planned in different cities, an attendance of eight hundred greeting one recently given at Kobe. Missionaries on their tours often carry a lecture outfit with lantern-slides to delight as well as instruct the village communities which they visit. Social settlements are to be found at Osaka, Tokyo, and Kyoto. A feature of the settlement at Tokyo is Kingsley Hall, opened by Mr. S. J. Katayama, who during a visit to England and America made a careful study of Toynbee Hall and Mansfield House in London, the Andover House in Boston, and the Hull House in Chicago, returning to devote himself to similar work in his native country.1The Kyoto settlement is in effect a "household church,"with a varied programme of religious exercises, intellectual entertainment, and kindly ministration, calculated to give relief and cheer to life, in spite of long days of toil.

In Korea much attention has been given to Bible study classes for adults. They Bible study classes a remarkable feature in Koreagather at various stations throughout the country, and are composed of Christians specially invited from neighboring churches and village communities. The purpose is to set apart from one to four weeks for the careful study of Scripture truth and its application to daily life. It might be called a sabbatical week or month given over to religious study—the serious devotion of an unusual amount of time to searching after knowledge and perfecting the Christian view of life. Classes of this kind are held for women also as well as men; they vary in the numbers attending them from thirty to three hundred, the expenses of the gatherings being borne by the natives themselves. The object is not simply Christian culture, but inspiration and training for service and aggressive work in the churches. In some instances, pastors, teachers, and evangelists are exclusively invited, and the class becomes an informal theological seminary. It would seem that the Korean "Northfield" is already an established institution. An Educational Association similar to the one in China has recently been formed in Korea, with the Rev. H. G. Underwood, D.D., as President. It will supervise the issue of suitable graded text-books, fix scientific terminology, and endeavor to give uniformity and system to educational progress. A new "Single Advance Society"under Korean direction is a sign of the times, especially as it announces its

1 The Japan Evangelist, June, 1900, p. 181.




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purpose to be "the education and enlightenment of the people and the advocacy of the national spirit."

The first Students' Conference in South Africa was held at Stellenbosch in 1896, and was attended by five hundred delegates from twenty-nine educational institutions. It was under the auspices of the World's Student Students' conferences, Bible schools, and lectureships in AfricaChristian Federation, and was devoted almost exclusively to religious themes. Conferences, institutes, Bible schools, and lecture courses, for pastors, evangelists, and teachers, are becoming recognized agencies in various missions throughout Africa. Educational institutions like Lovedale have their separate literary societies, or students' clubs, for mutual intellectual improvement and culture. Ecclesiastical gatherings, or missionary conferences, in some instances denominational and in others interdenominational, are held in connection with missionary operations in other sections of the Continent. The first General Conference of Congo Missionaries met at Leopoldville in January, 1902, just twenty-five years after Stanley's memorable journey, in 1877, which opened the Congo region to the white man. The First General Missionary Conference of South Africa assembled at Johannesburg in July, 1904, with an attendance of about one hundred representatives from twenty-five societies—American, British, Dutch, French, German, Norwegian, Swedish, and Swiss. In Madagascar, meetings of the Congregational Union are sometimes attended by about 1600 pastors, evangelists, teachers, and delegates.

In many sections of the Turkish Empire, as well as in Persia, conferences of missionaries and native workers are part of the programme of missions. Brummana, on Mount Lebanon, has become the favorite site for a Conferences on the heights of Lebanon in Syria, and summer schools in Asia Minor and Macedoniagathering which promises to be held regularly at stated intervals. Missionaries and native Christian leaders from all parts of Syria, as well as from Palestine and Asia Minor, have assembled there on several occasions, for inspiring and profitable seasons of religious discussion and spiritual devotion. A special conference of the pastors and evangelists of Syria recently met at Beirut, by the invitation of the Syrian Protestant College officials. It was held during a vacation season, when the College dormitories could be thrown open for entertainment. It so happened that the Sunday-school Convention of 1904, on its way to Jerusalem, was visiting Beirut while this conference was in session, and the opportunity was improved for fraternal greetings which gave mutual pleasure. The summer school is well known in Asia Minor and Macedonia. It was while returning from




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one of these annual gatherings for Bible workers at Bansko, in Macedonia, it may be remembered, that Miss Ellen M. Stone was waylaid and abducted, in 1901.

Further reports of summer schools, conferences, and societies for mutual improvement, in Australia, New Zealand, Oceania, Hawaii, Mexico, South America, Cuba, and among the Indians of North America, could be given did the subject call for further details. A large conference of 288 native pastors and 177 deacons, so representative that it has been called the "Congregational Union of Samoa,"assembled at Malua in April, 1904. It ordained nineteen young men to the ministry, and formed a Christian Endeavor Union for German Samoa, besides giving days to the consideration of spiritual and practical themes bearing upon the progress of Christianity in the South Sea Islands. This all pertains to a region where not long ago degrading savagery reigned in its pre-missionary days. A settlement house was opened in 1903 at Manila, under the supervision of Bishop Brent. The Evangelical Union of the Philippine Islands is one of those bright signs—now becoming so numerous—of the gracious spirit of unity among Christians.

4. CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATIONS FOR YOUNG MEN AND YOUNG WOMEN. —This general caption stands for a group of societies well known in Christian lands, whose activities have been extended to foreign A noble response to the claims of world-wide missionsmission fields. Among those which have responded to the appeal of world missions are the Young Men's and the Young Women's Christian Associations, including their Intercollegiate Departments, the Student Volunteer Movement, the Society of Christian Endeavor, the Epworth League, the Baptist Young People's Union, the Luther League, the Brotherhood of St. Andrew, the Order of the Daughters of the King, the International Order of the King's Daughters and Sons, the Foreign Sunday School Association, the Children's Scripture Union, besides unions and bands connected with regular societies, as the Gleaners' Unions of the Church Missionary Society, the Watchers' Bands of the London Society, and the Wesley Guilds of the Wesleyan Society. The National Student Union in various




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mission lands are in affiliation with the World's Student Christian Federation. In addition to the organizations already specified, there may be included within this classification numerous associations or societies under native auspices in mission lands, such as institutes, guilds, bands, and circles (some of which have been mentioned in the previous section), the design of which is to instruct and inspire young people, and open to them doors of beneficent service.

The Young Men's Christian Association, especially through the work of its Student Department, is the leading factor in the foregoing enumeration. The World's Committee of Young Men's Christian Associations, The progress of the Y. M. C. A. in mission fieldsof which Mr. Charles Fermaud is General Secretary, has its headquarters at Geneva, Switzerland, and is the central agency around which cluster the various national committees of every continent. In countries where no national committee has as yet been formed the World's Committee is represented by its corresponding members. Conferences of this World's Committee are held every four years, the most recent having been convened at Paris, France, in 1905. Aside from the World's Committee, there is another organization which is in touch with foreign mission fields, yet quite distinct in its workings from the former Committee. It is the International Committee of Young Men's Christian Associations of North America, of which Dr. Lucien C. Warner is Chairman, and Mr. Richard C. Morse is the General Secretary. About 1888, solicitations from the missionaries in various fields began to accumulate in the hands of this International Committee, calling for its entrance upon a special work among the young men of non-Christian lands. These calls were responded to on the part of the Committee by sending Mr. Luther D. Wishard on a tour of investigation among the missions of the world, and in 1889 the first foreign secretary, Mr. David McConaughy, was sent to India. The Committee then established what is known as its Foreign Department, now under the general administration of Mr. J. R. Mott, with Mr. H. P. Andersen and Mr. E. T. Colton as Associate Secretaries. This International Committee through its Foreign Department sends a considerable force of foreign secretaries to the mission fields to aid in organization, and to coöperate with the various national committees, or with the more important local associations, and thus to extend the operations and aggressive efficiency of association work wherever they may be stationed. These foreign secretaries—they are in fact missionaries—now number sixty-three, in twelve mission lands, their services being devoted, in at least one




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half of the associations with which they are identified, to work TABLEamong students. The Foreign Mail is their American organ of communication with friends and supporters.1The National Councils of Young Men's Christian Associations in England and Scotland have also, like the North American International Committee, their Colonial and Foreign Departments, and send out their force of secretaries to mission lands, especially into India, Burma, and the British colonies. Bombay is one of their chief centres of activity, where Mr. Frank Anderson, M.A., and Mr. James McWhirter are conducting a successful mission among native students. Arrangements are completed for the construction of a handsome building for the Central Branch, devoted to work among Europeans and Eurasians, and another for the Student Department in the native city, the former to replace the old building, which is now out of date. A building is also in course of erection at Rangoon, and at Singapore a new branch has quite recently been opened, where suitable quarters have been obtained for establishing a hostel for young men. In addition to the services rendered by these

1 The distribution of these foreign secretaries as given in the Foreign Mail, Jan., 1906, including those from Canada and Great Britain, is as follows:




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North American and British secretaries, numerous independent local associations, under native auspices, have been organized in mission fields, each one connected with its own national council or committee, and manned by officers drawn from its own membership. The total of Young Men's Christian Associations in all strictly mission lands is 289, with a membership of about 22,800.1

The Young Women's Christian Association has also its World's The Y. W. C. A., and its activities abroadCommittee, of which Mrs. G. W. Campbell is the President, and Miss Clarissa Spencer, General Secretary, with its headquarters at 26 George Street, Hanover Square, London. There is also a coöperating American Committee, of which Mrs. Thomas S. Gladding is President, with headquarters at 289 Fourth Avenue, New York City. The World's Committee seeks to establish and promote the formation of associations for young women in European countries, British colo-

1 The distribution of these associations is as follows:




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nies, and foreign mission fields. It has sent out workers, numbering in all thirty-six, to India, Burma, Ceylon, China, Japan, and North and South Africa, and has also its corresponding representatives in Turkey, Egypt, Syria, Hong Kong, the Straits Settlements, and South America. The American Committee supports eight of the thirty-six secretaries in foreign fields. The total of Young Women's Christian Associations in mission lands is 313, with 6357 members. The next World's Conference is appointed to be held at Paris in May, 1906.

The Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions does not The Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missionsextend its activities to distant fields, but rather limits its sphere of service to the recruiting of candidates for the foreign service from among the students of Christian lands. A counterpart of the Student Volunteer Movement has established itself, nevertheless, among the student body in mission fields, as a department of the intercollegiate work of the Young Men's Christian Association. The purpose in foreign lands, however, is to secure volunteers for local rather than for distant missionary service. It assumes the function of a home missionary recruiting agency, with a view to stimulating consecration on the part of students to mission work in their own environment. Its special function in Christendom is to present the claims of foreign mission service to young men and young women of the student class, and to bring its appeal clearly and earnestly before their minds. In this it seeks to secure, from those who are inclined, such a commitment to work in foreign lands as they may feel justified in giving, or, at least, to awaken such an intelligent and permanent interest in the cause of missions as will dominate their subsequent attitude towards this great Christian obligation, even though they should not be able personally to go to the foreign field. It is a purely volunteer movement, with the call of foreign missions as its rallying-cry; it does not choose or commission candidates, however, regarding these functions as belonging exclusively to the churches or to missionary boards. It is in harmonious relations with all denominational bodies, and serves them all with impartial loyalty.1 Its condition of membership is the

1 The purpose of the Student Volunteer Movement, as stated by the Executive Committee, is as follows: "(1) to awaken and maintain among all Christian students of the United States and Canada intelligent and active interest in foreign missions; (2) to enrol a sufficient number of properly qualified student volunteers to meet the successive demands of the various missionary boards of North America; (3) to help all such intending missionaries to prepare for their life-work, and to enlist their cooperation in developing the missionary life of the home churches; (4) to lay an equal burden of responsibility on all students who are to remain as ministers and lay workers at home, that they may actively promote the missionary enterprise by their intelligent advocacy, by their gifts, and by their prayers."




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signing of a declaration stating that "It is my purpose, if God permit, to become a foreign missionary. "This is understood to be the statement of a present definite life-purpose, but not a pledge which involves such a commitment as would withdraw one from the subsequent guidance of the Spirit of God, or come into conflict with the personal leadings of His Providence.

The watchword of the organization is "The Evangelization of the World in this Generation."An official exposition and vindication of this watchword, in the sense authorized by the Student Volunteers, is to be found in a volume by M. John R. Mott, published in 1900, with the watchword itself as its title. The Volunteer Movement originated in 1886, but was not organized formally Its genesis and notable servicesuntil 1888. It has conducted a highly informing and quickening campaign among the students of the United States and Canada. A large number of students have been reached and influenced by means of addresses, classes for study, and personal interviews, and almost every educational institution of any prominence now has its Student Volunteer organization. In 1905 there were 1049 classes engaged in mission study, in 373 institutions, with 12,629 members in attendance. The series of mission study text-books published by the organization, under the supervision of its former Educational Secretary, Harlan P. Beach, M. A., with The Intercollegian—its official organ—and its numerous pamphlet issues, have been happily adapted to their purpose, and have presented an invaluable fund of information to the student mind, at the supreme psychological hour when the great choice of a life's work was under consideration. Important conferences have been held at intervals, the attendance at Nashville, 1906, exceeding 3000 students. In 1905 there were 3000 student volunteers, in connection with more than fifty different mission boards and societies, who had gone, during the past few years, to foreign mission fields. Students themselves in Canada and the United States are now contributing about $83,000 annually (including the gifts of instructors) towards the support of missions, $56,000 of this amount being for foreign work. Similar Student Volunteer Movements have been inaugurated in Great Britain (1892), France, Germany, Holland, Switzerland, Scandinavia, Australasia, and South Africa. As we have already intimated, the Volunteer Movement as a home missionary stimulus has extended itself to foreign




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fields, to wit, in India, Ceylon, China, and Japan. In those lands it has been coördinated with the Intercollegiate Young Men's Christian Association as a special branch of its work among students. It is, in fact, the missionary department of the College Young Men's Christian Association in Foreign Lands, its volunteer declaration contemplating only mission service at home. There are now not less than five hundred student volunteers enrolled in India, Ceylon, and China.1

The Student Christian Federation is distinct from the Student Volunteer Movement, and in its world-wide extension includes numerous national organizations in all continents, and also others more local in scope, identified with The Christian Student Movement its distinctive sphere and aimseparate institutions in lands where no national nucleus has yet been established. These national organizations of the Christian Student Movement are variously designated in different lands. The title in the United States and Canada is the Students' Young Men's Christian Association, or the Students' Young Women's Christian Association; in Great Britain it is the Student Christian Movement; in Australia the Students' Christian Union; in Germany the Christian Students' Alliance; in Belgium, France, Holland, and Switzerland the Christian Students' Movement; in India and Ceylon the Intercollegiate Young Men's Christian Association; in Japan the Students' Young Men's Christian Association Union; in China, Korea, and Hong Kong the Student Young Men's Christian Association; in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Finland the University Christian Movement; and in South Africa it is known as the Students' Christian Association. In mission lands where as yet there is no national organization of the Student Movement (as in Turkey, Persia, Greece, Egypt, Chile, Brazil, Sierra Leone, and Hawaii) the name of the association is usually identified with the institution with which it is connected, as, for example, the Young Men's Christian Association of the Syrian Protestant College of Beirut, or of the Robert College of Constantinople.

All of these associations, unions, alliances, and, in fact, all like organizations throughout the world, which may be classed under the convenient caption of "Movement,"having their spheres of activity among students, and being The "World's Student Christian Federation " its design and scopeChristian in spirit and aim, are coördinated in one inclusive organization known as the "World's Student Christian Federation."This greater "Federation"gathers the various national associations, of students under one union banner,

1Review of Missions, February, 1903, p, 482.




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and binds them together, under one constitution, in an immense student brotherhood, not, however, in a sense which destroys in the least the independence of their separate national organizations. This world federation dates from August, 1895, when it was formed by a conference of delegates, which met in the ancient castle of Wadstena (Vad-stena), on the shores of Lake Wettern, in Sweden, representing the five great Christian Student Movements of the world then in existence. These were the American (including the Canadian), British, German, and Scandinavian, and what was known at that time by the title of the "Student Christian Movement in Mission Lands."Since then the organizations of other lands have joined in the Federation, which now represents all continents, and the most prominent nations of the earth. World conferences have been held at Williamstown, Massachusetts, in 1897, at Eisenach in 1898, at Versailles in 1900, and at Sorö in 1902, and at Zeist, Holland, in 1905. The activities of this Federation, and the practical results of its workings, have proved of striking value to the student life of our generation. The spiritual opportunities it has discovered, and the impetus it has given to the development of Christian life and service among students, are phenomenal.1

The United Society of Christian Endeavor is another spiritual movement which The United Society of Christian Endeavor, and its remarkable extension in mission landshas extended itself to foreign fields with surprising rapidity and great acceptance. It has proved most helpful to the cause of foreign missions, both at home and abroad.2It has planted itself among the mission churches in numerous stations, with an alertness, energy, and enthusiasm truly astonishing, until its total of societies in mission lands, including "Juniors,"numbers 2376 according to a recent authoritative statement, with a membership which, although not officially given, may be safely estimated as fully 3oo,ooo.3

1 Pamphlets descriptive of the Student Movements of the world, and of the World's Student Christian Federation, are published at the headquarters of the Federation, 3 West 29th Street, New York City. Cf. also Mr. Mott's volume, "The Evangelization of the World in this Generation,"and the present author's "Centennial Survey of Foreign Missions,"pp. 238, 239.

2 The Missionary Review of the World, March, 1901, pp. 176-180, and June, 1903, pp. 420-427.

3 An article by Mr. Amos R. Wells, published in The Christian Endeavor World, February 4, 1904, and also the Quarter Century Almanac of 1906, prepared by Mr. Wells, furnish information from which we cull the following statistics of societies in mission fields:

The number of Christian Endeavor Societies in the entire world is 67,213 with member-ship of more than 3,500,000—a phenomenal growth, as the first society was formed in Portland, Maine, February 2, 1881.




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The Epworth League, an organization founded in 1889 The Epworth League as a factor in mission progressamong the young people of the Methodist Episcopal Church, is another devoted ally of the foreign missionary cause. It arranges for the systematic study of missions among its members, and has extended its organization into mission lands. Recent data concerning the number of leagues in foreign fields do not seem to be available at present. At the time of the Ecumenical Conference of 1900, the chapters reported as in foreign fields in connection with the Methodist Episcopal Church were 443, with a membership of 16,755, and in connection with the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, were reported forty-five chapters, with a membership of 2035, making a total of 488 chapters, with a membership of 18,790. There has been, no doubt, a considerable growth since 1900, as the membership in Southern Asia alone is now stated to be nearly 20,000.

The Baptist Young People's Union of America is not active in foreign fields through Other societies of young people, and their service to foreign missions any extension of its own separate organizations. It confines its attention to an earnest endeavor to stimulate and inform its membership in the homeland on the subject of missions. Its "Conquest Missionary Course plans for a systematic study of the theme which will bring its young people into sympathy with the cause, and deepen their interest in its progress. The United Society of Free Baptist Young People supports its own individual missionaries in India by contributing the necessary funds through the General Conference of Free Baptists. The Luther League of America occupies substantially the same relation to foreign missions as the Baptist Young People's Union. It devotes more attention, however, to home than to foreign missions. The Brotherhood of St. Andrew likewise is organized for home rather than for foreign service; yet it has its representatives in Japan and the Philippines, and has also chapters in Africa




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and Alaska. The Daughters of the King—an organization connected with the Protestant Episcopal Church of America—has two chapters in China, where it supports its own missionary at Shanghai, and has also chapters in Alaska, in the Danish and British West Indies, in Haiti, and in Hawaii. The Daughters of the King in the Dominion of Canada are interested in the girls' school at Quepe, Chile. The International Order of the King's Daughters and Sons has established its circles to some extent in India, China, Japan, Turkey, and Africa. Several of the children's societies in Christian lands have extended their work to mission fields. Among them may be noted the Children's Scripture Union, the Boys' Brigade, the Gleaners' Union, the Sowers' Band, and the Watchers' Band. Several organizations in the interests of Sunday-schools have aided in the establishment and support of Sunday-school work in mission lands. The growth of the India Sunday School Union is a most interesting feature of this department of missionary service.

The most recent enterprise to be noted is known as "The Young People's Missionary Movement."This was organized during a conference of leaders intimately identified with the work of the Church for the young, which assembled at Silver Bay, Lake George, New York, July 16-25, 1902, The "Movement"is a direct effort to interest young people in missions at home and abroad. Summer conferences are held, in which those who have direct responsibility in connection with work among that special class confer and plan for larger and more practical success in bringing the mission appeal to their attention. Metropolitan institutes are another feature, being held in the cities during the winter months, while the promotion of mission study classes, and the provision of suitable text-books, constitute a further sphere of usefulness. An Executive Committee representing the various denominations is in charge of this enterprise, and a noble opportunity is presented for reaching the hearts and informing the minds of those who are still young in years.1Several of the larger missionary agencies have, moreover, commissioned supplemental efforts for special work within their own constituencies; as the "Forward Movement"of the Presbyterian Board, under the secretarial charge of Mr. David McConaughy, and the "Mission Study Dep't"of the same Board, supervised by Dr. T. H. P. Sailer. A similar endeavor to influence young people has been inaugurated by the American Board, under the direction of its Assistant Secretary, Mr. Harry Wade Hicks.

1 The office of the Secretary, Mr. Charles V. Vickrey, is at 156 Fifth Avenue, New York City.




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These are but examples of a concerted effort to extend and deepen the interest in missions throughout the Church.

The above general statements concerning the missionary The growth of the Y. M. C. A. in Indiaactivities of these various organizations may be fitly supplemented by a brief survey of their status in prominent mission lands. India has given a cordial welcome to these different agencies, and has found them fresh and attractive in their methods, stimulating in their zeal, and extremely useful through their successful efforts to reach their young constituency. The Young Men's Christian Association seems to have secured its first lodgment in Indian soil at Trevandrum, South India, in 1873, where an association was formed by the missionaries of the London Society. Branch organizations were also established at Bombay and Lahore, in 1875. The first Student Association in the foreign mission field was formed at Jaffna College, Ceylon, in 1884, by Professor F. K. Sanders, then an instructor in Jaffna College, but now Dean of the Yale Divinity School. This firstling among the college organizations has become a model of sustained fidelity and zeal, and still occupies a front rank among student associations. It sends out its own missionaries to one of the neighboring islands, and to the Madura District of India. Other associations have since been formed in Ceylon, where Mr. Louis Hieb was sent, in 1896, as foreign secretary of the International Committee of North America. Mr. Hieb established a Young Men's Christian Association at Colombo, which will soon occupy a new building, erected at a cost of $25,000, on a valuable site leased by the Government. Associations at Jaffna City and at Galle have also been organized.

In India the earlier associations were formed for the most part between The Madras Association, and its noble building1880 and 1890. The first foreign secretary, in the person of Mr. David McConaughy, was sent out in 1889, by the International Committee of North America, The Madras association, and its noble in response to a special call from the missionaries building, of South India. Mr. McConaughy reached Madras in December, 1889, and his work in that important field has proved most fruitful in both spiritual and material results. The Madras Association was founded in 1890, when a model constitution was drawn up, in which several fundamental governing principles of the Association in India were incorporated. It was largely through Mr. McConaughy's influence and labors that the magnificent international structure for the uses of the Association at Madras was erected.1 The

1 See illustrations, pp. 380 and 388, Vol. I.




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ground was given by English contributors, the foundation and furnishings were provided in India, and the superstructure was erected from the gifts of Americans, chief among whom was Mr. John Wanamaker. The British Governmental Madras contributed $7000 towards the expense of the building, the total cost of which was about $70,000. The corner-stone was laid January 29, 1897, and the completed building was dedicated January 27, 1900, on the tenth anniversary of the Madras Association. It is thoroughly modern, and furnished with every appliance which could contribute to its attractiveness and usefulness. Its fourth floor is entirely given up to the purposes of a hostel for young men. Its membership in 1903 was 629. A further evidence of the splendid outcome of the Young Men's Christian Association campaign in South India is the fact that, out of 110 associations in all India, nearly two thirds are in the Madras Presidency. This is no doubt in part explained by the exceptional progress of Christianity in Southern India. Out of every 10,000 of the population in the Madras Presidency in 1900, 243 were Christians, as compared with 84 in the Bombay Presidency, 28 in the Bengal Presidency, and 12 each in the United and Central Provinces.

Another point of special interest in the history of the Association is The Association in Calcutta, and its expanding workCalcutta, where an organization was formed in 1982. Mr. J. Campbell White arrived as its foreign secretary in 1893. Since then the work has grown rapidly, so that it is now under the charge of six secretaries, and owns property of much value. A spacious building, formerly the Victoria Hospital of the Lady Dufferin Committee, was purchased to accommodate the Student Department, and was occupied July 16, 1897.1 On November 28, 1902, a large building was opened for the use of the Central Branch Association of Calcutta, intended for Europeans and Eurasians exclusively, the young men of these two classes numbering nearly 30,000 in the city. It is a fourstory brick building, admirably adapted to its purpose, and has cost about $93,000. On February 2, 1904, a special building, known as Wanamaker Hall, with boarding accommodations for the Boys' Department, was opened. The total membership, of all branches of the Calcutta Association, in 1904, was 599, and the present value of all association buildings in that city is $227,000. The Association at Bombay was established in 1875, and had its own building some years before those at Calcutta and at Madras were opened. Its two new buildings, it is expected, will soon be ready for use. It is especially

1 See illustration, p. 375, Vol. I.




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under the care of the British National Council, which sends out the foreign secretaries in charge.

The Indian National Council of Young Men's Christian Associations The Intercollegiate Department, and its work among Indian studentswas formed in 1891, and met first at Madras. The Intercollegiate Young Men's Christian Association of India and Ceylon was organized in 1896, and was admitted in the same year to the World's Student Christian Federation. There are at present in all India 104 associations, with about 7633 members, occupying sixteen buildings appropriated to their use. This is inclusive of forty-one student associations, with 2340 members, and we may add 690 student members connected with city associations, making a total student constituency of 3030. The Student Volunteer Movement, with its special missionary declaration, is an integral part of the intercollegiate work. This declaration contemplates home rather than foreign work, and is worded as follows: "It is my purpose, if God permit, to devote my life to direct work for Christ."The influence of these united forces of the Young Men's Christian Association in developing a growing consciousness in India of possible national unity, and also in promoting the bonds of international fellowship, is noticeable.1

The official endorsement given to the work of the Young Men's Christian Hearty official endorsements of the Association in IndiaAssociation in India, and the favorable estimate placed upon its usefulness by men in positions of great prominence, form a remarkable testimony, and give great encouragement to its workers. The Madras Conference of 1902 recorded its "hearty and thorough appreciation of the work of the Young Men's Christian Association in India, Burma, and Ceylon."The Conference further commended the general principles and methods, and affectionately accorded its prayers and fellowship to those engaged in that department of service. The Bishops of Bengal, Bombay, Madras, and Tinnevelly have presided at and addressed associational meetings, as have also the Governor of Madras, and Sir Andrew Fraser, the Lieutenant-

1 The extent to which this influence is felt is manifest in the following admirable remarks of the Bishop of Calcutta, whose high office as Metropolitan of the Church of England gives special weight to his commendation, and indicates a fraternal appreciation of good work done by those outside of the English Church connection: "The object of the Young Men's Christian Association is one of the noblest in the world. It is to hold out the hand of sympathy to young men at the anxious and arduous time when they are entering upon the solemn responsibilities of life. It is to unite all Christians in a common effort of sacred beneficence for Christ and for human souls. A young man if left to himself amidst the temptations of a great city in which he has no friends is only too likely to go wrong. But if he can be placed in good surroundings and can make noble friendships, if he can find elevating influences and interests, if he can realize every day that he is called to live as a member of a Christian State and a Christian Church, he will gain an unspeakable strength. It is in this view that I give my cordial support to the new undertaking of the Young Men's Christian Association in Calcutta. It is much needed; it has, I believe, been well considered; and I pray that the Divine Blessing may rest upon it."— The Christian Patriot, September 16, 1899.




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Governor of Bengal, who is, moreover, President of the Calcutta Association. Other prominent government officials and distinguished English residents of India have given abundant evidence of their cordial sympathy and readiness to coüperate. The Government of Madras, also of Ceylon and Bengal, and of the Central Provinces, have contributed liberal financial help towards the erection of association buildings; even the Nizam of Hyderabad, a Mohammedan, having given one half the cost of the building at Hyderabad.

The Young Women's Christian Association was established first at Bombay, and later at Excellent work of the Y. W. C. A. among Eurasian and Indian womenCalcutta and at Madras. The National Young Women's Christian Association of India, Burma, and Ceylon was formed January 1, 1897, Miss Agnes G. Hill being at present (1905) the National Secretary, with headquarters at Bombay. India is its largest and most important foreign mission field, its work as yet being chiefly among English and Eurasian women, although efforts among native women have not been neglected. A Home was opened in Madras in 1896, and a Students' Hostel in 1902; the latter enterprise, as is all work for women students in India, being conducted by a combined committee of the Young Women's Christian Association and the Missionary Settlement for University Women. Several Christian unions have been formed of students in the colleges and schools of Madras. Miss Elsie Nicol, sent out by the colleges of Australia, has just entered upon work for students at the Madras Hostel. Plans are now under way for an adequate building to accommodate its growing activities in that important city, where, under the direction of Miss Mary B. Hill and Miss Lela Guitner, the Association has a membership of 423. It has opened an Institute and a Home at Calcutta, with a membership of 765 in the former. There are several branch associations in adjacent places. Miss Laura Radford, Miss Alice Newell, and Miss Brunton are the Calcutta secretaries. Bombay, under the secretarial care of Miss Mary McElroy, Miss MacMurray, and Miss Berkin, has a fine new building, dedicated on August 27, 1901. Another important station is Lahore, where Miss Smith and




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Miss Masters are in charge. The Association has restful retreats, known as "Holiday Homes,"at Simla and Ootacamund (Utakamund), and a Home has been established at Mussoorie. It has also camps where recreation is combined with profitable spiritual and intellectual instruction. Its foreign secretaries now number eighteen, and it reported 100 associations in 1902, with a membership of about 4500. Its college organizations numbered twenty-seven, with a student membership of 555. In Ceylon, Miss Campbell is at Kandy, where a building to serve as a place of assembly is soon to be erected. At Colombo is an association Home, in charge of Miss Bracber.

The Christian Endeavor Society was introduced by Miss Leitch at Oodooville, in Ceylon, in The Christian Endeavor Society in India1885; the United Society of India, Burma, and Ceylon was formed in 1897, and numerous local unions have been organized in different provinces. The first All-India Convention met at Calcutta in 1898. The convention which assembled at Ahmednagar, in September, 1903, was the largest Christian gathering ever held in Western India. The Ahmednagar society is the second largest Endeavor Society in the world, having 693 members marshalled in twelve separate divisions of service. Plans have already been discussed for a meeting of the World's Christian Endeavor Convention at Calcutta, which, if held, will no doubt prove a memorable and inspiring incident in the history of modern missions. A British General Secretary for the India, Burma, and Ceylon Union has been appointed, in the person of the Rev. Herbert Halliwell, to take the place of the Rev. F. S. Hatch, who recently resigned. The Christian Endeavor Society has prospered in India, and proved itself most helpful as a missionary agency not only among young people, but also among adults. The testimony of numerous missionaries to its usefulness and adaptability is characterized by much enthusiasm. It is regarded as possessing remarkable zeal in multiplying its organizations, and in adjusting itself to aggressive evangelistic work. Its commendation by the Madras Conference of 1902 was hearty and explicit. There are at present 582 societies in India, which report approximately an aggregate membership of 18,200. A society formed in the Leper Asylum at Sholapur numbers 58 members, and has designated itself as the "Sign-Post Society of Christian Endeavor,"a name suited to its isolation, and yet descriptive of its desire to stand still by the wayside and point to the right path. A sentence in the last annual report indicates touchingly the attitude of its members. They say: "So, like the sign-post, we are trying to stand patiently and




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with love in our divinely appointed place, and by our attitude and prayers to help ourselves and others on toward the crucified Saviour."1 It should be noted also that several missions have young people's societies organized for substantially the same purposes as the Christian Endeavor, but passing under different names, as, for example, the Juvenile Associations and the Gleaners' Unions of the Church Missionary Society, and the Watchers' Bands of the London Society.

The Epworth League is identified with the Methodist missions in India, as are also the The Epworth League and the India Sunday-school UnionWesley Guilds with the Wesleyan Society. An All-India Convention of the Epworth League, held at Bangalore in February, 1904, gathered its representatives from all parts of India, and was attended by a delegation even from Malaysia. It was stated at this Convention that there were in Southern Asia nearly 20,000 native members of the League. The profitable instruction and devout enthusiasm which characterize the Epworth League campaign in India render it a potent spiritual force in that country. There are, moreover, other important movements intended for the young people of India, which should be noticed. Chief among them is the India Sunday School Union, which, in 1903, recorded the remarkable enrolment of 6938 schools, 11,965 teachers, 280,345 scholars, and a total membership of over 300,000. The first Sunday-school in India is said to have been established at Serampore, Bengal, in 1803, but it was not until 1876 that the Sunday-school campaign was regularly organized by the formation of the India Sunday School Union at Allahabad. The Union "at present binds together seventeen provincial auxiliary unions, and has for its President Sir Harnam Singh, and for its efficient Secretary the Rev. Richard Burges, with headquarters at Calcutta. The Indian Sunday-schools are conducted in about thirty different languages, in the majority of which Sunday-school periodical and lesson literature is regularly issued, which engages the attention of no less than thirty-five editors, Indian and European.

There are, in addition, Bands of Hope, Students' Associations, Young Men's Unions, Other associations, and their work among young people in IndiaYoung Men's Institutes, Circles of the King's Daughters, and numerous Christian Associations, such as the Native Christian Association of Madras (hereafter to be called the Indian Christian Association of Madras), and the Indian Christian Associations of Bombay, Poona, the Punjab, and the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, also the Parsi Christian Association of

1 Without the Camp, July, 1904, p, 38, and October, p. 56.




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Bombay, the Cannanore lndian Christian Association of Mangalore, and the Travancore Codhin Christian Association. Some of these, as the Indian Christian Association of Madras, have numerous branches, as those at Bangalore, Tanjore, Ootacamund, Bellary, Palamcotta, and Rangoon, and the twenty branches of the Association of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. The Madras Association has a total membership of 545, and expects soon to have a permanent building of its own. The membership of the Association of the United Provinces and its branches is over 700.

The Young Men's Christian Association in Burma is under the special The Y. M. C. A., the Y. W. C. A., and other societies for the young people of Burma and Siam charge of the British National Council, which sends out foreign secretaries to supervise its work. A new building is in prospect at Rangoon, to take the place of the present rented quarters. A health resort has recently been established in the Thaudarung Mountains as a refuge for young men who need recreation and the benefits of a periodic change of air from the enervating climate of the cities. The Young Women's Christian Association is also in Burma, and in 1900 it opened a Home for Young Women at Rangoon, where Miss Lindsay, Miss Casswell, and Miss Waugh are in charge as secretaries. Both the Young Men's and the Young Women's Associations are officially connected with the National Committees of India. The Student Volunteer Movement has met with much encouragement in Burma, in connection with the theological seminary at Insein. The scope of its activities includes not only home evangelism, but, in addition, foreign work among heathen races. A number of students have already gone out under this impulse, in response to calls to labor among savage tribes; according to a recent report twenty-five, out of an enrolment of forty students, were Volunteers, although still pursuing their studies in the seminary. The Society of Christian Endeavor enrols fifteen organizations in Burma, and there are also King's Daughters at Moulmein. In Siam the Young Men's Christian Association is represented by some local organizations, and two Christian Endeavor Societies are reported. In the Laos Provinces, moreover, there are twenty nine Societies of Christian Endeavor, whose conventions are characterized by much enthusiasm, and a Christian Endeavor paper is published in the native language. At the extremity of the Malay Peninsula we find the Young Men's Christian Association at Singapore, whither the British Council has recently sent Mr. R. D. Pringle as Secretary to look after its interests. Among the Methodist missions in Malaysia are a few scattered chapters of the Epworth League.




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In China, also, marked success has attended the introduction of these lines of effort "The Association of Christian Men of Vigorous Years " in Chinaamong young people. "The Association of Christian Men of Vigorous Years,"which is the literal translation of the Chinese title for the Young Men's Christian Association, was established at Tientsin, among English-speaking young men, in 1895, by Mr. D. W. Lyon, who was at that time sent out by the International Committee of North America. Here, too, the first building in China was secured (Mrs. J. Livingstone Taylor, of Cleveland, contributing the funds), and was set apart for the uses of the Association in 1897. Some of the college associations, as that of the North China College at Tungchau, near Peking, founded by the Rev. H. P. Beach in 1885, and that of the Anglo-Chinese College at Foochow, antedated this one at Tientsin, but the latter was the first one formed under the direction of a foreign secretary of the International Committee. The first Young Men's Christian Association Convention was held at Shanghai in November, 1896. It was the outcome of awakened interest among the students in Christian colleges, and of a growing conviction on the part of missionary educators that the higher spiritual welfare of students in China demanded organization. Mr. John R. Mott, who was then travelling in China, visited numerous colleges, where at his suggestion associations were formed, and this gave the basis for a concerted effort to unify these various bands into a permanent national organization. The result was the formation of the College Young Men's Christian Association of China, which was accomplished at the Shanghai Convention of 1896, where also a National Committee was appointed, with the Rev. A. P. Parker, D.D., as Chairman, to whose general oversight the interests of all the Christian Associations of China were committed. A Student Volunteer Movement in the colleges was also arranged for at the above Convention, to be considered as the missionary department of the College Young Men's Christian Association of China. Mr. R. E. Lewis reported in 1904 that there were 250 volunteers in the Chinese colleges. Through the good offices of Mr. Mott, the Chinese College Association was at once admitted to membership in the World's Student Christian Federation. In 1904 there were associations in forty-four educational institutions in China, with 1772 members. These student associations will no doubt multiply; they now promise to become one of the most powerful agencies of the twentieth century for unfolding and shaping the higher destiny of the educated young men of progressive China.

In a land where old men hold the place of honor and influence,




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often largely out of deference to their years, these associations are enlisting the The rise of Christian literati in China a twentieth-century product services of the younger men, and bringing them into the ranks of leadership and power. The new education in China emphasizes the capabilities of youth, and is placing young men, and in some instances young women, in positions of power and usefulness, to an extent quite unknown in the past. The literati of the twentieth century will thus be trained in modern knowledge, and will come into touch with the best thought and the higher inspiration of the West, and will, moreover, represent as never before the ability, enthusiasm, and enlightened zeal of educated young men. It is a significant fact when hundreds of the Christian literati of China, disciples of the new learning, endowed with the discernment which a modern education insures, meet together for days at a time to discuss the higher themes of progress, and to seek guidance and strength in prayer.1 In addition to the college associations, others of a more general scope have been founded in several of the large cities of China. The one at Shanghai is the most important and extended in its activities, having a Saxon, a Japanese, and a Chinese department, with a total of 962 members. A fine new building rented for the Saxon branch was opened in 1901,1 and a building for the Chinese branch is soon to be erected. A gratifying liberality on the part of Chinese supporters has afforded substantial help to the project. A similar readiness on the part of Chinese merchants in Hong Kong has given much

1 Cf. article on "The Young Men of China,"by Mr. D. W. Lyon, of Shanghai, in The Missionary Review of the World, February, 1903, pp. 105-108, and also article on "Work for the Young Men of China,"by Mr. Robert E. Lewis, in the same magazine, September, 1904, pp. 693-697.

2 Mr. Robert E. Lewis thus describes the ceremonies which attended the taking possession of the new quarters of the Saxon department: "The opening function was expressive in its simplicity. The British Consul-General for China turned the silver key, the American Episcopal Bishop in China offered prayer, and the submanager of the Hong Kong and Shanghai bank, who is vice-chairman of the board of directors of the Shanghai Young Men's Christian Association, made an impressive address. The building is splendidly located, one block from the Bund, and one block from Nanking Road, the greatest wholesale and retail streets of the city. It was erected for us, is four stories in height, has light on three sides, and has large verandas on the south. We are to make this building a centre of Christian influence among tempted Americans and Europeans in China. An indication of the hold which this Saxon branch of our work has on business men is seen in the fact that the Saxon merchants and bankers in Shanghai have filed a guarantee with the board of directors that they will stand responsible for the rent and current expenses (over and above members' dues) of this building and work for four years in advance."—Foreign Mail, October, 1901, pp. 8, 9.




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encouragement to Mr. W. J. Southam, who has organized there a Chinese Association, with a membership of 250. Bible classes, and a varied educational curriculum, combined with religious instruction, are successful features of the work, Mr. Southam was sent out by the International Committee in December, 1899, in response to a request by missionaries and native pastors of Hong Kong. A European department has been, formed, with the Hon. F. H. May, Acting-Governor of Hong Kong, as Chairman of the Board of Directors. The Third National Convention of All-China was held at Nanking in 1901, with 170 delegates. The entire number of associations reported in 1905 was fifty, with 3613 members.

A Young Women's Christian Association was formed by Miss Luella Miner at Tungchou, near Peking, about 1888; another was started at Canton in January, 1894, and in the same year associations were established also at Shanghai and Peking, They have now been organized at Hong Kong and Foochow, and at many other places, even in inland China. The American Committee of the World's Young Women's Christian Association sent out its first secretary to China in 1903, in the person of Miss Martha Berninger, who is at work among the women and girls industrially employed at Shanghai.

The Christian Endeavor Society was first introduced into China at Foochow, in 1885, and "The Drum-around-and-rouse-up-Society" in China entered North China in 1888, selecting as its stirring title the "Drum-around-and-rouse-up-Society."The Rev. G. H. Hubbard, an American Board missionary, who went to Foochow in 1884, carried with him the spirit of the Christian Endeavor ideal. A national union was formed in 1893, and several large district unions have been organized in different sections of the empire. The Rev. G. W. Hinman, of the American Board, was appointed the General Secretary for China in 1903. The Boxer disturbances of 1900 broke up many of the organizations, but there are at present 372 societies in China. A National Convention, well attended, was held at Ningpo in 1905. The scope of the Society in China is perhaps unique, as it comprises not only a spiritual training school, but a course of discipline in good behavior, and an effective agency for the promotion of polite, gentle, and unselfish demeanor. It seems in some cases to subdivide itself into numerous departments, with varied functions of an interesting character. The seven subdivisions of one of the Christian Endeavor Societies of China illustrate its all-round enterprise and wide-awake efficiency. These are, first, a "Gospel Preaching Band,"giving attention to evangelistic work; second, a "Lookout




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Committee,"whose duty is alert watchfulness concerning irregularities, and also the welcoming of new-comers; third, a "Christian Marriage Society,"whose special function seems to be to see that the marriage engagement shall be between Christians only, and that the wedding shall be under Christian auspices; fourth, a "Repeating Scripture Band,"which attends to the memorizing of chapters from the Bible; fifth, an "Anti-footbinding Society,"which endeavors to banish this objectionable custom, and to minimize compliance with the exactions it imposes; sixth, a "Christian Purity Society,"which enrols those who are willing to pledge themselves to abstain from intoxicating drinks and all degrading habits; seventh, a "Soul-Seeker Society,"which devotes itself to searching for inquirers, and leading them to Christ, This is surely Christian Endeavor in its broadest significance.1

The Epworth League has been well known in China since 1892, where there are numerous chapters, but no official statistics appear to be available. The Children's Scripture Union was introduced into that country in 1886, and in 1902 reported a membership of 1500.

The Japanese, with their usual alertness, have readily assimilated these modern Entrance of the Y. M. C. A. into Japanmethods of work among their young people. A group of Christians in Tokyo, as early as 1880, organized a Young Men's Association, which was the forerunner of the Tokyo Young Men's Christian Association, for which a fine building was erected in 1894, largely by the generous aid of American friends. Another association was formed at Osaka in 1882, which proved to be the first step in the establishment of the present Osaka Young Men's Christian Association, which, in 1887, built for its own uses a spacious hall, the first Young Men's Christian Association building in Japan. Friends in America, England, and Australia, aided also in this enterprise. The organization known in other countries as the National Committee was designated in Japan as the Central Committee, and divided into two sections, having in charge respectively the City and the Student departments. These two Central Committees, however, were united in 1903. Mr. Wishard's visit on behalf of the International Committee of North America, in 1889, and Mr. Mott's visit, in 1896, gave both stimulus and direction to Christian Association extension in Japan. When Mr. Mott arrived there were but eleven Students' Young Men's Christian Associations in existence, and when he left twenty-eight had been organized. He was present at the Convention, held early in 1897, when the Students' Union of Japan was formed, and brought into

1 China's Millions (Canadian Edition), April, 1904, p. 42.




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alliance with the World's Student Christian Federation. The Student Volunteer Movement in Japan was also initiated at the same time, and became the missionary department of the Students' Union programme. The formation of the City Young Men's Christian Association Union occurred later, in 1901, and these two unions—City and Students'—as before mentioned, were quite recently united. In 1888 Mr. John T. Swift went to Japan as a teacher of English, and in 1889 he was commissioned by the North American International Committee to serve as its first secretary in that country. He organized the Young Men's Christian Association in Tokyo, and was instrumental in securing the building for the Tokyo City Association, and also one for the University of Tokyo. Mr. Galen M. Fisher went to Japan in 1897, being the first foreign secretary actually sent out to that country by the International Committee of North America. There are now five foreign and eight Japanese secretaries giving their entire time to the oversight of the expanding work.

The city of Tokyo, with the possible exception of Calcutta, is the largest student centre in Its important work among studentsthe world, as there are in the former city at least fifty thousand who may be classed as belonging to the student body. The government statistics of 1902 show an actual enrolment of 47,806 in the Tokyo schools of the academy grade and upwards,1 and if the students studying privately in various special branches were added, it would obviously justify the figures just given as a conservative estimate. A Students' Association has been formed in the Imperial University, occupying its own special building, erected in 1898, having every facility, including a hostel, and a tower-room set apart exclusively for prayer. Several other student associations have been organized in the city. The work of the associations throughout Japan is, in fact, largely among students, as there are fifty-three student associations and only nine city associations in the empire, making a total of sixty-four, with a membership of nearly 2800. The city associations are at Tokyo, Osaka, Kyoto, Nagoya, Kobe, Yokohama, Nagasaki, Hiroshima, and Sapporo. Tokyo and Osaka as yet are the only cities having association buildings, but plans are well matured for erecting others for both city and student organizations at Nagasaki, Sendai, Kagoshima, Niigata, Kyoto, and Kobe. The sphere of service which has opened among the students presents many urgent claims as well as opportunities. Homes, or hostels, for students are needed in many places, thirteen of these having been already

1 Cf. The Japan Evangelist, May, 1901, p. 147, and June, 1902, p. 200.




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established. The demand for a department for boys of from ten to fifteen years of age is pressing, and indeed calls for immediate attention.

An interesting feature of the service rendered to Japanese education by the Association is its assumption, at the request of the Japanese authorities, of the function of a recruiting agency for securing from America teachers of English, to be employed by the Japanese Government. Fifty-one young men have already been called to Japan through association channels, and of these twenty-two are now (1906) teaching there. It is needless to say that they have been selected with care, and with due regard to their personal fitness for such responsibilities. Their Christian influence has been marked in many instances. The association halls in various cities have become arenas of moral reform movements, and rallying-places for the leaders of the higher life, where they meet to consider social, civic, and even national, interests. It was at the Tokyo Young Men's Christian Association Hall, in a crowded meeting, held on the fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the first treaty between America and Japan, that Bishop McKim, of the American Episcopal Church, proposed that the American residents of Japan should establish a "fund"in aid of the destitute families of Japanese soldiers and sailors, to be 'known as the "Perry Memorial Relief Fund,"and that it should be placed at the disposal of His Excellency the Minister of the Imperial Household, to be distributed under the command of His Imperial Majesty. The proposal was received with enthusiasm by both the Americans and Japanese who were present. It was also in the same place that a Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was originated. Thus the association buildings become a rendezvous for public-spirited movements, in which Japanese citizens unite with American residents in organizing projects of philanthropic and moral reform.

The endorsement of the Association by prominent Japanese has been most cordial and Its plan of a beneficent campaign in cities, and also in the Japanese Army and Navysignificant. Among recent examples are the remarks of Baron Mitsu Maejima, ex-Postmaster-General, and of Baron Shibusawa.1 In fact, the influential rô1e which the Association has assumed in furthering Japanese progress has suggested the formation of a Young Men's Buddhist Association, which is seeking the same opportunities of usefulness among its Buddhist constituency. The Christian Association is planning a large campaign, with the purpose of establishing an organization in every city of the empire with a

1 The Japan Evangelist, September, 1903, p. 293.




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population of over fifty thousand, and in every higher institution of learning in the country. It sought diligently after the outbreak of the late war with Russia, to obtain the permission of the Government to send its association representatives with the army and navy, in order to render a service similar to that which it has accomplished among the army and navy forces of America. The privilege was finally granted, and association workers were then allowed to go to the front. They pitched their tents, and established their well-known facilities for soldiers and sailors, wherever the army was sufficiently stationary to render it possible. The association headquarters were at first located in Korea, where, temporarily, they were available for the soldier who was on his way to the front; but permission was subsequently granted by the Japanese Government, with the cordial endorsement of the Minister of War, to extend activities into Manchuria, and work has been undertaken at Antung, Liao Yang, Yiukow, Hojo, Dalney, and at other points in touch with the Japanese Army and Navy. The secretaries engaged in the service numbered fifteen, the majority of whom were Japanese.

The Young Women's Christian Association has been active in Japan for nearly twenty years, at Progress, of the, Y. W. C. A. in Japan first informally under the direction of ladies connected with the missionary organizations. In January, 1904, the first foreign secretary, in the person of Miss Theresa Morrison, of the University of Minnesota, sent out by the American Committee, arrived in the country to engage in association service, in connection with the women of Tokyo. Miss A. C. Macdonald also reached Tokyo in December, 1904, as a secretary sent out by the Committee of the Young Women's Christian Association of Canada. A special organ, in the form of a magazine called Young Women of Japan, has of late appeared.

The first Christian Endeavor Society formed in Japan was established in 1891, at Okayama, in The Christian Endeavor Society in Japanese churchesconnection with the Church of Christ in Japan, and is identified with the mission of the American Board. Only a few other societies were in existence prior to the visit of the President, Dr. Clark, in 1892. The inspiration and encouragement of his addresses resulted in the formation of fifty-seven societies within a year of his visit. The National Union of the Christian Endeavor Societiess of Japan was formed at Kobe in 1893, where the first Pan-Japan Convention of Christian Endeavor organizations was held in the same year. Dr. Clark paid another, visit, during which




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he attended the Eighth National, Convention, which assembled again at Kobe, in 1900. There were 128 societies in the empire in 1904, with a membership of about 2500. The Twelfth National Convention was held at Tokyo in the spring of 1904. Much enthusiasm and vitality have characterized the progress of the Christian Endeavor movement in the Japanese churches. The fraternal message sent by cable from Japan to the Convention held in Denver in 1903 will long be remembered as an inspiring and cheering incident. A few chapters of the Epworth League, which was established in Japan in 1891, are reported in connection with the churches of the Methodist Mission. The Brotherhood of St. Andrew was introduced in 1894, and in the year 1902 the National Brotherhood of St. Andrew for Japan was organized, on an independent basis, and with a Japanese secretary. A number of chapters have been formed in connection with the American Episcopal and the English Church missions in Japan. There are also various Gospel societies and associations drawing their membership from the young people of the churches, and a large children's constituency of the Scripture Union.

The missionaries in Korea forwarded an urgent call in 1901 to the International Committee of The Y. M. C. A. an active force in KoreaNorth America, requesting that a foreign secretary might be sent out to Korea to establish the Young Men's Christian Association in that country. Mr. Philip L. Gillett was commissioned for this work in the same year, and in November reached his station at Seoul. The Christian community of that city responded cordially to his efforts, and steps were soon taken looking to an organization of the Association. Generous friends in America offered financial support, provided certain contributions were forthcoming in Korea. The outcome was the gathering of a representative assembly, on the 18th of March, 1903, to consider the proposal, which resulted eventually in the organization of association work in Seoul, on October 28, 1903. A Board of Directors was elected, including the names of many of the most prominent foreign residents of Korea, as well as those of native Christians. A student association was also formed about the same date, in connection with the Pai Chai College. The newly established work has the advantage of the immediate services of a foreign secretary, and there is every reason to regard the Young Men's Christian Association as now a living force in Korea. The project for an association building is well under way, the land having been already purchased. The Christian Endeavor Society was first established in Korea in 1900, and at present reports twelve organ-




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izations. The Epworth League was introduced in 1897, by a resolution of the Methodist Mission assembled at Seoul, and a few societies are reported as in existence.

The African contingent of the Young Men's Christian Association is largely in the southern section of that Continent, where it is represented by ten associations in the larger cities—Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg, Kimberley, Pietermaritzburg, and Vigorous organizations for young people in AfricaPretoria are examples—with a membership of about 4000. Some of these associations have been long established, as in the case of Cape Town, where one was organized in 1865. In 1896, in connection with the visit of Mr. Wishard and the Rev. Donald Fraser, the Students' Christian Association of South Africa was formed, and joined the World's Student Christian Federation. Its first General Conference was held in 1897, and in 1900 ninety-five affiliated associations, identified with the British and Dutch churches and institutions, were reported. Its membership in 1904 was about three thousand in the schools and colleges of South Africa. The Student Volunteer Movement was at an early date constituted a working department of the Students' Christian Association. The Volunteer Movement originated in the Huguenot Seminary at Wellington, in 1890, a similar band having also been formed at Stellenbosch about the same time. The organization was completed in 1893, but when, in 1896, the Students' Christian Association was formed, the various volunteer bands became committees of the Association, and since then the Volunteer Movement has been an integral feature of association work. It has been popular in many educational institutions, as, for example, at Lovedale, where the Students' Christian Association numbers forty-five volunteers among the native Africans. There were 158 volunteers reported in South Africa in 1901, thirty-five of whom had already entered upon active service. Since the close of the Boer War a remarkable missionary movement has sprung up, dating from the return of the Boer prisoners to their native land. It is stated that some two hundred young men among them have announced themselves as student volunteers ready to enter upon mission work in their own country. Many of these are already in training at Wellington or Stellenbosch, under the auspices of the Dutch Reformed Church. A special institution has been opened at Worcester, Cape Colony, and the Dutch Church has assumed the responsibility of providing every facility for the furtherance of this remarkable "Movement."1 A vigorous campaign of the Young

1 The Missionary Review of the World, November, 1903, pp. 841-844.




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Men's Christian Association began in 1903, and six new buildings were planned to accommodate the greatly increased membership since the close of the war. A very handsome structure has been erected at Johannesburg, the funds for which were almost entirely provided locally. In Durban $85,000 has just been devoted to the purposes of a building. The total expenditure for prospective building operations in South Africa will not be far from half a million dollars. In other sections of Africa, North, West, and Central, eleven associations are reported, with a membership of 308. These are mostly on the Gold Coast, in connection with the Basel Mission. Egypt is the scene of an interesting work under the direction of the English National Council of the Young Men's Christian Association.

The World's Committee of the Young Women's Christian Association is doing good service at Cairo and Alexandria, at which latter place a Home for Young Women has been established, which at present is independently conducted by Miss Rose Johnson. The Y. W. C. A. active at various important centresA similar Home at Cairo was opened in 1902, under the charge of Miss Margerison and Miss Maclnnes. The principal work, however, of the Young Women's Christian Association is in South Africa, where, at Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, Durban, and Pietermaritzburg, association Homes have also been founded. A new building has been erected at Cape Town, and the Association has quite recently been established at Johannesburg, where a spacious Home, especially devoted to its purposes, will soon be built. There are no doubt local associations scattered here and there at mission stations throughout the Continent which have been opened under the direction of individual missionaries. We read, for example, of one at Abeokuta, in the Yoruba Country on the West Coast, founded by Miss H. J. Duncum, of the Church Missionary Society. A brief descriptive paragraph speaks of its having forty members, and gives us glimpses of an instructive programme of Bible study, of social gatherings for recreation, of useful work in behalf of missions, and of an aspiring effort to provide sufficient funds to support a Bible-woman at one of the out-stations. What a cheering insight is here given of quiet work for Christ, almost hidden from sight in an African mission station!

The Christian Endeavor reports 341 societies in Africa, scattered throughout Egypt, along the West Coast, in the Congo State, and in Nyassaland, but to be found chiefly in South Africa. The first African Christian Endeavor Society was organized at the Huguenot Seminary, in 1887, while a flourishing South African Union of the




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Endeavor Societies was formed in 1895, a special travelling secretary, Mr. Kilbon, being appointed in Christian Endeavor, and its useful work in Africa1900. The remarkable movement of Boer Student Volunteers, previously mentioned, seems really to have resulted from the influence of Christian Endeavor Societies that had been formed in the different prison camps of the Boers in St. Helena, Ceylon, the Bermudas, and elsewhere. Sowers' Bands and Gleaners' Unions are also to be found in connection with the Church of England missions in Uganda; various guilds have been formed by the Universities' Mission in East Africa; Wesley Guilds are a feature of the Wesleyan missions on the Gold Coast; and several Scripture Unions are in Sierra Leone.

Madagascar reports a Young Men's Christian Association at Antananarivo, which has just issued The young people of Madagascar an appealits appeal to the French Associations for aid in securing a building for its special use. It pleads in the name of a constituency of over thousand young men, among whom it is possible to extend its work. May we not hope that a generous response will be forthcoming? An interesting incident in the history of the Christian Endeavor movement was the discovery, in 1892, that thirty Christian Endeavor Societies had been formed on the island, chiefly through the influence of the Rev. W. E. Cousins, a missionary of the London Society. These afterwards increased in number to ninety-three; but it is feared that the Christian Endeavor movement has lost some of its vitality since the French occupation, owing to the overshadowing influence of the Roman Catholic Church.

The Turkish Empire, including the missions in European Turkey, Various associations in Mohammedan lands reports nineteen branches of the Young Men's Christian Association; and we hear from Salonica and Sofia a call to the International Committee for some foreign secretaries to supervise the interests of their growing associations. At Constantinople there are both English and Armenian organizations, and also a students' association at Robert College. We find it again at Baghdad, Aleppo, and Aintab, where a generous native has provided a building for its use, and at Beirut, in connection with the Syrian Protestant College. Nazareth and Jerusalem should also be entered on the list. The Young Women's Christian Association has several branches in the Turkish Empire. Beginning at Constantinople, we find it established at Smyrna, Marash, Hadjin, Damascus, Shweifat, Hasbeiya, Nazareth, and Jerusalem. These are mostly local organizations, founded under the inspiration of




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missionary workers. The Christian Endeavor Societies of Turkey number twenty, not a very-large showing, yet it is a remarkable and gratifying fact when we consider that the Turkish Government looks with political horror upon the signing of constitutions, the wearing of badges, or identification in any way, shape, or manner with anything that passes under the ominous name of "society."Some of these cautious bands have even burned their records, and no wonder, since it was only a short time ago that a Protestant pastor and some college students were thrown into prison because innocent Christian Endeavor documents were found in their possession, which were immediately interpreted as implicating them in seditious plots and dark designs. In addition to the societies above mentioned, there are sixteen more in Syria, and one at Jerusalem. Here and there are found local circles of the King's Daughters, as in the Smyrna Girls' School; and there are also "Ready and Willing Clubs,"devoted to kindly benevolence, and to the saving of pennies to provide some ministry of love for the poor and needy.1 In Persia the Young Men's Christian Association has some active organizations, as in the College at Urumiah, and among the young men at Julfa, a suburb of Ispahan. The Society of Christian Endeavor is also at work in Persia, with thirty-five branches. Most of these, it is interesting to note, have sprung from an earnest organization in the Fiske Seminary at Urumiah, which multiplied itself as the members returned to their homes, carrying with them the Christian Endeavor seed. The first Christian Endeavor Union Convention was held in 1902. Miss McConaughy, of Fiske Seminary, reports an earnest spirit at work in Christian Endeavor circles, and an increasing interest in the organization.

Turning now to Australasia and Oceania, we note the Young Men's Christian Association The Y. M. C. A, in Australasia and Oceania in the principal cities of Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand, having, however, the sphere of its work almost exclusively among the English colonists. In New Zealand we find in the Te Aute College Student Association one which devotes itself to labor among the Maoris, whose social, moral, and spiritual elevation it has been organized to promote. The Student Volunteer Movement in the educational institutions of both Australia and New Zealand has a strong hold upon the student body, and numbers in its forty-five organizations in various prominent institutions many volunteers for both home and foreign service. The South Sea Islanders' Christian Club at Brisbane represents a kindly effort to render spiritual and

1 Life and Light for Woman, February, 1902, pp. 68, 69.




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philanthropic service to South Sea natives who, for various reasons, are resident in Australia. The work of the Young Men's Christian Association has been established in the Philippines, but is largely as yet for the benefit of the American soldiers and sailors. The International Committee, generously aided by Miss Helen M. Gould, has sent out a group of secretaries, whose services have proved a great blessing and comfort to men of the American Army and Navy. Association buildings have been erected near the army posts, which have become centres of cheering and helpful ministry to the men. A large and urgent field opens also for the establishment of city associations, especially those designed to reach native young men. If we journey eastward from Australasia, the Hawaiian Islands seem to be the only place in the Pacific where we find Young Men's Christian Associations organized. There is one at Honolulu, and there are several others elsewhere connected with educational institutions. The Honolulu Association has branches for the native Hawaiians, the Chinese, and the Japanese. The Chinese branch has a building of its own, and is a very efficient organization. A unique Young Men's Christian Associatison has been formed among the lepers on the Island of Molokai, where a suitable building has been erected, with every facility for the cheer and comfort of the victims of that dread malady.

The Christian Endeavor Society has spread its sails in the South Seas, and cast its anchor in many an island harbor. Its vigorous growth in Australasia is well known; Australia, with its 3960 societies, stands fourth in this respect among the countries Christian Endeavor spreads its sails in the South Seasof the world. The Australian Union is one of the most efficient organizations in existence, and its conventions rank among the most remarkable religious gatherings in the southern hemisphere. The Christian Endeavor movement is also in the Philippines, where six societies have been founded. The Report of the London Society for 1901 states that in the Loyalty Islands the movement has made great progress, every village having its society, and all uniting, as they have opportunity, in kindly ministry to those around them. Upon a recent occasion, when the house and all the property of one of the native pastors were accidentally destroyed by fire, these earnest young helpers collected sufficient in clothing and money to make up almost the whole of his loss. A story of real heroism is reported concerning the efforts of a Christian Endeavor Band in Lifu to befriend a colony of lepers who had been ordered away from Lifu to take up their abode on a small uninhabited island some sixteen miles distant. These courageous young friends




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ministered to the needs of the distressed outcasts by carrying them food, and when they were subsequently ordered to another island the devoted members still continued their faithful, benevolent, and even perilous, work. There is one Christian Endeavor Society in the New Hebrides; in the Marshall Islands there are twenty-one societies; in the Gilbert group, four; in the Carolines, three; in the Ellice Islands, six; in the Tokelaus, two; and in Samoa, where, in 1890, at the Malua Training Institution, the first society in the South Pacific is said to have been established, there are now twenty societies, which have been formed into a Christian Endeavor Union for German Samoa. A large number of the members of the Malua society have become missionaries in New Guinea. One society has recently been established in Guam. Hawaii, in 1884, organized the first society formed outside of America, and there are now fifty-four such organizations in the Hawaiian group.

The great Continent of South America has been touched here and there by these modern movements on behalf of young people. The first surviving Young Men's Christian Association of which we can find any trace is in the Waldensian Colony in Uruguay, Modern movements on behalf of young people on the South American Continentand was founded in 1891. One organization only, that of Buenos Ayres, preceded it, and that seems to have had but a temporary existence. The first college association was formed in the Instituto Ingles, at Santiago, Chile, in 1894. It was a spontaneous and entirely local effort on the part of some Christian students, who by a happy coincidence chose to name themselves Sociedad de Jovenes Christianos, which is the literal equivalent of Young Men's Christian Association. The real impetus, however, to associational progress dates from the foundation of the Rio de Janeiro branch, in 1893, under the efficient direction of Mr. Myron A. Clark. It was under Mr. Clark's supervision that a beautiful structure for the special use of Christian young men was purchased in 1897, thus becoming the first association building in South America. Remarkable success has attended the efforts of Mr. B. A. Shuman in the establishment of the Association at Buenos Ayres, whither he went in 1901 as a representative of the International Committee. A convenient and spacious building was rented and occupied in 1903, and the latest reports indicate a membership of nearly five hundred. The total of all associations in South America is sixteen and of this number nine are in Brazil. The aggregate membership reported in South American countries is 1390. Mr. Clark is devoting himself to establishing other associations, and the statistics now given




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will doubtless soon be out of date. Flourishing Student Associations are to be found at Granbery College in Juiz de Fora, and at Mackenzie College, São Paulo. The National Convention of Brazil was formed in 1903, on the tenth anniversary of the founding of the Association at Rio. There are several similarly named associations of young men at different stations of the Continent, as the Young Men's Evangelical Union, at Barranquilla, and the Young Men's Institute, at Cuzco, Peru. A Young Women's Christian Association is also in existence at Rio de Janeiro, where it has a membership of 116. A local association has established a young women's Home in the environs of Buenos Ayres, and there is still another organization in British Guiana.

Christian Endeavor Societies to the number of eighty-four are reported in South America, sixty-two of these being in Brazil, eleven in British Guiana, six in Chile, and five in Colombia. The National Union of Brazil was formed in 1902. In Central America thirteen societies are in existence, the pioneer being the "Lone Star Endeavor "of Guatemala, which was organized in 1896. The Epworth League reports twenty-nine chapters in South America.

In Mexico the Young Men's Christian Association has begun a vigorous exploitation, an Hopeful work among the young in Mexico and the West Indies association having been formed in Mexico City in 1902, to which place the International Committee has sent Messrs. Babcock and Williamson as secretaries. The membership now numbers 625, and the association is occupying its own building.1 The present association succeeds one which was formed in the early nineties, but which had only a transient existence. The Christian Endeavor organizations already number 133 societies. The first National Convention was held at Zacatecas in 1896, and the present National Union is vigorous and flourishing. The Endeavor Societies, the Epworth League chapters, the Baptist Young People's Associations, and the Sunday-school organizations, in 1897, all united in a Federation, which has its annual conventions, attended by a representative gathering of about five hundred delegates.

In the West Indies the Young Men's Christian Association is represented by three branches. Army and navy work has been conducted by it in Cuba and Porto Rico. In January, 1904, the International Committee sent Mr. J. E. Hubbard to Havana, where in November he organized a Y. M. C. A. which within a month enrolled 300 members. Plans are now maturing to secure first-class facilities with which to equip the association for its duties. Association work

1 Foreign Mail, January, 1904, p. 13.




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is also to be established in Panama for the benefit of those engaged in the great task of engineering and constructing the proposed canal. The Christian Endeavor Societies in the West Indies number 292, Jamaica alone having 258 branches. The Daughters of the King have chapters in the Danish and British West Indies and in Haiti. In the United States the American organization of the Young Men's Christian Association has a special department of work among the North American Indians, where forty-seven branches are in active existence, six of which are in Indian schools.1 Of the Christian Endeavor Societies reported for the United States a large number represent an Indian constituency.

In Alaska the Young Men's Christian Association has four branches, in connection with its Christian Endeavor heroism, amid Alaskan snowsArmy and Navy Department. They are located at isolated army posts, and are visited by a resident secretary, whose only means of communication during the winter is the dog-team of the Alaskan snows, association. Alaska has also seventeen Christian Endeavor Societies, the one at Point Barrow being, it is stated, the most northerly Christian Endeavor group in the world. An interesting statement is made concerning the heroic services rendered by the intrepid members of the Endeavor Society at Valdez. It was organized in 1898, and among its charter members was Melvin Dempsey, a Cherokee Indian. Near by is the great Valdez glacier, twenty-eight miles long, with an average of over two miles in width. This became the pathway of the venturesome prospectors in their attempts to reach the Copper River Valley. It was a journey of terrible hardships and perils. Fierce winds, with the thermometer from fifty to seventy degrees below zero, bewildered the traveller, and in many instances doomed him to perish without hope of rescue. The brave members of the Endeavor Society at Valdez, acting upon the suggestion of Mr. Dempsey, built a series of rescue stations, with the Red Cross flag as a signal of encouragement and cheer. At these relief stations the society provided stoves, fuel, provisions, and medicines, for the imperilled travellers, and has thus been the means of saving hundreds of lives. When men are lost in the snow-storms this valiant Endeavor band attempts a rescue, but, alas! often too late to save life; in which case it provides for a Christian burial, and makes special efforts to communicate, if possible, with the friends of the deceased. It is a reproduction, in the wintry wilds of Alaska, of the humanitarian work

1 "Year Book of the Young Men's Christian Associations of North America,"1903-4, p. 285.




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of the Alpine rescue stations. The Brotherhood of St. Andrew also has some chapters in Alaska, and carries on its genial and gracious work in places where the helpfulness of Christian fellowship is much needed and highly valued.

5. THE PRODUCTION OF WHOLESOME AND INSTRUCTIVE LITERATURE.—In the preceding volume of this series several pages are devoted to the general exposition of the social value of the contribution which missions have made to the present-day A noble rôle in authorshipliterature of foreign peoples (Volume II., pp. 35-39). In the author's "Centennial Survey of Foreign Missions "will be found carefully collated data concerning the labors of missionaries in Bible translation, in the establishment of publishing facilities in foreign languages, and in the issue of periodical literature in many fields.1 In a subsequent section of the present volume, dealing with the contribution of missionaries to the literature of Christendom, and to the general and scientific knowledge of the world, the attention of the reader is called to the rôle of the missionary as an author in his own language, to the magnitude of his lexicographic labors, to his notable philological attainments in foreign tongues, and to his valuable services in reducing barbarous and obscure languages to written form, thus giving them an endowment of power of which they would otherwise be hopelessly bereft.2

It remains in this section to present a summary view of the volume, variety, and Increasing attention to vernacular productionscope of that marvelous output of literary production in the vernacular languages of native races which has to be credited to mission enterprise.3 Its range is immense, its quality—barring the defective literary style of some earlier productions— is admirable, and its potency has become a moral and intellectual asset

1 "Centennial Survey of Foreign Missions,"pp. 123-190, 268-270.

2 See pp. 406-423 of this volume.

3 The extent of the contribution which some missionaries have made to vernacular literature is as astonishing as it is notable. Ziegenbalg, Carey, and Marshman, in India; Morrison, Milne, Medhurst, Gutzlaff, Faber, and Legge, in China; Van Dyck and Post, in Syria; Koelle, in West Africa, and Krapf and Taylor, in East Africa, are conspicuous illustrations. Each one of these men may be credited with an enormous literary output, either in Bible translations, or in other branches of erudition. Twenty-five volumes are attributed to Morrison; twenty-four to Milne; twenty to Legge; twenty-seven to Faber; and to Gutzlaff, sixty-one volumes in Chinese, two in Japanese, one in Siamese, five in Dutch, seven in German, and nine in English. In later years Dr. Muirhead was the author of thirty volumes in Chinese, and three in English. Dr. McCartee published thirty-four in Chinese; and to Dr. Edkins may be traced fourteen publications in Chinese, seven in English, and one in Mongolian. Dr. Van Dyck prepared twenty-four volumes in Arabic, and Dr. Post is the author of seven, two of which, a Concordance and a Bible Dictionary, are works of standard excellence and value, representing immense and painstaking toil.

Cf. also an article by the Rev. J. T. Gracey, D.D., on "The Protestant Literary Movement in China,"in The Missionary Review of the World January, 1904, pp. 25-29.




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of priceless value in many languages which, with an almost creative genius, missionaries have either made alive as vehicles of culture, or enriched with the treasures of modern knowledge. In numerous mission fields the first printed book in the vernacular was the work of a missionary. In some instances, as in the case of the Santals, the only literature possessed by an entire people has been put into their hands by missionaries. A Moravian watchman on the Himalayan heights, waiting for the opened door into Tibet, established recently the first newspaper in that long-closed land. Modern vernacular literature quite apart from missionary production now exists in great volume in the more important mission fields, yet, with hardly an exception, it has received its initial impulse from the early personal labors of missionaries, who introduced printing facilities,1 and began the publication of a new type of literature; and this in spite of the fact that literary production has until lately been a subsidiary interest with missionary societies. Consecrated individual devotion, rather than extended appropriations on the part of missionary societies, has been the source of much of the literary output of the past century. For many years the only missionary formally set apart for literary labors, Bible translation

1 The following account of the introduction of the printing-press into Persia is taken from Newcomb's "Cyclopedia of Missions,"p. 558, a volume published in 1856: "When the missionaries commenced their labors at Oroomiah they at once felt the want of a press and a printer. . . . At last, on the 21st of July, 1840, Mr. Breath sailed from Boston, taking with him an iron press, constructed of so many pieces that it could be transported on horseback from Trebizond to Oroomiah. He reached Oroomiah November 17th, and the press was immediately put in operation, exciting great interest among both Nestorians and Mohammedans. Sixteen hundred volumes and 3600 tracts, amounting in all to 510,400 pages, were reported as having been printed in 1841."




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excepted, was in India, in the person of the late Dr. John Murdoch, of the Church of Scotland, whose long service in the production of Christian books and tracts was fitly closed when, after nearly sixty years of toil, he revised, just as his life was closing, the final proofs of "An Indian Patriot's Duty to His Country."A call for such special effort in behalf of literature has, however, been increasingly recognized by many societies. In India and China, for example, missionaries have been definitely commissioned to this department of labor, among whom we may name Dr. Weitbrecht, Dr. Rouse, Dr. McLaurin, the late Dr. K. S. Macdonald, and the Rev. Messrs. E. W. Thompson, F. Ashcroft, E. M. Wherry, and Henry Gulliford, in India; and the late Dr. A. Williamson, Dr. Timothy Richard, Drs. Allen and MacGillivray, and the Rev. W. A. Cornaby, in China. The claims of literature are now receiving serious and generous consideration from many sources. At the recent Decennial Conference of Madras the subject was discussed with much earnestness, and strong resolutions in favor of an advanced movement in this department were passed. A permanent Literature Committee was appointed, supplemented by numerous special committees, each one being assigned to the supervision of a particular linguistic area, so that the requirements of all the important languages of India shall receive careful attention.1

The call for extended and careful work in the production of vernacular literature is one Great languages waiting for a Christian literaturewhich is emphasized by missionaries themselves in all parts of the world. Its importance as an antidote to impure and anti-Christian literature is much and properly accentuated. A Parsi schoolmaster in Persia remarked not long ago that "the great reason against educating girls was that there was no Persian literature fit for them to read." Much has already been accomplished in numerous mission fields; yet it is manifest that only a beginning has been made. Some of the great languages of Asia, such as the

1 "Report of the Fourth Decennial Indian Missionary Conference, Madras, 1902,"pp. 166-201.

Catalogues of books, tracts, and leaflets published by missionaries in the vernacular languages of India have been prepared by Drs. Murdoch, Weitbrecht, and Rouse, and by the Rev. Messrs. Thompson and Scott, Mr. J. S. Haig, and others. Those representing the following languages are now available: English, Tamil, Telugu, Kanarese, Malayalam, Tulu, Badaga, Toda, Koi, Bengali, Uriya, Assamese, Mikir, Ao Naga, Tangkhul Naga, and Angami Naga, Garo, Manipuri, Khasi, Khond, Santali, Mundari and Uraon, Malto, Nepali and Lepcha, Marathi, Gujarati, and Urdu. In addition to these, Hindi and other catalogues are in preparation. The Christian Literature Society for India also issues a catalogue of its publications.




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Bengali, Hindi, and Urdu (or Hindustani), in Northern India, the Tamil and Telugu, in the southern section, and some, though not all, of the dialects of China, for example, are but imperfectly supplied with effective and varied literature in the exposition of Christianity, as well as in the extension of the light of modern knowledge. Thanks to the Society for the Diffusion of Christian and General Knowledge among the Chinese, no mission field seems to be more adequately or more admirably supplied with examples of the best literature than China.1 There is wise economy and effectiveness in the establishment of this vigorous society devoted to the literary service of missions in China, and there is generous consideration for the common good in the selection of picked men set apart by representative missions, and assigned to its editorial staff. A periodical literature of varied and

1 Dr. Richard, Secretary of the Society, gives a graphic description of the range and scope of its publications in the following enumeration of subjects which a missionary in China would find useful:

"1. If he wants a Chinese statesman to adopt the laws of Christendom, he translates the best books he knows of on law, and lets him compare them with his own. He can never acquire this knowledge by prayer or Bible study only.

"2. If he wants a Chinese student to adopt the educational system of Christendom, he places in his hands in his own tongue a clear account of Western education, and lets him compare it with that of China. Bible study, however excellent, does not supply information about modern education in Christendom.

"3. If he wants a Chinese believer in astrology, alchemy, geomancy (fêng-shui), lucky days, omens, etc., to adopt modern views of Christendom, he gives him in the Chinese language text-books on astronomy, chemistry, geology, physics, and electricity, where he can find God's exact, eternal laws which govern all departments of nature explained, and which he can compare with the vague and often false theories in the books of his own country.

"4. If he wants a Chinese capitalist to be enlisted in behalf of modern railroads, engineering, and industries generally, in order to provide better conditions for the poor, he gives him in Chinese an outline of the leading engineering and manufacturing concerns in the world, with their effect on the poor, to compare with those of his own country.

"5. If he wants a Chinese merchant to extend his business, he has only to put before him in his own tongue the profits of the trade in foreign goods compared with the profits of trade in native goods.

"6. If he wants a Chinese religious man to adopt Christianity, he gives him books in his own tongue to explain the leading events in the history of God's providence over all nations and the leading forces of the universe, showing how they bear on the progress of man, and how they illustrate the almighty, eternal, all-wise, and all-kind character of the Supreme Power, enabling men not only to have communion with Him, but also to partake of His nature and attributes more and more as we better understand His ways in the world from age to age. This the man can compare with the gropings of his own religions after these higher truths."— The Chinese Recorder, March, 1901, pp. 124, 125.




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timely interest, and an increasing series of publications suited to the scientific and commercial as well as the intellectual needs of the Chinese, supplying a growing library of volumes charged with the best and most inspiriting thought of the modern world, are the result. What a contrast is this to the Emperor's edict, promulgated in 1812, making it a capital crime to print books on the Christian religion!1 It is almost impossible now, even with the largely increased facilities of production, and the able editorial staff, to meet the phenomenal demands for more and more of this illuminating and instructive literature. Even though the literary output has grown by leaps and bounds, it is as yet only a meagre output when compared with the voluminous indigenous literature of China, and the same may be said of the status in India and Japan. That there is still need, however, for more careful and skilfully prepared work, from a literary point of view, in these most difficult idiomatic vernaculars, is a point which missionaries themselves insist upon, while giving due credit for what has been already accomplished by arduous toil, in spite of many hampering circumstances. "You must turn the English mind,"says Dr. Fairbairn, "into the Hindu mind, plus the Christian knowledge, ere you can so speak to him as to overcome, as to direct, and to convert him."Here is a lifelong task for missionaries, even though they may be set apart for exclusive and uninterrupted toil in this important sphere of service. It seems likely that literary labor in many of these arduously acquired Eastern languages will be greatly facilitated by the use of Roman letters in place of the native alphabet, or of the ideographic signs so common in Chinese and Japanese. The Japanese Government has recently given its official sanction to the employment of the Roman character in expressing the sounds of the Japanese language, and a romanized literature is now well known in China.

In view of the full data furnished in the author's "Centennial Survey"(pp. 123-172) A monumental service in Bible translationconcerning the services rendered by numerous missionaries in the field of Bible translation, all detailed or specific references to this aspect of the theme must be omitted here. The very elaborate and informing output of special literature recently issued by the British and Foreign Bible Society in connection with its Centennial Anniversary of 1904, now easily accessible, supplies all that is needed concerning the history and achievements of that magnificent missionary agency. The volume of Centenary literature just mentioned is a truly massive exposition of the services of that

1 Lovett, "History of the London Missionary Society,"vol. ii., pp. 409, 410.




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Society to mankind, while it is at the same time an impressive and delightful popular presentation of the historic claims of the Bible in its ever-expanding environment, and its still unabated vitality as a message of guidance and hope to man.1 Abundant additional data is accessible in the Reports of the American Bible Society, and of the National Bible Society of Scotland, and other similar organizations.

In this sphere of biblical scholarship, as translators and expositors of God's Word, missionaries have rendered perhaps their crowning service to humanity. Other achievements may seem to some more conspicuous and impressive, but, after all, nothing more fundamental and constructive, more vitalizing in its power, and more benign in its results, can be named than placing the Scriptures in the hands and before the minds of men in their own language. It is a service which, more than any other aspect of their great work, places missionaries in the rank of apostles to the modern world. The extent of the personal

1 The following list includes for the most part the literature above referred to:

"A History of the British and Foreign Bible Society,"by William Canton. Four volumes: vols. i. and ii., 1904; vols. iii. and iv., 1905.

"The Story of the Bible Society,"1904, a popular record, by William Canton. One volume.

"A Children's History of the Bible Society,"by William Canton, 1904.

"Historical Catalogue of the Bible House Library,"by T. H. Darlow and H. F. Moule. Two volumes: vol. i., 1904; vol. ii., 1905.

"The Conquests of the Bible: A Popular Illustrated Report of the B. F. B. S. for the Year 1902-1903."

"The Gospel in Many Tongues "(Centenary Edition), 1903.

"Centenary Pamphlets of the British and Foreign Bible Society."A series in twelve issues, 1903 and 1904, as follows: I., "The Bible in History—the Eastern Witness "; II., "The Bible in History—the Western Witness "; III., "The Bible in the New Hebrides"; IV., "The Bible in Uganda"; V., "The Bible in India"; VI., "The Bible in Madagascar"; VII., "The Bible in Russia"; VIII., "Our Treasure House—A Brief Account of a Visit to the Bible House"; IX., "The Bible in China"; X., "Wayfaring Bible-men"; XI, "Bible-women in Eastern Lands "; XII., "The Bible in the Home."

Annual Reports of the British and Foreign Bible Society, the National Bible Society of Scotland, the Trinitarian Bible Society, and the American Bible Society, may be consulted; also The Bible in the World, formerly The Bible Society Monthly Reporter (B. F. B. S.); The Bible Society Record (A. B. S.), The Quarterly Record of the National Bible Society of Scotland, and The Quarterly Record of the Trinitarian Bible Society.

Cf. also Mackenzie, "Christianity and the Progress of Man,"chap, iv., "The Missionary as Translator,"and the sections on literature in the Reports of the Decennial Conference of Bombay, 1893, the General Conferences at Shanghai, 1890, and at Tokyo, 1900, the Ecumenical Conference in New York, 1900, and the Decennial Conference at Madras, 1902.




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contribution of labor which they have made towards the accomplishment of this consummate achievement is as surprising as it is notable. Coöperating most happily and effectively with the great Bible Societies of Christendom,1 they have supplied that essential instrument of scholarship, and that indispensable endowment of spiritual insight, coupled with assiduous and faithful toil, without which no results of value could have been attained.

As if in response to these monumental labors to supply the Scriptures to mankind, the world The triumphant march of God's Wordseems to have been opened in a truly marvelous way for the dissemination of the Bible throughout the great nations of the East, as well as among hundreds of obscure tribes whose languages were unknown and thus unavailable for literature a generation or more ago. This silent, victorious march of God's Word along the great highways of non-Christian literature into the intellectual and religious strongholds of ancient peoples, whose latter-day destiny seems already to shape itself before the eyes of men as a new dawn in history, is surely a fact which is full of splendid promise to human progress. It is hardly more than a single generation since the Bible was under ban in Japan, and could be printed only secretly, and read at the peril of life. A conservative estimate of editions of the Scriptures, both of the Old and the New Testament, either entire or in separate portions, distributed by gift or sale in Japan since 1872, is two million copies.2The largest circulation reported for any year was that of 1895, amounting to 257,563 copies. The report for 1903 gives the number as 167,825. A few years ago the non-Christian bookseller would not keep the Bible in stock, lest it should injure his reputation and lower the standing of his shop in the eyes of the public. The sales in China since the Boxer disturbances have been phenomenal. Single orders even from the far interior are now received which a few years ago would have seemed sufficient to supply the demand of all China for five or six years; yet so stupendous is the need of that vast empire that "for every person who has a Bible there are about two thousand who have none; for every person who has a New Testament there are two hundred and fifty who have

1 The missionaries of the London Missionary Society, according to the statement of the Rev. R. Wardlaw Thompson, have been connected more or less with the preparation of about forty-two versions of the Scriptures, in whole or in part, the printing of these versions having been the work of the Bible Society. The Chronicle of the London Missionary Society, June, 1903, p. 146.

2 "Report of the Tokyo Conference, 1900,"p. 530.




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none; for every person who has a single copy of a Gospel, or some other small portion of Scripture, there are forty who have none."1

"At the Lagos book-shop, on the West Coast of Africa,"says the Church Missionary Society Report Phenomenal demand for the Scripturesfor 1904, "some three thousand Bibles and New Testaments, five thousand Prayer-books, and thirty thousand primers and readers, were sold."In Uganda the list of books sold by the Church Missionary Society agents in 1903 is reported as follows: Bibles, 1136; Testaments, 4226; Gospels and portions thereof, 13,486; Prayer-books, 3275; first reading-books, 40,856; catechisms, 9674; hymn-books, 4160; and 212 copies of "The Pilgrim's Progress."2 Compare this astonishing record with the entry in Mackay's Journal on that day in 1876 when, on his way to Uganda, he first caught sight of the African coast, and wrote as follows: "I shall in the name and strength of God set up my printing-press on the shores of the Victoria Nyanza, and I shall not cease to toil till the Story of the Cross of Christ be printed in the language of Karagwe and Uganda, and every man be taught to read it and believe it too."Phenomenal sales of the Bible and other literature are also recorded by the Beirut Mission Press in Syria. In March, 1904, there were on its books orders for the printing of 138,000 volumes, of which 15,000 were complete Bibles, 14,000, entire Testaments, 69,000, portions of Scripture, and the remainder, miscellaneous books. The total issue of Scriptures (whole or in portions) in 1904 amounted to 75,500 volumes, and during the same year the number of pages of Scripture printed was 24,727,000. These statements sufficiently illustrate the unprecedented call, in widely separated sections of the world, for the Word of the Living God.

The total number of Bible translations which may now be credited to missionaries is 482, only ten of Statistics of Bible translationthese having been issued before the beginning of the nineteenth century, and all of which are in active circulation, save forty which have become obsolete. These figures do not include the six principal ancient versions, nor the sixteen standard modern versions of Christendom, as it is doubtful if they should be listed as strictly the product of missionary labor. If these be added to the sum of missionary translations, the total of ancient and modern, living and obsolete, translations, from both sources, may be stated as 504. There are, moreover, about twenty additional

1 The Bible Society Monthly Reporter, December, 1903, p. 302.

2 The Church Missionary Intelligencer, August 1904, p. 601




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versions not new in the sense of being fresh translations into another language, but only the transliteration of an existing translation into some other character, as, for example, the printing of one Asiatic language in the characters of another—Turkish in the Armenian text, or Chinese in English letters—giving as nearly as possible the proper sound of the original tongue. These also are largely the work of missionaries. Another, and perhaps clearer, method of stating these results is as follows: Number of translations by missionaries covering the entire Bible (including three versions now obsolete), 101; number of additional translations by missionaries covering the entire New Testament (including 22 versions now obsolete), 127; number of additional languages into which missionaries have translated only portions of the Old and New Testaments (including 15 versions now obsolete), 254; the resultant total being 482, to which may be added the versions prepared by transliteration.1

The Bible Societies of Christendom have numerous auxiliary societies and agencies in the principal foreign mission fields; ten important auxiliaries in India, for example, being engaged in an extended and vigorous campaign for the production and distribution of the Bible in that great English dependency. The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, have also given much attention to this special service of Bible translation and dissemination.

In the more general field of Christian literature the services of the Religious Tract Society of London, the Christian Literature Society for India, the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, and the American Tract Society, are of the highest value and efficiency, and

1 The figures given in the text differ from those found in the summary of Bible translations, on p. 268 of "Centennial Survey of Foreign Missions,"by the addition of 26 new versions to the 456 given as the total in 1900, making the total up to date (1905) to be 482. The additions are as follows: Bibles (entire), 2; New Testaments (entire), 6; portions representing (with the addition of the Gawari New Testament) new translations, 26. A more detailed statement, naming the additions, would be as follows:

Bibles (completed since 1900): Mare and Fioti.

New Testaments (completed since 1900): Ilocano, Pampanga, Sheetswa, Ndonga, Chiluba (Luba), and Gawari (not yet printed).

Portions (new translations): Arapahoe, Meaun, Yalunka, Lomongo, Masai, Kikuyu, Tangkhul Naga, Karangi, Chattisgarhi, Balti, Tafasoa, Bri Bri, Chungchia, Mukawa, Nogogu, Cakchiquel, Kalaña (not yet printed), Lengua, Mapuche, Lifoto, Angola, Yakusu, Kavirondo, Kachin, and Awemba. The eight last mentioned were printed at mission presses. The Gawari New Testament in its entirety may also be included among the new translations.




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have now grown to large proportions in mission lands. These societies of Christendom usually The notable services of the tract societies have auxiliaries or agencies in China, India, Japan, Turkey, and elsewhere, specially engaged in the production and distribution of vernacular Christian literature, besides rendering material aid to several indigenous tract societies in various mission fields. The Christian Literature Society for China is a Scotch organization closely coöperating with what may be regarded as the leading independent enterprise in mission fields in this department of literature—the Society for the Diffusion of Christian and General Knowledge among the Chinese, founded in 1887. The progress of the latter has been remarkable, especially during recent years, as is revealed by a comparison of the volume and value of its sales. In 1894 they monetarily amounted to $2184 (silver), while in 1903 they reached $54,399 (silver), which is equivalent to about $27,000 in gold. It is a remarkable fact that trade competition—or rather piratical reproduction of popular books in the absence of a copyright—reduced this income to $30,457 (silver) in 1904, or about $15,200 in gold. A comparison of the issues of the Society for the past four years gives evidence of rapid progress since the difficulties caused by the Boxer disturbances have ceased. In 1901 the publications (including new issues and reprints) were stated in the Annual Report to amount to 48,950 copies and 5,572,000 pages. In 1902 there were 125,096 copies and 13,911,656 pages. In 1903 there were 283,328 copies and 25,353,880 pages. In 1904 there were 301,600 copies and 30,681,800 pages, and of this large output 224,600 copies and 19,-256,800 pages represent new publications. To accomplish this work some seventy printers and bookbinders were required, with twenty Chinese writers and fifteen distributors, making altogether a permanent staff of over one hundred Chinese employees. Another organization with a remarkable record is the Central China Religious Tract Society of Hankow, founded in 1876, which during the twenty-eight years of its existence has sent out the surprising total of 20,938,213 copies of books and tracts. Its annual output in the opening year was 9000 copies; in 1889 it was 1,026,305; and in 1903 its issues numbered 2,171,655. There are, besides, eight other book and tract societies under Christian auspices in China.

The record of progress in India is even more impressive. In the Report of the Madras Decennial Conference of 1902 is a comparative statement of the advance in the distribution of Christian literature in India during five years, separated by decades. In 1860 the total




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distribution of the Bible, Tract, and Christian Literature societies amounted to 727,744 copies; in The large literary output in India1870 it was 882,924; in 1880 it was 2,309,337; in 1890 it was 4,965,034; in 1900 it was 5,881,836. This represents an increase in the proceeds of sales amounting to sevenfold, and in the field of circulation amounting to nearly ninefold. Still further returns are given concerning the total distribution of Christian literature, not including the Bible, for the decade previous to 1900. The reports of fourteen literature societies issuing books and tracts are summarized for the decade as follows: the total value of sales is given as 1,956,619 rupees ($652,206); the total of separate issues of volumes, periodicals, and tracts printed amounts to 53,622,183 copies; and the total of copies circulated sums up 61,951,253. There were, besides, four other missionary societies engaged in the issue of Christian literature, whose statistics were not included in the above, as their record for the decade was not available. A statement made by the Secretaries of the American Board at the Annual Meeting, October, 1904, shows that its three missions in India had published and sent out during the previous year 5,700,000 pages of Christian literature, mostly in the vernacular languages.

The development of missionary operations has witnessed the establishment in Prosperous mission pressesincreasing numbers of printing-presses and publishing-houses in the mission fields. A few of them are self-supporting, such as the Methodist Episcopal Press at Lucknow, with its 160 employees and its output of 74,600,000 pages in 1902; and the Presbyterian Press at Allahabad, which was founded in 1839, but in 1872 was leased to native Christians, who now conduct its business operations. The same plan has been adopted with the Presbyterian Press at Lodiana; while the Scottish Mission Industries Company, Limited, has recently taken over the presses of the United Free Church of Scotland at Ajmere and Poona. For the most part, however, the missionary societies render financial aid to the various presses. Some of the publishing-houses have become large business enterprises. Among them we may name: the Presbyterian Mission Press at Shanghai, which reported in 1904 an annual output of 81,000,000 pages, the Methodist Episcopal Press at Foochow, the Press of the Scottish Bible Society at Hankow, the Methodist Episcopal Publishing-House at Tokyo, the Baptist Mission Press at Rangoon, the Press of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge at Madras, with nearly four hundred employees, and other large establishments in India, as at




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Bombay, Satara, Cottayam, Mangalore, Rutlam, Calcutta, Cuttack, Guntur, Mysore City, Nagercoil, and Surat. On the borders of Tibet, at Ghoom, near Darjeeling, there is a busy little press of the Scandinavian Alliance Mission, which is printing the Bible and Christian books and tracts, in anticipation of the opening of that long-closed land, which has been already practically accomplished by the English expedition of 1904. The press of the Presbyterian Mission at Beirut flourishes, and the presses at Bangkok, Constantinople, and Mexico City are also important, and even from Uganda, where the art of printing is but a few years old, there is a stimulating record of progress. It is impossible to mention all these establishments in detail, as they number about 160 in various mission fields, issuing annually, in round numbers, a product of about 12,000,000 copies of various publications, extending to nearly 400,000,000 printed pages. It is worthy of note that the Moravian and Danish Missions long ago introduced the printing-press into Greenland, in the far North; while in the far South, on Hoste Island, at the extremity of the South American Continent, there is another mission press, the latter having been established by the South American Missionary Society. It would thus seem that the earliest, as well as the nearest, approach of this great instrument of enlightenment to both the North and the South Poles was the result of mission enterprise.

From all these various presses is issued a vast volume of periodical literature, prepared in the main by The growth of periodical literaturemissionaries themselves, and designed to provide entertaining and instructive reading, as well as spiritual inspiration and guidance, to native readers. A careful collation made by the author indicates that this periodical output amounted in 1905 to over four hundred separate titles.1 Some of these periodical issues are printed in English, but the majority are published in the vernacular. It is impossible to specify more than a few representative titles, but among those worthy of special mention may be named: The Japan Evangelist, The Morning Light, The Glad Tidings, The Weekly News, The Gospel News, and The Christian Advocate, of Japan; The Christian News, of Korea; The Review of the Times, edited by Dr. Allen, The Chinese Christian Review and The Chinese Weekly, edited by the Rev. W. A. Cornaby, The Chinese Christian Intelligencer,2 edited by the Rev, S. I. Woodbridge, China's Young

1 A detailed list up to 1900 will be found in the author's "Centennial Survey of Foreign Missions,"pp. 180-190.

2 "The Rev. George Douglas has forwarded to us the record of a beautiful incident which illustrates the spirit of the Native Church under affliction. In one Manchurian church there were two hundred and eighty subscribers to the Tung Wen Pao (or Christian Intelligencer), published in Shanghai, War made it impossible to receive and circulate the paper. Most of the subscribers, who had all paid in advance for a considerable time, were Christians, and at the close of a Sabbath service, when this matter was brought before them, it was at once suggested by one of themselves that the loss might be turned to account in furthering the Gospel if each subscriber would present the remaining numbers he had paid for to a brother somewhere in the eighteen provinces not affected by the war. This was unanimously agreed to. Moreover, they made a local arrangement to refund all the non-Christian subscribers, so that the whole two hundred and eighty copies might be distributed in this way."—The Missionary Record of the United Free Church of Scotland, August, 1904, p. 359.




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Men, issued by the Young Men's Christian Association, and The South China Collegian, all of China; The Messenger of Truth, published in both Tamil and Telugu, the Desopakari, in Tamil, The Christian Intelligencer, and Progress, with The Madras Christian College Magazine and The Christian Patriot, all of Madras; The Telugu Baptist, of Ongole; the Vrittanta Patrika, of Mysore; The Epiphany, of the Oxford Mission, and The Indian Christian Herald, both of Calcutta, the latter the oldest Indian Christian journal published; the Taraqqi, of Lahore; The Indian Christian Messenger, of Allahabad; the Dnyanodaya, of Bombay; the Nur Afshan and Makhzan i Masihi, in the Punjab; The Star of India, of Lucknow; and many others, in India; The Morning Star and The Burman Messenger, of Rangoon, Burma; The Christian News, of Laos; The Ladak Times, of Leh, published by the Moravians, being the first Tibetan newspaper ever issued; The Morning Star, The Children's Lamp, and The Church Missionary Gleaner, in Ceylon; the Neshera, of Beirut; The Guide, of Cairo; the Zornitza, of Bulgaria; the Avedaper, of Constantinople; The Rays of Light, of Urumiah; El faro and The Christian Advocate, of Mexico City. In Africa there are excellent examples, as The Christian Express, of Lovedale; Life and Work, of Blantyre; The Aurora, of Livingstonia; Mengo Notes, of Uganda, with Good Words, of Madagascar, and the Christian News, of Fiji, besides numerous issues in the different countries of South America. In some of these mission fields, such as Japan and India, there is a phenomenal effusion of periodical and newspaper literature conducted by educated natives, and of this a considerable proportion is under Christian editorship.

It would involve too much repetition, and burden our pages with too many specifications, to undertake to enumerate fully the literary production of each field in geographic succession. India alone would




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require an extended, and within our limits altogether impossible, A proposed classification of mission literaturebibliographical study.1 China has already, including tracts, more than two thousand titles of select Christian publications. Our best plan would seem to be to classify the output of literature in mission fields into several groups, with illustrative examples under each, giving a representative, but at the same time a comprehensive, idea of the real scope and value of the literary work of missions.

The classification proposed may be indicated as follows:

First: The group which clusters around the Bible, and is intended to aid in its study, and in the comprehension of its contents.

Second: The group which centres about the Church and the devotional life of the Christian, including hymnology.

Third: The group which is specially dedicated to the uses of the divinity training school, and is a help to native evangelists and pastors, as well as to all students of the Christian religious system.

Fourth: The group which has for its special field the arts and sciences, biography, political science, history, philosophy, travel, exploration, and the many avenues of a broadening culture.

Fifth: The group which comprises medicine, surgery, sanitary science, hygiene, and the consideration of the physical welfare of children.

Sixth: The group of educational literature, composed largely of text-books for schools and colleges.

Seventh: The group which finds its chief sphere of usefulness in the home, and ministers to the family circle, with messages of cheer, entertainment, and moral incentive.

The first group which attracts our attention is the one which clusters around the Bible, Group I.: biblical handbooks, histories, and expository aids and is intended especially to facilitate a knowledge and comprehensive understanding of its contents, thus aiding in opening its treasures of spiritual instruction and sacred history. There are in all fields numerous handbooks, manuals, and introductions, intended to assist the Bible student in his task. We can mention but a few examples of this class, such as the admirable volume in Arabic, entitled "Guide to Inquirers,"prepared by the late Rev. S. H. Calhoun, of Syria; a "Companion to the Bible,"in Telugu

1 Cf. The Missionary Review of the World, July, 1902, p. 551; The Missionary Record of the United Free Church of Scotland, February, 1902, p. 77; Work and Workers in the Mission Field, April, 1904, p. 162; "Report of the Fourth Decennial Indian Missionary Conference, Madras, 1902,"pp. 167-201.




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and Bengali, an "Introduction to the Books of the Bible,"in Urdu, and a more elaborate work in the same language entitled "Introduction to the Old and New Testaments,"by the Rev. J. Heinrichs, of Ramapatam, India. There is an "Old Testament Manual,"by Bishop Burden, in Chinese; and we find the "Handbook of the Bible,"by Angus, translated into the Foochow Dialect of China. Persian students have a Biblical Geography ready for use, and there are numerous similar volumes in other languages, especially that of Dr. Graves in Chinese, who is also the author of an "Analysis of the Books of the Bible.""How We Got Our Bible "is the title of a treatise by the Rev. W. G. Walshe, written especially for the Chinese. Harmonies of the Gospels are in many languages, including Arabic, Chinese, and Korean; a volume on "Scripture Interpretation"has been prepared in Arabic by the Rev. James S. Dennis; General and Special Introductions are in Malagasy, and also in Spanish for the use of Mexicans; the instructive lessons of typology are in Chinese, Bengali, Urdu, and in several of the languages of Africa. "The Pith of Scripture "is a helpful book in Malagasy, and there are special treatises in several languages dealing exegetically with Scripture terms and references.

Biographies of Christ abound, and are found in almost every mission field; there are ten in Scripture biographies and Bible DictionariesChina and five in Japan, the volume by Dr. William Imbrie in Japanese being greatly esteemed. Stalker's "Imago Christi "is in Japanese, Armenian, and Bulgarian, and in several Indian languages. Stock's "Lessons from the Life of Our Lord "is in Telugu, Santali, Urdu, and Malayalam. In fact, almost every language of India has one or more biographies of Christ. A Brahman convert and gifted poet of Western India, Mr. Narayan Vaman Tilak, is writing a poetical version of our Lord's life, which it is expected will rank high in Marathi literature. Milne and Morrison issued His life in Chinese as early as 1815; others have followed, that by Dr. Williamson being regarded as a classic. The most recent issue of this kind is by Dr. F. L. Hawks Pott. An excellent copy circulates among the Laos, in northern Siam, and the Fiji islanders have one in their own tongue; while even the wild Hill Tribes, such as the Bhils in India, are not left without the story of the Christ. Haygood's "Man of Galilee "appears in Spanish for the Mexicans. Other Scripture biographies are numerous, such as "The Life and Times of Paul,"in Chinese, Marathi, Urdu, Tamil, and Japanese.

Bible dictionaries have been prepared by Dr. George E. Post in Arabic, by Dr. Jacob Chamberlain in Tamil and Telugu, by Dr. Bruce




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in Marathi, by Dr. Scott in Urdu, by Dr. Farnham in Chinese, and by Dr. Riggs in Bulgarian. In Armenian and in Malagasy we find also these scholarly aids to Scripture study. The invaluable Concordance, as difficult and laborious a task in any new language as it was originally in our English tongue, has been prepared by Dr. Post in Arabic, by the Rev. Robert Hoskins in Urdu, by Dr. E. A. Stevens in Burmese, by the Rev. F. W. Dennis in Malagasy, and by the Rev. W. H. Sloan, of Mexico, in Spanish; and one has also been issued in Armenian.

Biblical histories are current in Chinese; the Rev. F. L. Hawks Pott has issued one quite Biblical historiesrecently, and the late Mrs. Timothy Richard, of Shanghai, translated Goodspeed's "Messianic Hopes of the Jews."In Korean, the Rev. W. L. Swallen has prepared an "Outline of Old Testament History,"and to the accomplished Moravian linguist Jäschke may be credited a "Bible History "in Tibetan. Dr. Bruce has written a sacred history in Persian, and we find similar volumes in the language of the Laos, and also in Siamese, Kanarese, Gujarati, Marathi, Urdu, Malayalam, Santali, Telugu, Tamil, Bengali, and other dialects of India. Earth's "Scripture History "in Bengali, Hindi, Punjabi, Gujarati, and Urdu, has proved popular, the edition announced in Urdu in 1903 being for 10,000 copies. Weakley's "Scripture History "appears in Turkish; Edwards' "History of Redemption "is in Arabic; Irving's "History of Our Lord "is in Syriac; and the "Old and New Testament Story "is found also in several languages of the Congo. The late Rev. Hugh Goldie put the record of both Testaments into Efik; Maclear's "Scripture History "is in Malagasy; and the Rev. T. T. Matthews has published in the same language a luminous book on "The Bible and the Monuments."As long ago as 1812, the Bible story was recorded in the language of Tahiti; while fresh from the press in New Guinea, the work of the Rev. J. G. Geissler, of the Dutch Mission, comes a Bible History in the Mafoor tongue; and thus this quiet labor of love in the obscure languages of the island world spans nearly an entire century.

Scripture exposition opens to us a library of polyglot volumes. In some important languages there are Scripture expositioncommentaries on the entire Bible, as in Chinese, Kanarese, Tamil, and Urdu; while in several others the entire New Testament has been expounded, as in Telugu and Arabic. Numerous volumes on separate books of the Bible have been prepared in Chinese by Drs. Medhurst, Legge, Nevius, Muirhead, Hobson, John, DuBose, Pott, Jenkins, and Faber, by Bishop Hoare,




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and by the Rev. Messrs. A. J. H. Moule, Sowerby, Jackson, Whiting, Dodd, Leyenberger, and Bone. The expository work of Dr. Faber in Chinese is highly prized, and the Commentary on the entire Old Testament, by Rev. A. J. H. Moule, is esteemed a scholarly work. Commentaries in Japanese have been issued in several volumes. Dr. Learned's work on the New Testament is in fifteen volumes. Trench's expositions of the Parables and Miracles have been translated, and commentaries on the separate books of the Bible, especially those of the New Testament, are, moreover, represented in Japanese libraries. Commentaries on the Old Testament books are, however, still lacking, except on a few of the more prominent books. Expositions of the entire New Testament are issued for the Burmans and Karens, and separate volumes on the Old Testament have been prepared, as that on Isaiah, by Dr. Wade. The languages of India are supplied with much of value in biblical exposition. Heinrichs has expounded the New Testament in Telugu; Dr. Robert Clark, in collaboration with Dr. Imad-ud-Din, is the author of full Notes on the Gospels and Acts in Urdu; Owen, Mansell, Scott, Däuble, Kennedy, Fuchs, and Lucas have also commented in Urdu on various books of both Testaments, and there is an exposition of the entire New Testament in Malayalam; while Dr. William M. Taylor's "Peter the Apostle "may now be read in Marathi. The Rev. W. T. Satthianadhan is the author of an excellent Commentary on the New Testament in Tamil. The list of Indian commentaries, in which single books are treated, is too long to give in extenso. We can only mention further the valuable expository volumes of the Rev. S. W. Howland, in Tamil; those of the Rev. H. Baker and the Rev. J. G. Beuttler, in Malayalam; the Rev. Henry Haigh, in Kanarese; the Rev. R. W. Sinclair and the Rev. W. Clarkson, in Gujarati; and the Rev. Messrs. R. G. Wilder, J. Taylor, J. Torrance, and Baba Padmanji, in Marathi. The late Bishop Thomas Valpy French was the author in Urdu of "The Gospel in the Psalms."There are commentaries in the various languages of Persia and of the Turkish Empire—Armenian, Turkish, Bulgarian (the New Testament entire by Dr. Elias Riggs), and Greek. In Arabic, Dr. W. W. Eddy prepared a fine exposition of the New Testament in five volumes, and Dr. H. H. Jessup is now at work on the Pentateuch. In both Classical and Modern Syriac, expository literature has been published on the Old and New Testaments for use in Persia. In Malagasy there are commentaries on some books of the Old Testament, and on most of the New Testament. Dr. Hiram Bingham has given an excellent expository volume to the Gilbert Islanders. In several languages of




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the South Pacific volumes of this kind have, moreover, been long issued. In Uganda, the Rev. Ham Mukasa, a native clergyman, is the author of a Commentary on Matthew, which was printed by native workmen at the mission press, a happy omen of the capacities of that bright people to prepare their own literature. In South America a good beginning has been made by several of the missions in the exposition of the Scriptures.

Another important group in this classification centres about the Church and the devotional life of the Christian. Group II.: church liturgies, catechetical and devotional literature, including hymnodyThe Book of Common Prayer and the Catechism seem to rival each other in the claim for precedence in this connection. Catechetical literature is issued by every mission in great variety, and it is hardly possible to find a language used by Anglican or Protestant Episcopal missionaries into which the Book of Common Prayer has not been translated. The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, a pioneer agency in this great work of giving a Christian literature to all peoples in their own tongue, has dedicated itself, among other activities, to this service of printing Prayer-books and portions of Scripture, and has already spoken to the world through these channels in about a hundred different languages, the great majority of which belong to foreign mission fields. The missionaries of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel have in most instances been the translators, and this Society also has shared to some extent in the printing and distribution, especially in the earlier period of its existence. Dutch, German, and Scandinavian liturgies have been prepared in considerable numbers for use wherever required. Scripture catechisms of a historical, doctrinal, devotional, and practical tenor, also catechisms upon separate creedal statements, various manuals of the Prayer-book and prominent Confessions of Faith, handbooks for confirmation classes and catechumens, are all in evidence wherever missions have been established. Other manuals of religious forms for special occasions, and many books of private and family prayers, have also been issued. "Daily Light on the Daily Path,"which we know so well in our own English tongue, and similar reproductions of Scripture arranged according to topical classification, are the constant companions of the devotional hour in all lands.

Books of evangelistic instruction, with more or less of the devotional spirit, belong to this group. It is doubtful if a single mission press can be found which has not thrown off at least one, and in most instances numerous, impressions of Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Prog-




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ress."His well-known characters have been arrayed in the guise of over one hundred strange Bunyan's " Pilgrim's Progress" a missionary classiclanguages of the non-Christian world.They have wandered among alien tribes of men on every continent, often under curious vernacular names, and in picturesque situations, adjusting themselves to local conditions, and seeking to enforce their lessons through ingenious devices borrowed from their environment. Like that phantom of the imagination, the "Wandering Jew,"this pilgrim of light has been flitting through the world with a message of instruction and warning, as well as of practical guidance and hopeful courage, which has endeared him to the common heart of humanity everywhere. We may join him in his journeys through Japan, Korea, China, India, Turkey, and Persia; climb with him the mountains of Uganda, sail with him up the Congo, walk with him on the shores of Lake Nyassa, and here and there enter with him into the wild excitement of an African war-dance, which serves for an illustration of "Vanity Fair,"as in the case of the Matabele version. Whether we hail him on the West Coast or the East Coast, or among the Bechuanas, the Kaffirs, the Zulus, or the Malagasy, or sail with him from island to island in the South Pacific, exchanging anon a tropical heat for arctic cold, as among the Eskimos, we find him everywhere the mentor and guide of hearts having the same journey to travel towards the same goal. A volume, somewhat similar in conception, has been prepared in Bengali by the Rev. S. P. Buksh, a native pastor, entitled "Rovings of an Enquirer,"being especially adapted to Indian readers. The "Enquirer "is brought into contact with the different religions of India in his search for the true way, and for the goal of reconciliation and peace.

Bunyan's "Holy War"is also fought amidst the din of many languages; yet, if we listen, we can hear at the same A new career for the old favorites of our devotional hourstime above the turmoil of its strife such alluring voices of wisdom and hope as speak to us from the "Imitation of Christ,"by Thomas á Kempis, and from Bogat-sky's "Golden Treasury,"Doddridge's "Rise and Progress,"Baxter's "Saint's Rest,"Taylor's "Holy Living,"Phelps's "Still Hour,"Wright's "Secret Prayer,"Goulburn's "Thoughts on Personal Religion,"McNeil's "Spirit-filled Life,"Drummond's booklets, Meyer's numerous works, and Andrew Murray's helpful volumes. We may equally enjoy the companionship of Stalker, Spurgeon, Macduff, James, Moody, Maclaren, and van Dyke. The great sermons of notable preachers, and the old religious classics, as well as the




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writings of the best teachers of modern days, are ushered into new careers of usefulness amidst the eager heart-searchings and the spiritual struggles of mission converts. In the "Marathi Catalogue of Christian Literature "there are thirty-three volumes listed under the caption of "Devotional."Spurgeon's "Morning by Morning"has been warmly welcomed among Christian converts in Persia.

Missionaries themselves have prepared much literature of this kind. Their sermons have Valuable devotional literature by missionary authorsbeen often printed, and they have written many rare and helpful books of exhortation and devotional incitement upon such subjects as prayer, holiness, charity, filial piety, Christian service, and spiritual growth. Dr. Muirhead's "Communion with God,"Smith's "Heavenly Manna,"and Dr. Eli Smith's "Open Door for the Spirit's Work,"are notable examples. The late estimable Earl of Northbrook, Viceroy of India (1872-76), rendered a unique and interesting service in preparing a little book for the people of India, entitled "The Teaching of Jesus Christ in His Own Words."Dr. Murdoch, at the request of its author, supplied an introduction, and the book is being issued in the different vernaculars of India, while appearing also in the languages of other mission fields. In China the plan of presenting the Gospel by pictorial representation is greatly in vogue. Scripture history and spiritual instruction are made to pass before the eye in panoramic form, and the device has been entitled "Eye-Gate, or Native Art in the Evangelization of China."As for tracts, they are disseminated and used in great variety, almost every language having already a large supply. The great tract societies of Christendom render generous and invaluable service in this department, while missionaries or educated natives are the translators, or, as is often the case, the original authors of the issues. "Monthly Handbills "are furthermore a feature in some of the languages of India. "Cycles of Prayer "are issued in China as elsewhere. In this generous output of devotional literature the needs of the children are not forgotten, as we discover in translations of such useful volumes as "Line upon Line,""Peep of Day,"Foster's "Story of the Bible,"and many others of like purpose. The children of distant lands lie down to sleep on the "Little Pillows "of Miss Havergal, listen at the dawn of day to her "Morning Bells,"and follow, let us hope, in many instances her "Royal Commandments."

Hymnography may be classed also in this group, and yields an amount of material to the credit of the hearts and brains of missionaries which is surprising alike in its potency and volume. It is a




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tribute to the devotional element in missions that hymn-writing is almost, if not quite, as extended a The surprising hymnology of missionsfeature of their work as Bible translation itself, It ranks with prayer, and with sermonic and catechetical teaching, as one of the essential characteristics of a living Church of Christ. Moreover, the Songs of Zion are not reserved for the Church alone in mission fields; they cheer the home, especially during the devotional hours of the household; they are an attractive feature of the school, where they are memorized as well as sung; they lend a charm to social gatherings, and relieve the monotony of work; while they often have a place in public functions in which the Christian element predominates. On that October morning in 1875 when the little "Ilala,"the pioneer of navigation on the inland lakes of Africa, steamed from the Shiré into Lake Nyassa, with the members of the Livingstonia Mission on board, the significance of the events so deeply impressed those present that all hands gathered aft for a brief season of worship. Steam was shut off, and the vessel floated calmly and silently on the waters, while the noble Psalm, "All People that on Earth do Dwell,"rang out, as if to consecrate the achievement to the glory of God; and thus it has transpired with the passing of these thirty eventful years. It is said that the women of Greenland in their long coasting voyages row to the rhythm of their familiar hymns; and in her social hours with the Indian women in the distant Northwest of Canada Mrs. Bompas, the wife of the Bishop, used to be fond of singing the Cree versions of "Hold the Fort,""The Sweet By-and-By,""Nearer, My God, to Thee,"and "Jerusalem the Golden."In the orphan asylums of India, and in some of the hospitals of China, special hymn-books are in use which have been compiled with a view to the peculiar needs of such institutions.

This helpful department of hymn-writing is one in which native talent has been conspicuous. Charming original hymns have been produced by gifted writers among Christian converts. Jacob Biswas in Bengali, Vedanayaga Sastri Tamil, the Rev. Ganpatrao Navalkar and Mr. K. R. Sangle in Marathi, Safdar Ali in Urdu, Krishna Mohun Banerjea, Nehemiah Goreh, Ramchandra Bose, and the Rev. Lal Bihari Day, are The admirable work of native hymnistswell-known hymn-writers in India. A native Malagasy, Andraianaivoravelona by name, is said to rival Watts as a master of sacred song; "Bonjare [a native Christian] has added thirteen hymns to the local collection,"is an item in a recent report from the Congo; while a letter concerning the dedication of a




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new church in the Livingstonia Mission states incidentally that forty new hymns contributed by native hymn-writers were sung for the first time in a public assembly, during the services which continued for three days! Numerous other illustrations of native contribution to the hymnody of missions might be given. In a few instances native hymns have been translated into English, and have found their way into our own hymn-books.1 Missionaries in many instances have translated the best hymns of Christendom, but, in not a few cases, including some of the sweetest hymns in the native languages, their contributions have been original. The work of translation calls for much discrimination and skill, and represents a selection from the best productions of such well-known hymnists as Watts, Wesley, Doddridge, Cowper, Newton, Heber, Lyte, Keble, Bonar, Miss Steele, Miss Havergal, and many other English, German, and American writers, whose contributions have become a part of the treasury of song in the universal mission Church. Earlier efforts in the difficult vernaculars may in some cases have been unsatisfactory, and it was to be expected that constant improvement would appear in the quality and artistic power of later productions. It has proved so, for hymns once in use are now discarded for those which are better. The hymnody of some mission fields has been brought to charming perfection of form, as well as distinction of style. In almost every mission some one has been found who could adapt foreign or native tunes to devotional uses, and prepare a system of musical notation which would be serviceable. Mrs. Timothy Richard was the author of a Chinese tune-book according to a system of native notation, and Miss Laura M. White, of the Methodist Mission, Chinkiang, has just been commissioned by the Educational Association of China to prepare a music-book in Mandarin for use in the schools. It is interesting to note that the Magnificat and the Nunc Dimittis have been arranged in a key especially

1 '"In the Secret of His Presence,' 'O Thou My Soul, Forget No More,' ' Take My Heart for Thine, Jehovah,' and ' Awak'd by Sinai's Awful Sound,' four devout hymns that have proved most useful to the Church, are worthy of special note, because they are the work of Christian converts in mission lands. The first was composed by Ellen Lakshmi Goreh, a high-caste Hindu girl, born in Benares in 1853, who after her conversion developed rapidly in the Christian life, and became a missionary to her people; the second, by Krishna Pal, Carey's first convert, who became an earnest Christian and an eloquent preacher; the third, by the native pastor of the Ampamarinana ('Rock of Hurling') Church, in Madagascar, who wrote it in prison shortly before his death; the fourth, by Samson Occom, a famous Indian preacher of New England."—The Missionary Review of the World, June, 1903, p. 436.




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suited to Chinese voices, and are much liked and well sung. Mrs. David Downie has utilized many native airs for Christian hymns in Telugu, while Drs. Samuel Jessup and Ford have adapted some beautiful Syrian melodies to popular hymns.

The devout Moravians have translated their own church hymns into all the prominent languages of Beautiful hymns for use in Indiatheir mission fields. The Indians of North and South America, the Negroes of the West Indies, the Greenlanders, Kaffirs, Hottentots, and Australian aborigines, sing the songs of Zinzendorf, Albertini, Anna Dober, Garve, and others of their religious poets. Much work of fine quality in hymnody has been done by missionaries in India. All the great languages, such as Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Marathi, Gujarati, Punjabi, Sindhi, Santali, Uriya, Tamil, Telugu, Singalese, Malayalam, and Kanarese, are well supplied with edifying and beautiful hymns, mostly translations, but in many instances original, in which case they are usually written by natives. Numerous editions of hymn-books in the various languages have been issued, having been revised, improved, and extended, until the bibliography of Indian hymnology presents a cumulative array of publications, too extensive to be noted here in any detail. In Urdu alone there are thirty-two issues enumerated in Dr. Weitbrecht's "Catalogue of Christian Literature"in that language. According to the census of 1901, there are, in all, one hundred and forty distinct languages in British India, and of many of these there are separate dialects.1 A movement has now begun to unify the Christian hymnody of each of the prominent languages. Hymn-books have appeared at different dates during the past century, and one was published by Ziegenbalg in Tamil even as early as 1713. Another was printed by the Serampore missionaries in Bengali2 in the first decade of the nineteenth century, and thus began a varied and unbroken succession of issues in all parts of India. A Union Hymn-book has already appeared in Singalese, and recently one in Tamil, and these no doubt will be henceforth the standard versions in all the Christian churches using these vernaculars. A committee has also been appointed to prepare a similar union volume in Telugu. This movement may not gather

1 The Imperial and Asiatic Quarterly Review, April, 1904, p. 267.

2 Krishna Pal, the first convert baptized by Dr. Carey (in 1800), became himself a hymn-writer of note in Bengali. At the time of his baptism, when persecutions and perils seemed to threaten him on every side, a Bengali translation of "Jesus! and shall it ever be "was sung as a part of the public services on the occasion. Burrage, "Baptist Hymn-Writers and Their Hymns,"p. 586.




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headway rapidly in other parts of India, as the various church hymnals of the different denominations have been so revised, enlarged, and improved from time to time that they are now highly esteemed, and will not easily yield their place, although a union committee selecting with care the best hymns from all sources could doubtless accomplish much for the common service of song in the churches of each great vernacular. We may note that even the Hill Tribes and aboriginal races of India have not been forgotten; there are hymns for the Santals, the Kols, and others of the minor communities.

There has been much attention given to hymn-writing among the Baptist missionaries in Burma, for Songs of Zion in Burma, Ceylon, and Siamuse in the various vernaculars. In Burmese and in the Karen dialects there are standard hymn-books of excellent quality, and in Kachin, Shan, Peguan, and Chin, there are available hymnals. An Assamese hymn-book was published by Dr. Nathan Brown in 1845, which has appeared in many revised editions. Dr. Brown himself is the author, or adapter, of eighty hymns in the Assamese, nearly half of them being original. The Welsh Calvinistic missionaries have not only reduced the language of the aboriginal Khasis to writing, but in the form of a hymnal have elevated it to the heights of sacred song. The Garos, a wild Hill Tribe in Assam, and the Nagas as well, have their own hymn-books, being the gifts of their missionary benefactors. The Moravians are waiting to enter Tibet with their songs of Christian praise and hope. Their Tibetan hymnal has been ready for years, having been prepared by the late Rev. H. A. Jäschke, who was also the translator of most of the New Testament into the language of Tibet. A new edition has just been issued from the printing-press at Ghoom, on the heights near Darjeeling. In Ceylon, the Tamil hymn-books of South India are available for those using that language, and the Wesleyans have been gifted hymnists in Singalese. The Siamese have several hundred Christian hymns in popular use, a number being from the Moody and Sankey Collection. The Laos hymnal, prepared by the Rev. Jonathan Wilson, himself the author of a large part of the contents, is a good-sized volume, with over four hundred hymns.

In China, Morrison, the pioneer missionary, prepared the first hymn-book, which was issued in 1818. Since then, in Wenli, in Mandarin, and in the numerous colloquials, hymn-books have appeared in many issues. Among Christian missionaries several distinguished hymn-writers may be noted, and we may name among them the Rev. W. C. Burns, of Amoy, who, although he would not give out a hymn in




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his native Scotland, yet translated and used hymns in China. We may mention also the Rev. Jonathan Lees, Prominent hymn-writers in China whose hymn-book has had a circulation of over twenty thousand, he himself having written more than four fifths of the four hundred and thirty-seven hymns it contains; and the Rev. Dr. Henry Blodget, who with Dr. Chauncey Goodrich published a hymn-book in Mandarin in 1872, containing nearly two hundred hymns contributed by Dr. Blodget's pen. Nor should we omit from this list Bishop Moule, Archdeacon Moule, and Dr. Griffith John, of Hankow. Other missionaries prominent as Chinese hymnists are Legge, Douglas, Talmage, Ohlinger, J. W. Lam-buth, Young, Wolfe, Stewart, Hartwell, Pott, Graves, Maclay, Nevius, Chalmers, Lechler, C. W. Mateer, and Hudson Taylor. A "Church Hymnal"is in use in the Anglican and American Episcopal mission churches in China.

In Japan numerous hymn-books, both of missionary and native Christian authorship, have been issued by Hymnals in Japan and Koreaseveral of the denominations, the earliest one having appeared about the year 1874. A list, which includes reprints, given in the "Report of the Tokyo Conference of 1900,"pp. 970-973, places under the caption of Congregational, nine issues of hymn-books; under Presbyterian, nine; under Congregational and Presbyterian united, three; under Methodist, six; under Baptist, four; under Episcopal, twelve; and under Miscellaneous, twenty-one. The latter specification represents collections prepared for special times and occasions, such as Christmas, Easter, and Sunday-school gatherings, Young Men's Christian Associations, and evangelistic services. A Union Hymn-book, containing four hundred and eighty-five selections, was published in 1903, for use in all the evangelical churches of Japan, the Episcopal Church coöperating by the inclusion of over a hundred of the union hymns into its own hymnal. In 1853 not a Christian hymn was sung by the Japanese; in 1903 the Union Hymnal, with nearly five hundred selected hymns, was reported as the best-selling book in the list of Christian publications. A new volume of sacred songs was printed in 1900 for use among Formosan Christians. A Presbyterian hymn-book in Korean is growing year by year, and has now attained considerable size, having been issued in several editions. An Anglican hymnal is also ready in Korea. The whole subject of the preparation of a suitable collection for common use in the various missions in Korea has been put into the hands of the Hymn-book Committee of the Council of Missions.




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In the Turkish Empire an Arabic hymn-book was collected and first published by the Rev. E. R. Lewis, M.D., The service of song in the languages of Turkey and Persiathen a professor in the Syrian Protestant College at Beirut. It consisted of a compilation of hymns already, for the most part, in use, but Dr. Lewis put them into an orderly collection, and added the tunes. Many of these hymns were by native Christians gifted in the art of Arabic poetry. A much enlarged and carefully revised edition was published in 1885 under the joint editorship of Drs. Samuel Jessup and George A. Ford, this edition being still in use by all Arabic-speaking missions, including those in Palestine, Egypt, Arabia, and the Soudan. Many of its hymns are charming in poetic quality, and express with rare beauty some of the sweetest and loftiest emotions of Christian experience. Turkish, Armenian, Greek, and Bulgarian hymnals have been prepared by missionaries, with many felicitous contributions from native Christians. The late Dr. Elias Riggs was a notable contributor in Armenian and Bulgarian, while in Armenian hymnody Drs. H. O. Dwight, I. F. Pettibone, and C. C. Tracy were associated with him, and in the Bulgarian edition the Rev. Dr. Long. In Persia the Modern Syriac has its missionary hymn-book, published in 1860, and there is still another in Persian.

All the prominent missions of Africa have familiarized their converts with the devotional ministry of song. An abundant ministry of song in AfricaThere are hymnbooks on the East and West Coasts, up the waterways of the Congo, on the shores of the great interior lakes, and throughout South Africa. The list is too extensive to insert in detail. We can give only an illustration here and there of the good work of African missionaries in this department. The Rev. Hugh Goldie, of the Old Calabar Mission of the Scotch Presbyterians on the West Coast, issued seven editions of a hymn-book in the Efik language, writing himself two hundred and sixty out of the three hundred and sixteen hymns it contains; the Rev. T. J. Dennis (in collaboration with Bishop Tug-well) has translated hymns into Ibo; the Rev. R. P. Ashe (with the collaboration of A. M. Mackay) and the Rev. E. C. Gordon (jointly with G. L. Pilkington) were the hymn-writers in Luganda, the Rev. W. A. Crabtree having made quite recently some additional contributions; the Rev. W. E. Taylor and the Rev. H. K. Binns have translated many hymns into Swahili; the Universities' Mission has published its hymn-book at the Likoma printing-press, on the eastern shore of Lake Nyassa; the Scotch Missions around Lake Nyassa have collec-




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tions of hymns for use in several of the languages spoken in that region; and the Congo Missions have their service of song in numerous dialects of the interior tribes. North of Lake Nyassa the Berlin and Moravian missions have prepared a Union Hymn-book in the Konde language, and others are printed in the Kavirondo, Luganda, Swahili, Barotsi, Tonga, and Sesuto tongues. The Zulu, Sechuana, Kimbundu, Matabele, Bechuana, Kaffir, Nama, and Herero tribes are all supplied.1 The late Pastor Coillard's hymns in Sesuto are favorites. On the West Coast there are Bulu, Mpongwe, Benga, and Fan collections; Mrs. Marling, of the Presbyterian Mission, having been the translator of nearly a hundred hymns in the latter language. The large Wesleyan and Church of England missions on the West Coast are also well supplied with hymns.

Among the Malagasy, the first hymn-book dates from 1828; since then it has often appeared in new and improved editions. A century of song in the Pacific Islands, and among Indian tribesThe books at present in use—one prepared by the London Society missionaries, and another by the English Friends—are substantially new issues. Of the missions in North and South America among Indians and Romanists the same story could be told. The hymnology of missions in the Pacific Islands would call up the echoes of more than a century of song, which has mingled with the music of their wave-washed shores. One of the early Wesleyan missionaries in Fiji —the Rev. John Watsford—turned the Bible stories into songs, and taught the children in schools to sing them. In these school songs the Gospel was set to music, and the children learned the life of Christ in this unique way, perhaps, in some instances, even before they were able to read. A new and enlarged edition of a Tahitian hymn-book was announced as ready in 1827. There have been several collections in the New Hebrides, where Geddie and Inglis were translators and composers, and where J. D. Gordon, the martyr, has left hymns which are still sung in the native churches. Bishop Patteson was a master of song, being the author of many original hymns, and trained his native following to chant the Psalms and sing the noble hymns of the English Church service, translated by himself into their languages. Dr. Bingham is the author of a Gilbert Island hymn-book, and the Rev. R. W. Logan was the translator of many hymns for use in the Caroline

1 Livingstone, Mackenzie, and Moffat all wrote hymns for the Bechuanas; Comber, Bentley, Weeks, and Richards, for the different Congo tribes; and the Rev. François Coillard was a prolific translator of hymns for the Basutos, and later for the Barotsi.




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Islands. The Rev. A. A. Sturges published a hymn-book in Ponape in 1858. There are hymn-books in New Guinea in both the English and the Dutch missions. The late Rev. James Chalmers, so cruelly martyred, translated nearly all of the two hundred hymns now available in the Motu language. In Dutch New Guinea, the Mafoor, Kai, and Yabine languages are all supplied. In Borneo the English missionaries of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel have translated and published the hymns of the English Church in the languages of their converts. We cannot speak in further detail of the Dutch East Indies, of aboriginal Australia, or of the hymnody of the Maoris. In Mexico, as also in South America, there are Spanish and other hymnals for the use of Christians. Among the Eskimos and Indians of the North a goodly collection of the Songs of Zion aid the worship of every tribe where missions have entered. Bishops Reeve, Horden, and Bompas, and Archdeacons Collison, McDonald, and Mackay, have been gifted contributors to the hymnody of the Indian languages of Canada, and the Rev, E. J. Peck has been a hymnist for the Eskimos.

Another important group is dedicated to the needs of the divinity training school, including works on theology, Group III.: the literature of theology and cognate studiesand text-books on such subjects as Ethics, Evidences of Christianity, Comparative Religion, Church History, Homiletics, and Pastoral Theology. A small library of this kind is in every prominent language used by missions. Dr. D. Z. Sheffield's "Theology,"in Chinese, and similar works by Drs. William Ashmore, M. Schaub, and J. L. Nevius, and the Rev. J. W. Lambuth, including Lees's "Manual for Instruction of Native Pastors,"Jones's "Systematic Theology,"Kranz's "Important Doctrines of the Bible,"with Ralston's "Elements of Divinity,"are all highly valued in China. Dr. Williamson's "Natural Theology,"and another volume on the same theme by Mr. Whiting, Price's "Short Steps to Great Truths,"Mrs. D. Z. Sheffield's "Old Testament Types,"and several other manuals and outlines of Christian doctrine, are further examples of the list which China furnishes. The translations of many valuable works into the languages of China should also be noted, as, for example, McCosh on "Divine Government,"translated by Whiting; Cornaby's translation of Arthur's "Tongue of Fire "; MacGillivray's translation of Bruce's "The Kingdom of God "; Clayton's translation of Candlish's "Work of the Holy Spirit"; and Hayes's translation of "Philosophy of the Plan of Salvation."In Japanese there are several theological manuals, the most elaborate being the "Systematic Theology"of the Rev. J. D. Davis. Several solid




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volumes, such as Beet's "Through Christ to God,"Dale's "Atonement,"Gore's "Incarnation,"Ladd's "Essentials of Christianity,"and Lincoln's "Outline of the History of Christian Doctrine,"have been translated. Pastor Haas, of the German Evangelical Protestant Missionary Society in Japan, is sponsor for a number of volumes representing a rather liberal form of Christian theology. Into Korean Dr. Vinton has translated Bruce's "The Kingdom of God"and Bentley's "Christ Triumphant through the Ages."

Eveleth's "Theology "is a standard in Burmese, and the same is true of Dr. J. W. Scudder's volume in Able theological writings in the languages of India Tamil, the "Manual"of Dr. G.H. Rouse, and the "Introduction to Theology "of the Rev. J. A. L. Stern, in Bengali. Dr. Imad-ud-Din is the author of many able theological works in Urdu, and the Rev. Baba Pad-manji in Marathi. The Rev. J. J. Caleb's "Mine of Theology,"McGrew's "Treasury of Theology,"Hooper's "Christian Doctrine,"and Scott's "Natural Theology,"are important treatises in Urdu. The Rev. J. Cornelius and Dr. J. P. Jones are authors of theological works in Tamil. The Rev. C. Irion has written on the "Outlines of Christian Doctrine"in Malayalam, while the Rev. T. Walz and the Rev. J. Hutcheon have prepared in Kanarese several volumes on Christian Doctrine. The Rev. W. H. Campbell, the Rev. W. L. Ferguson, and the Rev. J. Clay have published doctrinal manuals in Telugu; Messrs. Bodding and Skrefsrud have prepared for the Santals an expository volume on Luther's Catechism; while Ullmann's "Sinlessness of Jesus,"and Dorner's "Doctrine of the Person of Christ,"have been translated by Dr. Hooper into Urdu. In Arabic the Rev. James S. Dennis has contributed a text-book, in two volumes, on "Systematic Theology."Dr. Riggs has written a theological treatise in Bulgarian, and there is also one in Armenian. Toy and Cousins have expounded Christian doctrines to the Malagasy, and Matthews has translated for them Hodge's "Outlines of Theology."Pilkington has written on theology in Luganda, and an "Exposition of the Thirty-nine Articles "is now ready in the same language.

Literature dealing with Ethics, Apologetics, Comparative Religion, Homiletics, and Pastoral Theology, Volumes dealing with ethics, evidences, and pastoral trainingis found in considerable volume. We may mention Dr. Schaub's "Christian Ethics,"in Chinese, and several volumes on ethical and "social reform in the languages of India. Klein was a busy translator into Arabic of controversial works for use among Moslems, as was also Dr. Koelle into Turkish.




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Volumes of an apologetic tenor dealing ably with the "Evidences of Christianity"are numerous in many languages. Hopkins's "Evidences of Christianity "is in Armenian, and the Rev. James S. Dennis has prepared a volume on the same theme in Arabic. Dr. Martin's "Evidences" in Chinese (translated also into Japanese), and the group of similar works by Dr. Timothy Richard, and Dr. Du Bose's "Fundamental Evidences of Christianity,"are in the first rank. Williamson's "Ancient Religions"and "Influence of Christianity,"with Kranz's "Christianity Fulfilling Confucianism,"may be linked with Faber's masterly critical "Studies of the Chinese Classics,"Cornaby's "Essentials of a National Religion,"and MacGillivray's "Comparative Religion,"not forgetting a Chinese translation of Butler's "Analogy."India in almost all her prominent vernaculars is well supplied with evidential literature, prepared with much ability, and specially adapted to Hindu, Buddhist, and Mohammedan readers, with such ringing volumes as "The Call of the Twentieth Century to Awakened India "enforcing the appeal on behalf of truth. Among valued Indian writers in defense of Christianity are Krishna Mohun Banerjea, Lal Bihari Day, Nehemiah Goreh, and the late Narayan Sheshadri, all native clergymen of distinction.

The subject of Comparative Religion is abundantly treated in India, China, and Japan. Works bearing such A large output of controversial literature titles as "Rational Refutation of the Hindu Philosophical System,""Studies in the Upanishads,""Dialogues on Hindu Philosophy,""Religion Weighed,""The Vedic Doctrine of Sacrifice,""Vedic Hinduism and the Arya Somaj,""Christianity and Hinduism Compared,""Hinduism and Christianity,""The Polytheism of the Vedas,""Antidote to Brahmoism,""The Historical Development of the Quran,""The Faith of Islam,""Christian Doctrine in Contrast with Hinduism and Islam,""The Religion of Salvation Determined,"and "Investigation of the True Religion,"give an intimation of the range of such publications in India. The controversial works written for Mohammedans by Dr. Imad-ud-Din, the Rev. Jacob Biswas, the Rev. G. L. Thakur Dass, and Mr. Abdullah Athim, are highly esteemed. The translation of the Koran by the first-named into simple and intelligible Urdu has proved to be an apologetic work of value. It has brought Islam out into the light, and has stripped it of that mysterious wrapping of Arabic which concealed its real contents from the Urdu people. Bushnell's chapter on "The Character of the Lord Jesus "has been published in Urdu, and a valuable series under such general




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titles as "Studies for Mohammedans," "The Sacred Books of the Hindus Described and Examined," "Papers for Thoughtful Hindus,"and "Papers for Thoughtful Muslims,"deal chiefly with evidential themes and comparative studies. Rouse's "Tracts on Mohammedanism "are published in Urdu, Tamil, Telugu, and Arabic.

In China such books as "Native Religions and Christianity " and "Ancestral Worship," by the Rev. A. G. Jones; "Inquiries about Christianity," by the Rev. J. Stronach; "Mohammedanism and Christianity," by Dr. MacGillivray, and also his translation of Storrs's "Divine Origin of Christianity"; and Dr. Richard's work on "The Religions of the World," illustrate the scope of this theme in Chinese. The Venerable Archdeacon Moule has recently prepared a pamphlet on "Great China's Greatest Need,"addressed especially to the scholars of the empire. An edition of ten thousand copies of this pamphlet has just been announced. Tisdall's "Sources of Islam," written for the Persians, and also translated into Urdu, is scholarly. Pfander's "Mizan-ul-Haqq," a controversial work of great power addressed to Moslems, has appeared in Persian, Arabic, Turkish, Urdu, and other languages, and the same writer is also the author of other works of similar purport in Urdu, Hindustani, and Turkish. Wherry's writings on Mohammedanism are numerous and highly valued. In Egypt an extended defense of Christianity has been published in four volumes, under the title of "The Hadaya."It is a reply to "Izhar-ul-Haqq,"a violent Moslem attack upon the Christian religion.

Great importance must be attached to literature of this kind, which expounds in clarifying terms to the native mind the historical and spiritual content of Christianity, and at the same time presents in a judicial and inoffensive tone a scientific exposé of the The great importance of a wise apologetic in mission fieldsevolution of various ethnic religions which confront the Christian system. The true apologia in mission fields should not only elucidate and substantiate Christianity, but should give a fair and reasonable account of the genesis of ethnic religions, discrediting them meanwhile by disclosing their inferiority to the full-orbed revelation which we have in Christianity, and showing their incapacity fully to meet the needs of ignorant and sinful humanity. An intelligible account of how these ethnic faiths have attained their prestige and their dominant influence should be given, with a disclosure of their subtle power to mislead, combined with timely guidance to bewildered minds such as will help them to face the great, and often painful, conflict involved in a break with the old faith, and to accept the better religion.




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That branch of theological training which concerns the practical work of the pastor has not been neglected. Dr. Schaub is the author of "Pastoral Theology" in Chinese, and Dr. Garritt has translated the classical volume of Vinet on the same theme. There are Pastors' Manuals in most of the languages of India, and in Arabic Dr. H. H. Jessup has also prepared a text-book on the same subject.

In the department of Church History numerous compendiums and several elaborate works have Missionary authors in the department of Church Historycome from the pens of missionary authors. Drs. Sheffield, Corbett, Bentley, Pott, Schaub, Hicks, and Allen, in Chinese; Westcott, Caleb, in Stewart, Carpenter, Rice, Padfield, Kittel, Gundert, Bower, John, Schwartz, Lord, Rivington, Duthie, Wherry, Zenker, and W. T. Satthianadhan, in the languages of India; Dr. Davis, in Japanese; Dr. Gale, the Rev. W. L. Swallen, and the Rev. G. H. Jones, in Korean; Dr. H. H. Jessup, in Arabic; the Rev. C. W. Isenberg, in Amharic; Dr. Cross, in Karen; and others, in Malagasy, Turkish, Syriac, Tibetan, and a few languages of fields not mentioned, are all excellent examples of vernacular church historians. Young's "Christ of History" may now be read in Arabic; Dr. Ohlinger has translated into Chinese Uhlhorn's "Conflict of Christianity with Heathenism "; while Professor Sasaki, of the Duncan Baptist Academy, Tokyo, has translated the same volume into Japanese. Miss Howe has issued a Chinese version of Wylie's "History of the Reformation "; and Mr. Pollard has done the same for Brace's "Gesta Christi." D'Aubigné's "History of the Reformation" is to be found in Armenian and Arabic. The Rev. W. A. Crabtree has translated Robertson's "Church History" into Luganda (it is found also in Swahili), and in Chinese we have Matheson's "Spiritual Development of St. Paul," translated by Dr. MacGillivray.

Still another important group which may be particularized in this general survey of literary Group IV.: biography, and the literature of science and cultureproduction is identified with the literature of art and science, leading towards the goal of a broad culture. This group would include Biography, General History, Political and Social Science, Political Economy, Natural Science, Philosophy, the Technical Arts, Travel, and Exploration. Biographical literature places the lives of the great, noble, and useful among mankind in the hands of mission converts, including especially the life-story of Scripture characters, and the lessons which we may gather from their example and achievements. For the Japanese the "Life of Queen Victoria" and the "Life of Henry Drummond" are avail-




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able. The late Mrs. Timothy Richard was the author, in Chinese, of one hundred and fifty-three sketches collected in a volume on "Christian Biography." Dr. Richard has written a book on "The World's Hundred Famous Men "; while Mrs. Pott, of Shanghai, has devoted her pen to "Biographies of Eminent Christian Women "; and Mr. Walshe has prepared a "Life of Victoria the Good." In many languages the biographies of the best men and women, of both local and general fame, as well as of historic distinction, are to be found. "Biographical Sketches of Eminent Men" has been lately issued in Modern Syriac; and the "Life of Queen Victoria" is also published by the Archbishop's Mission in both Syriac and Persian. The Chinese have been favored by the Rev. W. P. Bentley with a volume on "The Lives and Speeches of the American Presidents." The Rev. James Sadler, of Amoy, has translated Lodge's "Pioneers of Science." The martyrs of church history, and the Christian heroes of the present generation in China, are fruitful themes. The list includes also lives of Constantine, Chrysostom, Luther, Bunyan, John Knox, John Paton, Moody, Neesima, Müller, Frances Willard, Spurgeon, William the Silent, and the Czars of Russia. We find in the catalogue of Christian literature printed in India for the use of natives familiar with English the following, among other biographies: "Anglo-Indian Worthies," First and Second Series; "Eminent Friends of Man; or, Lives of Distinguished Philanthropists "; "Governors-General of India," First and Second Series; "Noble Lives "; "Some Noted Indians of Modern Times "; "Statesmen of Recent Times "; "Lives of Great Men "; and separate biographies, either in English or in some vernacular, of Franklin, Garfield, Gladstone, Luther, Charles Grant, Sir Herbert Edwardes, Carey, Duff, Bishop Heber, Livingstone, Mackay, Monier-Williams, Gordon, and of the late Queen-Empress of India. In Urdu, for example, we find listed nineteen memoirs, among them being the lives of Bishops French and Patteson, Spurgeon, Luther, Judson, Wesley, and Queen Victoria. From the foregoing list, necessarily merely representative, one may infer the profitable impression which biographical literature is making in the mission world.

In the department of history generally, as well as in that of more local and national interest, is Great nations in the school of historyprovided a ministry of instruction and delight to old and young. Concise historical outlines of the rise and progress of some of the great nations of the world have been written by missionary authors. A scholarly work by Dr. Harvey Porter on "Ancient History" is in Arabic. Chinese literature is




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especially favored with such volumes as Faber's "History of China,"and his "History of Civilization "; Richard's "Outlines of the History of Prominent Nations," and his translation of Sir W. W. Hunter's "Brief History of the Indian People "; MacGillivray's "Eighteen Christian Centuries "; Sheffield's "Universal History "; Pott's "Sketch of Chinese History "; Pitcher's "Compendium of Chinese History "; and Hulbert's "History of Korea." We find also, in the Chinese catalogue of Christian literature, Histories of Greece and Rome, translated by the Rev. W. G. Walshe; a "History of Ancient and Modern Nations," by Rees; Couling's "History of Four Ancient Empires"; Allen's "History of the Chino-Japanese War," and his translation of "The German Empire of Today "; Muirhead's "English History "; Williams's "History of the United States," and two others by Drs. Bridgman and Wilcox; together with Green's "History of the English People," translated by the Rev. E. T. Williams. A series of volumes under the general name of "The Conversion of the West," treating of the great nations in succession, reveal to Chinese readers the religious history of Western peoples. There is also a "History of Russia." It is interesting to note how fully these historical themes have been treated in that land which is just awakening to a fresh outlook over the world, and to a new acquaintance with human history. China especially needs a correct and illuminating view of the rise and progress of the great nations of the West, with an instructive exposition of the vital forces which have promoted their progress, and have conduced to their greatness, dignity, and power. No book has been more popular, or more eagerly read, in China than Mackenzie's "History of the Nineteenth Century "; it has been issued in continuous editions ever since Dr. Richard translated it in 1894. This book and the "Life of Peter the Great" are said to have had a powerful influence among educated Chinese, and even upon the Emperor himself, in inspiring the reform movement of 1898.

Other books of great timeliness and value to Chinese statesmen and students in these Timely historical studies in national evolutionformative days have been prepared to meet the exigencies of the present hour. Their titles will indicate their trend and import. We may mention the "Education of the Human Race," by Rees; Allen's "Women of All Lands," and his "Scheme to Make a Nation Prosperous "; Murray's "Principles of Western Civilization"; Williamson's "What a Nation Needs"; Walshe's "Story of Geographical Discovery," and his translation of Herbertson's Geography; and Bishop Graves on "China's Needs and




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Hopes."Dr. Macklin has written on "Liberty "; and we find on the list of the publications of the Society for the Diffusion of Christian and General Knowledge the following titles: "How to Revive the Prosperity of China "; "Right Principles of Universal Progress "; "Christianity and the Progress of Nations "; "The Relation of Education to National Progress "; while Dr. Richard has translated Kidd's "Social Evolution "; Mr. Cornaby, Strong's "Twentieth Century "; Mr. Sadler, Seeley's "Expansion of England"; and Mr. Walshe, Barnes's "History of Modern Peoples." The neighboring Japanese have translated such standard works as Dicey on "Law of the Constitution"; A. T. Mahan's "Influence of Sea Power Upon History"; Lecky's "Democracy and Liberty "; and many similar works dealing with themes which are intimately associated with national development. The foregoing references to the historical literature of China may suffice without reviewing such lists in other mission fields.

Political and social science deal in some instances with themes which are more or less historical. Lessons in political and social scienceVerbeck of Japan, Martin, Muir head, Richard, Sadler, and Allen, of China, have and been industrious contributors to this department. Dr. Richard was requested by the late Li Hung Chang to draw up an outline of the manner in which religious peace has been attained in other parts of the world. In response to this request, a monograph in Chinese, on "Religious Liberty," was written and widely circulated among the leading viceroys, governors, and other officials throughout the empire. Books like these, as Mr. Colquhoun remarks concerning the issues of the Society for the Diffusion of Christian and General Knowledge, "enlarge the horizon of the Chinese, and teach him to rise above the ignorant provincialism which is his bane." The subject of education has been made a specialty by missionaries in China, who have prepared a varied literature dealing with its importance, its methods, its latest appliances, and its resulting benefits, with a statement of the estimate put upon it by civilized nations, and the means adopted for its support. Upon this theme of education the Educational Association of China has published nineteen volumes, and the Society for the Diffusion of Christian and General Knowledge has seventeen listed in its catalogue. Dr. F. L. Hawks Pott has made a careful study of scientific normal training in his text-book on "Pedagogy," just issued. Subjects bearing upon political and social science have been wisely and fully treated in such volumes as "Civilization: the Fruit of Christianity "; "Permanent Peace and Prosperity of China "; "Elements of Civil Government";




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"Theory of Human Progress"; "History of Politics"; and "The Importance of International Intercourse."

These sources of information enable the ruling men and the coming leaders of China to study the secrets of political and social development under the guidance of those who know the forces which have led Western civilization to the adoption of its present ideals, Literature for a time of intellectual and social transformationand helped it on towards their realization. The result is that a greatly changed programme of preparation for political preferment has been introduced in favor of modern knowledge and an intelligent grasp of the secrets of national progress. The time-honored "Eight-Legged Essay," once regarded as such an auspicious qualification for recognition and advancement, has availed itself of its facilities for locomotion, and is journeying into oblivion. The light of modern knowledge has penetrated those musty and dismal Examination Halls of the past, and China is entering upon a new historic era. Literature for a time of intellectual and social transformation is provided also in India. There are English, and usually vernacular, editions of such volumes as "Great Indian Questions of the Day,"and "Short Papers for the Times," both works by the late Dr. Murdoch. Social reform, moreover, has been treated in full and varied issues dealing with many special phases which call for attention—such subjects as "Sanitary Reform in India "; "Is India Becoming Poorer or Richer? With Remedies for the Existing Poverty "; "Debt, and the Right Use of Money"; "Purity Reform"; "Temperance Reform in India"; "Caste "; "The Women of India, and What Can Be Done for Them "; and other volumes dealing with the suppression of cruel and unseemly customs.

Political Economy has claimed the attention of Drs. Martin, Sheffield, and Macklin, and the Rev. James Economic themes and scientific literatureSadler, in the Chinese, Works of economic value are also issued by the Society for the Diffusion of Christian and General Knowledge, such as "Man and His Markets,"and "Commercial Geography of Foreign Nations." It is interesting to note that in a land like China a volume on "Taxation " has been issued by Dr. Pott. In Philosophy we find the works of Haven, Upham, and Wayland. In some of the foreign languages important advanced books on the natural sciences have been issued, but the majority of such publications come rather under the head of educational text-books, of which there are many. Martin, Parker, Pilcher, Lowry, Bentley, Fryer and Farnham, have given standard




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treatises on these themes to the Chinese. Walshe has written of the "Wonders of the Universe"; Wigham has translated a "Statistical Geography"; and among other volumes rendered into the Chinese vernacular are: "The Universe," by Pouchet; "Fifty Years of Science"; "Story of Eclipses"; and "The Fairyland of Science"; while Dr. Richard has written on "The Earth as a Planet." It will be seen that the missionary literature of China is like an encyclopedic text-book of modern knowledge. As our diplomatic agents represent our political and material interests, so our missionaries represent the intellectual, moral, and religious power of Christendom. As commercial interests have their agencies and institutions in foreign lands, so the higher life of Christian nations finds its representative advocates and promoters in the missionary contingent. In Arabic quite a little library of scientific books is due to the labors of Drs. Van Dyck, Post, Wortabet, and Lewis, and, in a more elementary form, to the late Miss Everett. Dr. Van Dyck prepared a series of "Science Primers," eight in number, and Dr. Daniel Bliss is the author of a treatise on "Mental Philosophy."

In some of the technical arts, handbooks have been published to aid in industrial training and advanced Technical handbooks, and books on the industrial artsscientific study. In Chinese are practical treatises on Hydrostatics, Mechanics, Agricultural Chemistry, Mining, Engineering, Optics, Thermotics, Electricity, and Acoustics, while instructive text-books on Drawing are in several mission lists. Translations of a book by Professor King, on "The Soil"; one by Professor Tanner, on "Practical Agriculture"; and a brief volume on "Wireless Telegraphy," are all in Chinese; while the Rev. W. P. Bentley, of Shanghai, has prepared a little volume outlining the value and essential features of "A National Department of Agriculture." Many volumes of travel, and books descriptive of other lands, peoples, and customs, have been issued in English, and in various vernaculars, by the Christian Literature Society of India, in a style specially adapted for Indian readers.

We may name, as constituting another distinct and valuable collection, works on medical, surgical, and Group V.: medical, surgical, and sanitary sciencesanitary science. Dr. S. F. Green, a half-century ago, prepared numerous medical and surgical treatises in Tamil. The Christian Literature Society for India has issued a series of timely, practical booklets on sanitation, hygiene, and the preservation of health, some of them dealing especially with the physical welfare and safety of children. Similar vol-




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umes are in Kanarese, Tamil, Telugu, Marathi, and other vernaculars. A book on "The History of the Plague, and How to Stop its Progress," prepared by the late Dr. Murdoch, is intended to safeguard the people from that terrible visitation, in so far as prudence and preventive measures on their part will avail. In Urdu is "The Wonderful House I Live In," being a useful volume on the human body and its functions. In Assamese "The Way to Health,"a sanitary primer, has been published by Dr. Rivenburg. Tracts on cholera are in almost all the languages of the countries visited by or liable to that dread scourge. In Korean a volume on "Hygiene " is serving a useful purpose, as are also the text-books prepared by Dr. Avison on Anatomy, Materia Medica, Physiology, Surgery, and Chemistry. The Malagasy are supplied with books on Materia Medica, Surgery, Anatomy, and the Practice of Medicine. Missionaries in China have accomplished much in this line, in spite of the difficulty of fixing upon an accredited standard of scientific terminology for use in Chinese. Dr. Kerr is the author of numerous medical works; Dr. Hobson has prepared volumes on Anatomy, Surgery, Medicine, and Obstetrics; while Dr. Dudgeon has written on Physiology and Anatomy. Important books have appeared on Materia Medica and the Pharmacopoeia by Dr. Hunter; on "Malarial Fever: Its Prevention and Cure," by Dr. Mackenzie; on "Physiology," by Messrs. Porter and Judson; translations of Gray's "Anatomy," by Drs. Osgood and Whitney, and of Davidson's "Diseases of Warm Climates," by Dr. Main; with manuals on nursing, and various other branches of the healing art, and on different phases of medical and surgical science; all manifesting capable as well as faithful and laborious work by missionaries in China. In the Arabic language Drs. Van Dyck, Post, and Wortabet have prepared able text-books on modern medicine and surgery. The volumes already mentioned will suffice to show the thoroughness with which these vital subjects have been treated by medical missionaries.

The literature which is provided for the school and the college Group VI.: educational text-books of great variety and utilitymay be regarded as another important product of the literary industry of missions. We find everywhere educational text-books of great variety and utility. It is impossible to specify these except in general terms, variety and utility. Primers and reading-books abound; mathematical text-books of every grade, dealing with all aspects of the science, are in the hands of pupils; manuals on Grammar, Geography, History, Chemistry, Geology, Zoölogy, Mineralogy, Botany, Astronomy, Mechanics, Mental and Moral Philosophy, and, in fact, on every subject




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which finds its place in the ordinary school curriculum, are in the languages of advanced mission fields. Dr. Murdoch's "Manual of Geography " has passed through thirty-eight editions. In Chinese a list of nearly three hundred separate issues of educational text-books might be enumerated. Dr. A. P. Parker, of Shanghai, has not only himself mastered Differential and Integral Calculus, Trigonometry, and Analytical Geometry, but has published volumes in Chinese on these three branches of higher mathematics, and is now reported as engaged on a "Technological Dictionary," which, in collaboration with others, he is preparing. Its twelve thousand terms, to be properly indicated and explained in Chinese, give one an idea of the formidable character of the task. As early as 1817, Mr. Ellis, of the London Mission in the Society Islands, writes: "We have printed seven thousand copies of different kinds of school-books." Thus for nearly a century missionaries in all parts of the world have been supplying the instruction for generations of children and youths of both sexes. In this good work many of the wives of missionaries have borne a prominent as well as a helpful part.

Once more, there is a delightful and most useful group which finds its chief sphere of ministry in the home—books for mothers and children, serviceable as messengers of cheer and entertainment in the family circle, and valuable withal for Group VII.: books for the home circlepurposes of instruction, encouragement, and moral incentive. There is a series in Tamil on "The Women of the Bible," and in Marathi there is a suggestive volume entitled "Necklace of Nine Jewels for Women." The charming stories of A. L. O. E. (Miss C. M. Tucker, of the Church of England Zenana Missionary Society) are in many of the vernaculars of mission fields, as well as in English. There is a special series of stories, moreover, for reading in the zenanas, and also books upon the training of children, dealing with some of the evils of child life, such as early marriage, and the suffering caused by parental ignorance and neglect. Here and there missionaries have written original stories, or translated some of the classics of childhood. The late Rev. J. Ireland Jones was the author of "The Wonderful Garden," a story in Singalese designed to convince Buddhists of the existence and manifestation of a Creator. "Picciola; or, The Prison Flower," delineating a struggle through sceptical doubt to faith, has been translated from the French into the Chinese. There are also stories from religious history, as "The Schönberg-Cotta Family " in Arabic, "Fabiola: A Tale of the Catacombs," the "Story of the Other Wise Man," by van Dyke, "Ben




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Hur: A Tale of the Christ," by Lew Wallace, "Stories from Early Christian History," by Dr. Murdoch, and Farrar's "Darkness and Dawn," the last four being in several languages. Such instructive and entertaining booklets as "Christie's Old Organ" and "Jessica's First Prayer " have been transported from language to language, until they have just appeared in Eskimo on the coast of Labrador. These, with "The Dairyman's Daughter," and numerous original stories, written for the most part by native Christian authors, make a long list for the delectation of children. In Urdu is to be found Newton's "Rills from the Fountain of Life," as is also Dr. Murray Mitchell's "Letters to Indian Youth." Bible stories, Sunday-school lessons (Blakeslee's as well as the International Series), musical lullabies, and rhymes for children, mostly written by natives, are part of the mission output in many lands. "The Five Gateways of Knowledge " have been happily opened for wondering Chinese children to enter, while"Parables from Nature " are also read to delight and instruct them. "Little Lord Fauntleroy" is one of their well-known acquaintances; and familiar to them is "The Book of Sir Galahad," which turns the thoughts of young and old towards purity, while "English Home Life" gives pictures of exemplary living in the West. Thus the children of the Christian Church in mission lands are not forgotten, and a diligent effort is made to impress them early in life with the best moral stimulus furnished by a wholesome literature. Pamphlets and tracts are also issued in great numbers. Almanacs, illustrated cards, illuminated mottoes, and various issues of this kind, are to be had at every press, and will always be found to serve for the promotion of purer, sweeter, and nobler living.

Nor must we forget the literature especially prepared for the blind. It is provided in China by Mr. Literature for the blind W. H. Murray, of Peking, and circulates wherever needed, being much sought for, we learn, in Manchuria. There is a growing supply for India, and it is found also in Japan and Korea; while in Arabic, Armenian, and Turkish, and in a few other languages, we note a similar provision for this unfortunate class. The Guiding Star is the appropriate title of a little magazine published for the pupils in the Gifu Blind School, Japan. The labors of the Rev. J. Knowles, of the London Mission in South India, in coöperation with Mr. L. Garthwaite, after years of constant effort and research, have resulted in what is known as the "Knowles Oriental Braille System," which has been so adjusted to the needs of India that it can be used in any of the languages of Indian races. Books for the




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blind have already been issued in thirteen languages of India, and it is now proposed to introduce this system into Burma. Still another special adjustment has been made for use in the Urdu language, known as the "Shirreff-Braille Method." It is well suited to the languages of North India which are in affiliation with the Sanscrit, and is said to be easily adaptable for use in Persian, Kashmiri, and Pashtu.

A number of libraries and free reading-rooms have been Libraries and free reading-roomsestablished in mission fields, especially in Syria, India, China, and Japan. In this the Missionaries' Literature Association of London has aided by furnishing libraries at several stations in the foreign fields. So-called "Book-rooms " are a part of the outfit of almost every prominent station in Korea. We should note also a unique project which has grown to unexpected proportions in China. We refer to the distribution of Christian literature in connection with the Chinese official examinations. At these immense gatherings of students an opportunity is afforded to disseminate tracts and booklets dealing with vital themes of Christian faith and morals. The Society for the Diffusion of Christian and General Knowledge, and the Religious Tract Society of London, have been active in this work.1 The International Postal, Telegraph, and Telephone Clerks' Christian Association of London, in coöperation with the British and Foreign Bible Society, has recently presented a thousand copies of the Chinese Bible to postal clerks in China. The gift, we understand, has been well received and much appreciated.2

We may conclude this survey of the encyclopedia output of mission literature by referring to the entrance of the real modern encyclopedia into China, and of the "Geographical Gazetteer," edited by Professor

1 "' You will be pleased to learn,' writes Dr. Griffith John, ' that at the Triennial Examination held at Changsha, this month [September], there was a distribution of Christian books. On my last visit to Changsha, in June, I arranged with the officials for this distribution. There were present at the examination about twelve thousand students, and about eight thousand packets of books were given away on the occasion, each packet consisting of an annotated copy of one of the Gospels, a copy of the "Gate of Wisdom and Virtue," an eighty-page book prepared by me for this special purpose, an article on "Religious Toleration," by the Viceroy Chang Chih Tung, with an introduction by myself, an anti-foot-binding tract, a tract on the nature of God, and a translated sermon on "Creation and Redemption." In addition to these, about two thousand copies of the Diffusion Society's publications were also given away. The whole consignment weighed considerably over a ton, and represented a money value of about £100.'"—The Chronicle of the London Missionary Society, December, 1902, p. 295.

2 The Bible Society Monthly Reporter (B. F. B. S.), September, 1904, p. 276.




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H. B. Hulbert, into Korea. The indefatigable Dr. Richard has prepared a "Handy Cyclopedia," in six The entrance of the modern encyclopedia into Chinavolumes, for Chinese students, and, more than that, he intimates that he has imported for sale through the Society for the Diffusion of Christian and General Knowledge a number of sets of the ponderous "Encyclopaedia Britannica," and states that during the year ending September 30, 1903, thirty-five complete sets, and four supplements, of this great work were sold to Chinese purchasers. He speaks also of hundreds of applicants for it in the Chinese language, but the labor of translation seems too formidable, and the prospect of reproducing it in Chinese, in a form worthy of its high rank and comprehensive learning, is not yet sufficiently encouraging to guarantee a well-executed or, indeed, any translation. However, China has had a glimpse of these weighty volumes, and the time will no doubt come when either it or a similar production will be in the hands of such eager students of modern learning.

What a noble ministry is revealed in this record of the literary contribution of missions to the instruction, edification, and higher culture of millions of our fellow-beings who have waited long for their hour of opportunity! How many minds have been quickened, broadened, and enriched by these stores of learning; how many hearts have been inspired, uplifted, and cheered by the thrill of contact with great thoughts; how many souls have been brought into the freedom of the truth, and have found a happy liberation from the dismal thrall of ignorance, through the books which have brought them courage and light, and at the same time have given them ennobling visions of the glory and gladness of life! Literature itself will enter upon a new career of beauty and power as the fructifying minds of great races come into active possession of the riches of modern knowledge; the political, social, economic, and religious development of vast multitudes will thus be guided into upward paths by the literary toil of these missionary scholars and authors who have been the almoners of the world's best thought to awakened nations, and have brought them into stimulating contact with the constructive ideals of an enlightened civilization.




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6. THE QUICKENING OF GENERAL INTELLIGENCE.—So much has been written elsewhere in the A conclusion amply vindicated in previous sectionspresent work which illustrates this special phase of our theme that only a few paragraphs dealing generally with the subject are needed here. The entire contents of Lecture V. m Volume II. will be found to involve as a necessary corollary the development of a new and brightened intelligence in any environment where missions have wrought their good work. It follows, moreover, as a matter of course, that a clarifying of the intellectual vision and a quickening of the mental powers should accompany the uplift of personal character.

There will be found, however, in every mission land a large section of the population not as yet The entrance of missions presages a general intellectual awakening directly touched by Christian, effort. An immense contingent of adults have probably never been to a mission school, may be unable to read, and living in ignorance as well as in obscurity. It is into the life of these less favored ones that we would look to ascertain if some of the light and leading of the great transformation has penetrated its darkness. Are there signs of mental awakening in lonely and obscure villages, in the isolated hamlets of the peasantry, in the darkened haunts of men and women who have inherited the incubus of heathenism or are under its pall, and who themselves have apparently little chance of entering a career of larger intelligence during the brief span of life which remains to them? Here is one of the most needy and clamorous realms into which the enlightening helpfulness of missions can enter. Let us note that there are multitudes of these rude and beclouded lives, petrified and doomed to almost hopeless sterility, who are nevertheless anxiously beseeching that the children of their homes shall be educated. What they have missed for themselves they crave most longingly for their posterity. With what glistening eyes and swelling hearts do they listen to the voice-tones—veritable music—of their own dear ones who can actually read, and who reveal a surprising intelligence about things to them all unknown! With what delectation and pride do they welcome back from the mission school a son or a daughter improved and made




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over into a personality strangely attractive and refined! What interest do they begin to feel in the outer world, and what an endless theme of conversation is thus introduced! They soon discover also the signs of mental alertness and all-round improvement manifested in Christian circles, and this becomes to them a convincing apologetic argument which cannot be ignored. It is almost sure to inspire them to make their special appeals and send their own representative delegations to the nearest missionary, with instructions to obtain for them without fail the same privileges that have wrought such transformation in other communities. Often the most unhappy and depressing hours of the year to many a missionary (only, of course, when he has to debate with himself as to the means of assenting to their requests) are these occasions of pathetic and insistent pleading, almost wrestling with him, on the part of those who have awakened to the possibilities of a better and more intelligent existence. He is fortunate if it is possible for him to respond to the request, and give to these petitioners a school, a teacher, or a preacher, or to open among them some new mission station. Alas if all his resources happen to be exhausted, and a loud note of economy has sounded from the home treasury, calling a halt to further expansion!

The introduction of the Christian view of life and duty into the social atmosphere of such backward communities is sure to signalize an intelligent change of attitude towards many questions which hitherto had seemed to be forever settled according to the old Communities thus enlightened instinctively seek their own bettermentlines of petrified public opinion. Religious toleration gradually becomes a possibility; the former stern exactions of the persecuting spirit are relaxed; priestly domination wanes; many indefensible social customs or unseemly private habits quietly loosen their hold, and are abandoned; womanhood assumes a new value, and shows capabilities of charming and ennobling transformation which commands the enlightened approval of all; child-life becomes more sacred, and infinitely happier and brighter; a desire for improvement in methods of living is apparent, and a new code of behavior is adopted, perhaps awkwardly and ineptly at first, but withal sanely and sincerely; a sense of the beautiful seems to be awakened, and dull minds discover a new attraction in the charms of nature—a flower which was once trampled upon is now an object of interest and care. A visitor who had known a Christianized Karen village in Burma in the days of its heathenism writes: " The very faces of the people have changed in their appearance. Hope, love, and intelligence have taken the places




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of doubt, hate, and ignorance. Board houses have taken the place of bamboo. The houses and their surroundings, and the people themselves, are neater. Ignorance has fled, and intelligence has taken its place."1 Similar testimony from an English civilian who has observed the influence of Christianity upon the Karens is as follows: " When once a village has embraced Christianity it feels itself head and shoulders above its neighbors. The Christian village must be clean, healthy, neat, and it must have the best schools and the best church that can be afforded." We find in many instances even the primitive savagery of Africa transformed into an alert and intelligent trend towards civilization which seems altogether admirable in comparison with the atrocious degradation of the past.

It is by no means an uncommon experience of the missionary that his visits to his out-stations gradually assume the aspect of an immense interrogation-point. He seriously considers whether it would not be wise for him to put an encyclopedia as Encyclopedic interrogations and plethoric mail-bags as aftermaths of missionswell as a Bible into his travelling outfit, and have them both at hand to supply the answers to the varied and numerous questions which greet him wherever he goes, and lists of which are sometimes made and pigeonholed to await his arrival. In communities where missions have secured a foothold it is quite to be expected that the Government will soon be obliged to increase its postal facilities to supply the enlarged demands upon the service. It was reported of an out-of-the-way region in India that the Christian community necessitated doubling the force of mail-carriers. As the desire for learning penetrates by an insensible, and almost undiscoverable, process into non-educated village communities, the demand for sources of information springs up; books and papers begin to be prized even by those who cannot read them, and the reading members of the village circle are called upon to serve as purveyors to the thirst for knowledge, or to gratify the growing curiosity for news. A few years ago newspapers were very few in China, but they have increased immensely within a short time, and are now eagerly perused by many thousands of readers. The Chinese post-offices handled 72,000,000 pieces of mail matter in 1904, as compared with 49,000,000 in 1903(!) No one can examine the remarkable questions which are now used in the examination for the M.A. degree in Chinese universities without feeling convinced that a new order of things has been instituted in the intellectual life of the country.2

Bunker, " Soo Thah," p. 115.

We take the following examples from the examination papers of the different provinces, as recorded in the Annual Report of the Society for the Diffusion of Christian and General Knowledge among the Chinese, for the year ending September 30, 1903. The questions are as follows :

" HONAN.— What improvements are to be derived from the study of foreign agriculture, commerce, and postal systems?

" KlANGSU AND ANHUEI (NANKING). —What are the chief ideas underlying Austrian and German prosperity? How do foreigners regulate the Press, Post-Office, Commerce, Railways, Banks, Bank-notes, Commercial Schools, Taxation; and how do they get faithful men? Where is the Caucasus, and how does Russia rule it?

" KIANGSI.—How many sciences theoretical and practical are there? In what order should they be studied? Explain Free Trade and Protection. What are the military services of the world? What is the bearing of the Congress of Vienna, the Treaty of Berlin, and the Monroe Doctrine, on the Far East? Wherein is the naval supremacy of Great Britain? What is the bearing of the Siberian Railway and the Nicaragua Canal on China?

"SHANTUNG.—What is Herbert Spencer's philosophy of Sociology? Define the relations of land, labour, and capital. How best to develop the resources of China by mines and railway? How best to modify our Civil and Criminal Laws to regain authority over those now under extra-territorial privileges? How best to guard land and sea frontiers from the advance of foreign powers?

FUKIEN.—Which Western nations have paid most attention to education, and what is the result? State the leading features of the military systems of Great Britain, Germany, Russia, and France. Which are the best colonisers? How should tea and silk be properly cultivated? What is the government, and what are the industries and educational facilities, of Switzerland, which, though small, is independent of surrounding Great Powers?

"KWANGTUNG (CANTON). —What should be our best coinage—gold, silver, and copper, like other Western countries, or what? How could the workhouse system be started throughout China? How fortify Kwangtung Province? How to get funds and professors for the new education? How to promote Chinese international commerce, new industries, and savings-banks, versus the gambling-houses of China?

" HUNAN.—What is the policy of Japan—only following other nations, or what? How to choose competent diplomatic men? Why does China feel its small national debt so heavy, while England and France, with far greater debts, do not feel the burden of theirs?

" HUPEH.—State the educational systems of Sparta and Athens. What are the naval strategic points of Great Britain, and which should be those of China? Which nation has the best system of stamp duty? State briefly the geological ages of the earth, and the bronze and iron ages. Trace the origin of Egyptian, Babylonian, and Chinese writings."




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In many villages where mission schools have been established, it has been found that a Sources of spiritual and mental culture are treasured in native homesdesire for intellectual food and the culture gained through books has been awakened in numerous households. It is told in the Life of James Chalmers that when he was a missionary on Rarotonga he planned with Mrs. Chalmers a system of visitation which would enable him in the course of time to call at every house on the island. During this round of visits he was accustomed to read the Word of God and offer prayer in each home. He reported that there was but one house on the whole island where he did not find a




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Bible out of which he could read.1 The Rev. C. Jukes, of Madagascar, relates that the first things that the Christians would put in places of security in time of turmoil and war were their Bibles and hymn-books, and that a sure sign of peace and tranquillity was when they began to unearth these precious books, which had been buried in anticipation of disaster. A curious illustration of the attractive power of educational opportunity is found in the experience of a cotton-planter in the British Central Africa Protectorate, who was in competition with a mission station in the matter of procuring native workers to serve on his plantation. The majority of available persons seemed to prefer to work at the mission station, although they received no higher wages there than he was willing to pay. The planter investigated, and discovered that the mission school was the attraction ; so he immediately built a school-house, hired an educated native teacher, and offered to all his employees the opportunity to obtain instruction. He found himself abundantly repaid for the effort, and was soon in a much better situation to cope with his rival.

The leaven of intelligence in an ignorant and savage community sometimes works Singular transformations wrought by the leaven of intelligencesingular transformations in the public mind. The accumulation, for example, of a little property among superstitious Africans often proves a dangerous bit of good fortune to the owner. The witch-doctor will be likely to accuse him of witchcraft, for how else could he succeed in so outstripping his fellows? The verdict is that he must have bewitched them, and he will be fortunate if he escapes the penalty which this crime involves. With the advent of Christian intelligence, however, a saner and wiser view of the possibilities of business enterprise and the rewards of diligent industry quickly takes possession of the community. The dismal superstitions of ignorance lose their sway over the mind. Lieutenant-Governor Le Hunte, formerly of New Guinea, in speaking of the status of the Christians, remarks: "There is an evident sense of protection and freedom from the cares of self-preservation that is to me very

1Lovett, " James Chalmers, His Autobiography and Letters," p. 106.




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striking; it is the quiet of a summer morning in contrast with a wintry night of storm; and it is the dawn of the coming day for this youngest generation wherever the mission has planted its cross." Even non-Christian rulers are beginning to discover the incalculable good which missions are doing in raising up for them an intelligent citizenship. This fact is already a cause of congratulation with the enlightened King of Siam. A few years ago, and even the official documents of China were apt to contain false and foolish statements concerning the so-called iniquitous practices of missionaries, emphasizing especially their cruel designs upon children. All this is now changed, and an entirely different tone characterizes the references of even heathendom to missionary operations. The world is happily growing wiser, and in many of its dark places this result is clearly traceable to the influence of the missionary teacher.

7. the abolishment of objectionable social customs. —A few illustrations will Missions a specific remedy for degraded and bestial livingsuffice to give an additional emphasis to this specification, which has already been plentifully interwoven into subject-matter previously presented.We have not failed to note that social customs are to such an extent a manifestation of individual habits that the transformed personality soon exercises a corrective influence upon the society in which it moves. This we have found to be still more true of the power of family life upon the social environment. It has been made plain also that humane and philanthropic impulses are bound to modify what is cruel and depraved in the social code, while the refining influences of education and culture are virtually in the class of specific remedies for coarse, degraded, and slovenly living. Objectionable social customs, it may be said, have been under fire all through the preceding volumes, and it is evident that in the present volume we have been dealing thus far with ameliorating forces, which work deeply and powerfully in the direction of social regeneration.

Oriental or savage customs are best changed, not by arbitrary command, or by rude force,1 but by the introduction of governing principles

1 The Oriental view of this subject is well expressed in the following statement: "Custom is the deity worshipped beyond all other deities in this land [India] of millions of gods. Custom is sacred, and rooted in the sacred scripture, and to range one's private thoughts and purposes against it is a last impiety! It is the outcome of ignorance and vanity to put confidence in the vacillating and partially informed conviction of one's own mind when all the wisdom of the ages has already spoken."— The Chronicle of the London Missionary Society, September, 1903, p. 212.




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into social life; it is these that work for the gradual modification, and eventually for the abolishment, of whatever practice is out of harmony with the principles implanted. The Christian conception of an overruling Providence, and the Scriptural teaching of Established customs in the Orient cannot be changed by violent and arbitrary meanspersonal love and discipline, take possession, for example, of an African heart, and instead of the wild and barbaric scenes which usually attend death and burial, we find, as is actually reported of a certain Christian Bulu mother, that with a calm and quiet spirit she sat by the side of her dead child, softly singing the hymn " Precious Jewels," and this, let it be noted, was in a lonely village in the depths of a West African forest. The reign of the fetich and of the witch-doctor is over for the Christian, and somewhat, it is hoped, also for the barbarian, through the length and breadth of Africa. Order, cleanliness, proper sanitation, adequate clothing for the person, new standards and ideas of modesty, are now discoverable in Christian home life, even among savage peoples. The cruelties of infanticide, the destruction of twins, the terrors of barbaric punishment, the neglect or deliberate murder of the aged and infirm, the prevalence of polygamy and slavery, the slaughter of servants and wives when a man of prominence dies, the impure orgies accompanying certain native dances, festivals, and the celebration of favorite rites, with all the dissolute buffoonery of barbaric sports, simply vanish in the light and refinement of Christianity.

There is to-day a great sweep of reform in Indian social life apparent not only in Christian communities, but advocated and practised by an aggressive and enlightened group of non-Christian reformers. Some of these changes move slowly, The spirit of reform now characteristic of enlightened Indiaas the right of widows to remarry; others die hard, such as the custom of infant or premature marriages. Cheering signs of a growing impetus to reform movements are, however, not lacking, since the Gaikwar of Baroda has actually sanctioned legislative action for the prevention of infant marriage below the age of twelve (he himself would have made it fourteen) for the girl and sixteen for the boy within the territory over which he has jurisdiction. It is a significant event to have this step taken by a progressive and enlightened Hindu ruler. Another interesting illus-




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tration is found in the act of that merciful Hindu husband who recently died, and in his will gave to his widow permission to take fruit and milk on those days of special fasting which custom, with sometimes the further deprivation of even a drink of water, imposes upon her. Let us hope that this kindly spirit will awaken similar consideration in many others who will have the courage to leave behind them such a legacy of common-sense and compassion. The pundits, we are told, decided with due formality that this permission was valid.

In China the progress of reform in the matter of foot-binding is an interesting study. From its initial stages missionaries have taken an active and persistent part in the promotion of the anti-foot-binding movement,1 but they have been greatly encouraged and reinforced in recent years by the indefatigable labors of Mrs. Archibald Little, who is the wife of a British merchant, and now Remarkable progress of the anti-foot-binding movement in ChinaPresident of the Tien Tsu Hui, or Natural Foot Society.2 The reform has gained such headway that official edicts in its favor are being issued in rapid succession—one by the Imperial Government in 1902 leading the way, followed since by proclamations from four of the prominent viceroys of immense provinces, condemning, and in some instances, as in the once fanatical province of Hunan, forbidding the custom, under pain of severe punishment. In Shanghai, where ten years ago hardly a pair of natural-sized shoes for Chinese women could be found on sale, there are now numerous shops well supplied. The Japanese, it may be noted, have forbidden the custom in Formosa. In some savage communities, as in New Guinea, cannibalism is still more or less prevalent, but there, as elsewhere, the Christian horror of the practice is slowly winning a dominant influence. In time, no doubt, it will be banished altogether, and, with other abominations of savagery, it will give place to a more civilized code. Thus the corroding power of evil customs wanes in the social atmosphere of Christianity, and life becomes, for whole communities, more sane and pure.

8. the disintegration of caste.—A sketch of the caste system —its origin, growth, and dominant power in Indian society—has been

1 Cf. Volume II., pp. 352-366.

2 "Intimate China," by Mrs. Archibald Little, pp. 145-163.




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presented in Volume I. (pp. 241-252). It is clearly one of the most inflexible and overmastering social tyrannies which the world has ever known. The loss of caste to the devout Hindu involves, in his estimation, a combination of suffering and The social tyranny of caste in Indiaterrors of which we, who view the matter from the outside, can hardly conceive. Hindus will often die rather than receive help in dire emergencies from low-caste hands, while low-caste people will be left to suffer and perish by the roadside by those of a higher caste, who would regard it as pollution to touch them.1 The system is such a pervasive and regnant social force as to be fairly comparable to the mysterious power of electricity in nature. Woe to the man who attempts to put up a puny fight with the resistless electrical energy which seems to pervade nature! Woe also to the man who in a Hindu environment enters single-handed into a conflict with caste! He contends with a mighty and mysterious intangible social force, which refuses to be challenged, and masters its victim with untiring ardor and fateful certainty. The overthrow of caste by any violent or arbitrary measures seems impossible. It can only be overcome by a long, slow disintegrating process, set in motion by gradual modifications in public opinion, heroic instances of martyr-like courage and fortitude, forced adjustments to the exigencies of practical life under modern conditions, the cumulative pressure of reform agitation, and the irresistible thrall of Christian love, emphasizing the lesson of human brotherhood and the oneness of life in Christ.2

The British Government has exerted its power, to some extent, in mitigating caste domination; yet, as is no doubt wise, it has dealt with the matter in a very guarded and restrained manner. Caste combinations and their exactions are not allowed free scope in the native army

1 " During the famine, people would starve rather than take cooked food which English travellers offered them from the train. It was during that time that one day one of our Christians came and told me that a man and his wife were lying on the roadside dying. I at once ordered the cart, and went down to see them. They had evidently just come up into the Punjab, as we could not understand their dialect. I learned that they had been there ever since early in the morning, and it was then nearly sundown. Hundreds of people had passed, but no one had given them a drop of water — and why? Because no one knew what caste they belonged to. Should they be low-caste, any one touching them would be defiled. I had them carried to the hospital, where they both died."—Maud Allen, M.D., in Woman's Work for Woman, April, 1902, p. 101.

2 A striking chapter on the power of caste may be found in " Things as They Are," by Carmichael, pp. 96-104.




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regulations— the Mutiny of 1857 having afforded a never-to-be-forgotten lesson of their dangers. Public wells are made free to all,1 although there are numerous private wells for the use of high-caste people Governmental regulations bearing upon the systemonly. Government schools, post-offices, and public buildings are open to all, and no caste lines are allowed to be drawn in ferries or railway conveyances.2 The handling of electrical appliances for public use has also inflicted a damaging blow upon class exclusiveness. There is, moreover, no favoritism in the public service, caste being regarded, in theory at least, as no drawback or prohibitive barrier to a worthy candidate. In the courts, too, the administration of justice is not willing to sanction any supercilious introduction of factitious discriminations.

On the other hand, caste in its minute details and ramifications is recognized and registered in census reports, save that Christians are not required to give their original caste connections. In official documents and legal papers, notice is often taken of caste classifications when it would seem to be more dignified and entirely proper for the Government officially to ignore such artificial distinctions. The Madras Census Report of Dr. Cornish (1871) contains an " Introduction on Caste," in which it is pronounced to be " the greatest bar to the advance of the Indian people in civilization and aptitude for self-government." 1

It is a further ban upon the system that it is not recognized or in any way sanctioned in the Vedas, it being a rank growth of later times.

1 " In May last, a Mahar, by name Govindya Mokindya, was charged with having corrupted the water of a public spring in Jamkhed, near Ahmednagar. The stream was used by high-caste people for drinking purposes, and the offence of the Mahar consisted in having drawn water from it, although for this he used an iron bucket, which is a clean vessel. The second-class magistrate, Mr. Bapu Hari Godpole, convicted the Mahar, and fined him in eight rupees. But Mr. R. A. Lamb, the District Magistrate of Ahmednagar, thought the conviction unjustifiable, as the water of the spring was in no way rendered unclean or impure for drinking purposes, and he referred the matter to the Bombay High Court. On 17th July the High Court quashed the conviction and sentence, and directed the fine to be repaid." — The Missionary Record of the United Free Church of Scotland, September, 1902, p. 419.

2 It was John Clark Marshman, the son of the Serampore missionary, who obtained from the orthodox Brahman authorities the decision that the Hindu devotee might ride in a railway carriage without losing the merit of his pilgrimage. This was the beginning of fatal inroads upon the supremacy of the caste system. See Smith, " Twelve Indian Statesmen," p. 239.

3 Report, p. 130.




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The attempt on the part of so-called Indian nationalists to identify caste exactions with patriotic Patriotism and manhood versus the ritual of the pillduty is based upon a false conception of true patriotism. There is much more of the real courage and dignity of true patriotism in the refusal of high-caste Hindus, on returning from foreign travel, to perform the degrading expiatory rite called for as a condition of their reinstatement after a visit to other continents. Many of these venturesome travellers have had the manhood and independence to rebel against the humiliating requirement, which, according to caste rules, alone can purify them from the polluting indiscretion of a visit to England or America, and this spirit is waxing more and more valiant. The ritual of the pill has been already formally abolished by groups of enlightened reformers, and others will in time, no doubt, follow the example. No conferences on reform now assemble without a vigorous discussion of the burdensome and fettering effects of the system.1

The aspect of the matter which concerns us here, however, is the proper attitude of Christianity towards caste, and the influence which it has already exerted, and will be likely still more to exert, in securing its disintegration and the ultimate annulment Caste irreconcilable with the Christian spiritof its powerful sway. That its spirit and ruling principles are contrary to essential Christianity seems beyond dispute. The Master's example is assuredly nullified by caste, while it is contrary to the noblest and most sacred precepts of the Gospel message of unity and brotherhood. It is, moreover, a barrier to Christian communion, to unrestricted opportunity to do good acts, and to the operation and sway of unselfish kindness and universal love. It practically banishes the recognition of the one indwelling Spirit in the hearts of all believing followers of Christ. It introduces an unhappy and dangerous element of confusion into the church relations of believers, and turns into a travesty the communion of the body and blood of Christ. Its recognition within the body of Christ involves a profound danger to the spiritual

1 Numerous Indian princes, it may be remarked, have visited England in recent years, especially during the time of the coronation of King Edward VII. One of them, at least, the Maharaja of Jaipur, assumed the burdensome and almost impossible charge of carrying a small army of servants, an enormous supply of drinking-water and provisions, and even the sacred soil to cleanse his cooking-utensils, so that he might not break caste by any accident of contamination during his prolonged journeying. Others, and the great majority, travelled as ordinary voyagers, and settled once for all the question of foreign travel and caste exactions, so far as they were concerned.




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status as well as to the practical usefulness of the Church. It would dissever and partition the Church of Christ into segregated fragments, and it would seem to be inevitable that these divisions, if permitted to continue, would become stereotyped and mutually exclusive. It would surely be a grotesque anomaly to partition the Church into innumerable minor class divisions. Christian villages and towns would thus necessarily be divided into compartments, each one of which would represent a place of worship and fellowship for its own particular caste, and for no other, on pain of pollution and cruel hostility. This would be virtually an attempt to differentiate and label humanity before the throne of the one supreme Creator and God. It would be setting up exclusive doors and methods of access to the one universal Saviour, and pronouncing a curse upon those of varying castes who were so indiscreet as to kneel side by side in the Master's presence.

Such, hitherto, has been the overmastering domination of the caste system that there has The historic attitude of missions to the system of castebeen a strange reluctance, even on the part of some evangelical missions—especially the Danish-Halle and Leipzig—to take a firm and unflinching stand in opposition to caste entanglements. The Roman Catholic Church has not only been tolerant, but has accepted caste distinctions within its pale, and has made no attempt to disturb their ascendancy, complacently adjusting its church administration to their exacting intricacies. It has allowed its church life to be dominated by caste rules, its adherents becoming apologists for the system, and treating it always with easy leniency. Protestant missions, however, with more or less unanimity, have contested its right to intrude itself into a Christian environment, and especially to assert itself within the Church. The Madura Mission of the American Board, as early as 1847, was so impressed with the blighting and demoralizing possibilities of caste within the Christian ranks that it adopted a resolution compelling all natives entering the service of the Mission to renounce it, as a condition of their securing employment. The measure produced much disturbance in native circles at the time. The training school for native preachers suffered, and many native workers and church-members were for the time being suspended. The requirement, however, was carried through, and has been adhered to ever since. Even earlier than this date, in the days of Dr. Duff, a strenuous policy was advocated, and the British Government was urged by missionaries not to recognize or honor caste or extend to it government patronage. This unwillingness to allow the identification of class pretensions in




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any way with Christianity has been characteristic of Protestant missions, with hardly an exception, up to the present hour. Individual missionaries may in some instances have regarded the system with a tolerance or leniency quite at variance with the general sentiment of the missionary body; but repeated formal utterances have been alike in their tone of deprecation and their unwillingness to give to caste the slightest recognition or status within the pale of Christianity. The latest formal declaration is embodied in the Resolution dealing with this subject, passed by the Decennial Conference of 1902, held at Madras, which is as follows: " The Conference would very earnestly emphasize the deliverance of the South India Missionary Conference of 1900, viz., that caste, wherever it exists in the Church, 'be treated as a great evil to be discouraged and repressed. It is further of opinion that in no case should any person who breaks the law of Christ by observing caste hold any office in connection with the Church, and it earnestly appeals to all Indian Christians to use all lawful means to eradicate so unchristian a system.' "

It was well known that the former Bishop of Madras, Dr. Cell, regarded caste as wholly indefensible, and not to be countenanced in any way within the pale of the Christian Church, and his successor, Dr. Whitehead, the present Bishop, holds substantially the same view, which he has clearly and forcibly expressed. " Christianity with caste," he writes, "would be Christianity without the Body of Christ, and Christianity without the Body of Christ would be Christianity without union with Christ, and without reconciliation with God. Father Goreh was right—' Christianity with caste would be no Christianity at all.' "1

This attitude on the part of missions has not been inconsistent with the establishment in some instances, as a matter of expediency, of special schools, where high-caste pupils alone are received. These have been conducted as mission institutions, and have been favored as a

1 The Bishop's language is extremely explicit, and may be further quoted, as follows : " This is a matter, then, of supreme importance to the Christian Church of South India. There is undoubtedly a tendency to palliate and make terms with caste; to allow it to retain its foothold in the Christian Society; to let it alone in the vain hope that it will die out of itself. In the same way the Israelites were tempted to make terms with the Canaanites in the Promised Land, to allow them to retain their foothold, in the hope that they would gradually die out of themselves. We know the result. There is reason to dread a similar result in the Christian Church in South India. Caste is an anti-Christian system. The Spirit of Christ and the truth of the Gospel demand that it should be exterminated in the Church with the same severity as the Canaanites of old."—The Christian Patriot, October 5, 1901.




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means of reaching with Christian instruction a certain class of pupils who otherwise High-caste schools a concession on the score of expediencywould have been inaccessible. Converts' Homes for high-caste women have been opened in some missions, but have always and exclusively been devoted to Christian instruction and culture. They have been places of refuge for widows and wives, and for those who are homeless and in distress, and have been made the means of Christian nurture, and, by the force of example, incentives to honorable and worthy living. Even high-caste schools are useful in opening the homes of pupils to missionary visits, and thus, no doubt, many hearts have received lessons of lifelong power and value.1

While here and there examples of this policy may be found, the overwhelming tendency Great ingatherings into the Christian fold from the lower castesand predominant scope of mission service has been to reach out after humanity, irrespective of caste distinctions. A magnificent work has been done for the lower castes in all parts of India. The Pariahs, or Panchamas, have been special objects of compassionate solicitude on the part of missionaries, and they have been gathered by thousands and tens of thousands into the Church of Christ, leaving behind them their caste disabilities, and entering the ranks of Christian fellowship as sons of God and heirs of the freedom which is in Christ. Peasant settlements of Pariahs have been a feature of Christian work in South India, and in both the North and the South great mass movements of the lower castes have been turning towards the Christian fold. To such an extent has this ingathering grown of late years that grave questions and serious embarrassments have arisen in various missions, lest the increase

1 " Of all the pretty sights of lovely Ceylon," remarks a visitor, " the one which pleased me most was Miss Bellerby's school for high-caste girls. Here we found fifty-three boarders of various ages up to seventeen, daughters of local chiefs and other native grandees, all under careful training and Christian instruction. They were taught English, and showed by their answers an intelligent acquaintance with the Church Catechism and the saving truths of the Gospel. The older children are driven to church in closed carriages on Sundays, in accordance with the requirements of purdah. Fifteen is the limit of age at which they must return home, which they do with deep regret. A few, however, have been permitted to remain a year or two longer, at their own earnest request. Never shall I forget their sweet singing of a hymn to their Saviour, accompanied on the harmonium. I could not help believing and hoping that this hymn was the harbinger of many others that would ascend in thousands of homes made happy by the indwelling of Christ through His Spirit. Here is a noble work done quietly, into which Miss Bellerby has thrown her whole motherly heart."—India's Women and China's Daughters, September, 1903, p. 214.




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should prove too rapid, and the additions too uninstructed in Christian truth to advance the higher interests of the Church. Nevertheless, this infusion of the Pariah element into the ranks of mission converts has gone on apace, and, as a rule, caste has sunk out of sight, and the Christian bond has taken its place. It has not been an unnatural process; in fact, it is in keeping with historical precedent that Christianity should reach out after the needy and distressed, and should search for the forlorn and desolate as its own peculiar charge, specially commended to its compassionate ministry. If Christian progress in India had advanced along opposite lines, and had sought and found only the proud and exalted claimants of a twice-born superiority over others, the whole status of the Church might have been lowered, and its mission, for the good of all, been grievously hampered.

The benefits which Christianity has thus brought to the low-caste masses in India have been freely recognized and acknowledged on every side. The missionary has been appreciated not only by the Christian public in India, but by the British The missionary as the friend and liberator of the Panchamasauthorities, and of late even by intelligent and progressive Hindus, as the friend and liberator of the Panchamas. In a recent volume of essays on social reform, published under Hindu auspices, one of the contributors, Mr. K. Ramanujachariar, M.A., Principal of the Maharaja's College at Vizianagram, in speaking of this subject states that the Christian missionaries have been foremost among the benefactors of the Panchamas.1 It should be noted, however, that generous acknowledgments like this from high-caste sources are not by any means universal; on the contrary, advantages accruing to the Pariahs from missionary efforts, and the advances they have made towards better conditions, are, as a rule, looked upon with dread and dissatisfaction by the upper castes. That low-caste people should enter upon a career of advancement, should dare to think with independence, and

1 Mr. Ramanujachariar's own words on the subject are as follows: "When these low-castes, kept down in a state of extreme degradation and wretchedness, were left to themselves, the missionaries came forward to rescue and elevate them, by educating and qualifying them for higher walks of life, of which they could not have dreamt till recently. It was an agitation started by some missionaries in the South in favour of the Panchamas that opened the eyes of the local government to their extremely wretched condition, and made it start special schools for their benefit. The missionaries have proved to be sincere friends of the low and the fallen in India, as elsewhere, and have done, and are still doing, their best to raise their status."—The Christian Patriot (Madras), October 26, 1901, editorial entitled " A Hindu Gentleman on the Condition of the Low-Castes."




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should venture to cherish aspirations after social betterment, is a reversal of immemorial traditions cherished by the higher classes, many of whom would regard even a sneer as too flattering an attention to a despised Pariah.1

Gratifying exceptions to these haughty views are to be found, however, in increasing number, not alone among Christians, where a spirit of kindness and sympathy is banishing caste formalities, but also among intelligent and progressive Hindus, A great change apparent in the attitude of intelligent and progressive Hindus whose rigorous customs are relaxing in favor of humane relationships, if not of Christian gentleness. It seems to be a settled conviction on the part of missionaries that a Christian profession is incompatible with caste observances, and that a Hindu becoming a Christian is necessarily under the ban of caste condemnation. A valuable symposium on this subject was published in several numbers of The Christian Patriot of Madras, beginning with the issue of September 5, 1903. There seemed to be but one opinion as to the advisability of recognizing and admitting caste into the Christian Church, and this was an emphatic negative. Even the possibility of living the Christian life in an orthodox Hindu home or environment was considered doubtful, although theoretically some would acknowledge that it might be done, at the same time confessing that it never has been accomplished.

Another aspect of this complex subject has awakened some apprehension—it is the Christianity should not become itself a castepossibility of Christianity itself practically developing into a caste in India, and assuming a position of exclusive and antagonistic segregation which would simply add another to the list of social and religious guilds. This would seem to be rather a remote contingency, as the spirit of Christianity towards existing castes is one of deprecation and renunciation, and, moreover, a consistent attitude of disapprobation and admonition has been, as a rule, maintained on the part of Christianity towards the whole caste system. The purpose of evangelism could not be conserved if caste

1 " It is to the eternal glory of Christianity that the Pariah is an emancipated man; for freedom has Christ set him free. That he will be a Christian patriot, and be faithful to the British Raj, we doubt not; that he will be a source of strength to the Empire is our hope. Educated Hindus and members of the higher classes may carp and criticize, but the Christian looks back to the era when a few Galilean peasants turned the world upside down and shook an ancient fabric of civilization, and then looks forward to when the emancipated Pariah shall stand amongst those redeemed by Christ from every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation."—The Christian Patriot (Madras), April 4, 1903.




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exclusiveness should possess the Christian community, and a reversal of the universal outreach of the Gospel would result. It is true that in the social and religious environment of India the Christian Church may have to face a temptation to nourish itself rather than to enlarge its membership, but there seems good reason to hope that the spirit of the Gospel will never be so dethroned and ignored as to evolve a new caste out of the status of Christian brotherhood and the privileges of Christian allegiance. It is, no doubt, possible that the caste spirit of India may seek to thrust its own exactions and impose its own customs upon the Christian community, treating Christians as if they were outcastes, or rather members of a new and despised caste, and then visiting upon them the ostracism which caste rules require. This may be said to be a tendency already manifest, since a Christian is often treated as an outlaw and finds it difficult to secure employment or enjoy social relationships. This, however, is quite a different aspect of the subject from that which would be implied in Christianity erecting itself consciously into a caste and assuming the rôle of an exclusive and militant faction such as the caste system exhibits. We have good reason to believe that Indian Christianity will not fall into such a grave and foolish entanglement as this step would involve.

In considering the practical bearings of mission work upon caste, the influence of education Education a powerful levelling agency as against caste pretensionsshould not be overlooked, since it is an agency which must be credited with a mighty disintegrating force and a powerful trend towards the weakening and uprooting of the system. Many prominent mission schools, no doubt, have had a hard battle in trying to control the caste spirit, but firmness and persistence, in the face even of seeming disaster, have, in almost every instance, resulted in victory.1 A new spirit of readiness to thrust aside caste for the sake of education seems to be growing more assertive in many parts of India. Educated men, even from among the Pariahs, are accepted, in numerous instances, by high-caste parents as teachers of village schools where their children attend. Petitions for Christian teachers, irrespective of any caste relationship, are frequently received by missionaries from high-caste villages, with the understanding that the school is to be opened to all classes indiscriminately. Some of

1 The boarding school of the American Board at Oodooville received a low-caste girl among its pupils in 1902. A large number of the pupils left the school, and malicious efforts were made by miscreants to set the building on fire, but after eight months' struggle the great majority of the girls who had withdrawn were back again in their places.The Missionary Herald, August, 1903, p. 361.




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the most accomplished and highly educated preachers in the native churches of India are men of low-caste antecedents. Education has changed their standing in the eyes of all, and given a new outlook to their life.

In fact, the educational advantages which missions have so freely granted to the lower classes are working a social upturning of unexpected and gratifying magnitude. The lower castes in many localities are pressing hard upon those of the upper ranks. In some portions of India the Vaidyas and the Kayasthas, and others even lower in the scale, are obliterating the artificial distinctions which favor and Great social changes brought about by the influence of educationpuff up the Brahmans. In Certain communities the high-caste man is now the ignoramus, and the low-caste man has a monopoly of superior intelligence. While the Brahmans, in many instances, are merely marking time, the lower castes, in increasing numbers, are marching briskly and hopefully forward. The changes among the Mahars in the Nagpur District are of striking suggestiveness. The United Free Church of Scotland Mission in that region anticipates great social changes in the near future.1 One of its missionaries in Santalia, the Rev. James M. Macphail, writes that character, conduct, and education, rather than caste, are becoming the basis of social rank. "Many posts formerly held by educated Hindus in government service, on the railway, in collieries, and in private establishments, are now held by Christian Santals." Mrs. Ellen M. Kelly, of the Baptist Mission in Ongole, speaks of great changes in that vicinity. Barriers, hitherto insurmountable, to the mixing of castes in educational institutions are fast disappearing. "People of the highest caste do not now look upon these Mala or Madiga converts with the same horror and repugnance that they felt some years back." These examples are cheering, though it must be admitted that as yet they are regarded as exceptions to the general trend of experience in India. Education is by no means a panacea, still less a force to be relied upon to dissipate caste feeling. Educated Hindus, apart from all Christian relationships, are in most instances as much slaves to the social exactions of caste as the most ignorant peasant. The educated Hindu knows better; but he is either indifferent or cowardly, and although he inwardly recognizes the absurdities of caste requirements, yet he yields ignominiously to its every demand. It is only the thoroughgoing Christian, or the stout-hearted Hindu reformer, of whose attitude to caste we can be sure.

1 The Missionary Record of the United Free Church of Scotland, December, 1902, p. 545.




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Still another feature of mission work which has its influence as a deterrent to caste enthralment is the medical branch of the service. The curious question arose in Dr. Duff's day whether high-caste medical students could afford to engage in dissection The medical work of missions, and its disintegrating effect upon casteas a part of their technical training, and it was Dr. Duff himself whose influence over medical students led them to decide that their efficient training necessarily involved the dissection and study of the dead body. "Most certainly," said a young Brahman who had been under Dr. Duff's instruction, when asked as to his willingness to touch a dead body in his study of anatomy, "I, for one, would have no scruple in the matter. It is all prejudice, old stupid prejudice of caste, of which I at least have got rid." Other members of the class, it is related, heartily chimed in with this utterance.1 There are many hospitals where the exactions and immense burdens of caste discipline have been observed, doubtless in a spirit of compassionate kindness to patients; yet the exigencies of medical and surgical practice, as well as the settled rule of most missionary hospitals, have banished caste. Patients, if they desire to receive the services of physicians and nurses, must enter the wards as ordinary human beings, who will be treated with all consideration and kindness, but without regard to the hampering and vexatious regulations which the laws of caste require. Dr. Wanless, of the Miraj Hospital, says that when the Hospital was opened they waited for six months before any but a low-caste man was willing to enter the wards. At the present time, however, there are not infrequently half a dozen castes, including Brahmans, side by side, on the same kind of beds, receiving the same mode of treatment, from the same Christian hands.2 A medical missionary of the English Baptist Missionary Society writes that he regards the medical service as "the most potent agency working in India to-day for the breaking down of caste prejudices and superstitions." 3

The influence of missions upon Hindu public opinion concerning caste is by no The influence of missions upon Hindu public opinionmeans a negligible quantity. We cannot, to be sure, credit all the change of views on the part of prominent Hindus directly to missions ; and yet the principles which missionaries advocate are in the air, while much, no doubt, of the reform spirit in Hindu circles is due to the stanch and vigorous attitude of missions on this

1 Smith, "The Life of Alexander Duff" (Toronto Edition), vol. i., p. 216.

2 The Assembly Herald, April, 1905, p.168.

3 The Missionary Herald of the Baptist Missionary Society, April, 1904, p. 182.




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burning theme. It is obviously true, as Mr. Justice Ranade asserts, that the reform movement means liberation, and a return to the freedom of early times, when the intolerable bondage of caste was not in existence. There are, however, at the present time too many conspicuous instances of repudiation of caste on the part of distinguished Indians, and too many expressions of hearty sympathy with the views and practice of missionaries, to leave in doubt the influence of missions as bearing upon this particular subject among educated Hindus. One of the most prominent examples at the present time is the Gaikwar of Baroda, who is a reformer of pronounced and aggressive spirit, whose repeated utterances on the evils of caste and its damaging power over Hindu society are familiar to every reader of present-day Indian literature.1 The Hon. Mr. Gokhale, a leader in Hindu circles in Western India, is another example. A recent address by leading caste people to Bishop Whitehead, of Madras, as reported in The Christian Patriot (Madras) of April 15, 1905, is a still further illustration. Mr. Justice Chandavarkar has expressed himself in unmistakable opposition to the caste system. Mr. R. Srinivasa Rau, President of the Kistna District Social Conference, declares that "caste has outlived its day, and the surest proof of this is to be found in the fact that the best of us do not believe in it."2 A recent number of The Indian Witness, a Christian paper published in Calcutta, remarks that "one of the notable features of present-day movement in India is the universal denunciation of caste by Indians themselves. From north, south, east, and west come diatribes against it." In support of this assertion, extended quotations are given from Hindu journals confirming and emphasizing the statement.3 In South India has been formed what is known as the "Caste-Suppression Society." It is an organization composed largely of native membership, intended to exert an influence in opposition to caste, and to devise practical measures for its abolishment. These, and numerous similar illustrations, appearing with increasing frequency, are sufficient evidence that the "mental seclusion" which Mr. Meredith Townsend regards as so characteristic of India cannot be deemed a fixed quantity. There is even now a "caste movement inside of Hindu society" which threatens in time to make void the system itself and all its mythical pretensions. The lower castes are trending upward and the higher castes

1 The Indian Ladies' Magazine, January, 1905, p. 215.

2 The Indian Magazine and Review, January, 1905, p. 24.

3 The Church Missionary Intelligencer, March, 1904, p. 212; The Baptist Missionary Magazine, June, 1904, p. 199.




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are trending downward. Hindus, upon whom their caste status presses heavily, are becoming restless, and decline to acquiesce meekly in their fate. The higher castes are, on the other hand, forfeiting their status by engaging in trades and occupations which a few years ago would have been regarded as beneath them. The citadel of Hinduism is thus crumbling from its own weight and decay.1

In the light of the facts presented, have we not good reason to believe that the growth of Christian institutions in India will stimulate opposition to caste pretensions, and work steadily, albeit slowly, towards their disintegration and ultimate suppression and overthrow?

The existence of caste in other mission fields is a matter of minor interest in comparison with its prominence in India. The Japanese, let us note, will have no semblance of it, and in 1871 abolished the disabilities resting upon the pariah class, known as the eta or hinin.

V.—RESULTS TOUCHING NATIONAL LIFE AND CHARACTER

From the consideration of missionary enterprise in its bearings upon the higher life of society, and the specifications which have been grouped under that general title, we turn now to another class of subjects which may be conveniently treated of The God of Nations sovereign in our present time as in past agesunder the head of results that exert a quickening and formative influence upon national life and character. We can readily believe that God maintains a sovereign control over the historical development of nations in modern as well as in ancient times. He is as truly the God of Nations now as He was then. Indeed, because of the rapidity of national growth and the complexity of national life in our modern era, the exercise of His mighty power may be more intensely active in the present time than in the past ages. The Hebrew historians described with realistic diction the sovereign workings of God among the nations, and in forms of speech which made clear their vivid recognition of the direct agency of an overruling Providence. The modern historian,

1 Cf. "Report of the Madras Decennial Conference (1902)," pp. 282, 283.




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however devout his mood, may not, perhaps, use biblical formulae, being influenced by the dominant idea of theistic evolution now so regnant in the philosophy and science of our times; but this does not necessarily indicate any deliberate intention on his part to ignore or to banish the idea of God's sovereignty, and His supreme guidance of the contemporary life of nations. He simply brings his trend of thought, together with his literary style and terminology, into conformity with prevalent philosophical theories of the mode and order of divine activities as related to historical progress. A new view of the divine methods of working requires new forms of expression, which, while giving prominence to secondary causes and evolutionary processes, do not rule out the First Cause or make the existence of a supreme intelligence any less essential in a true philosophy of history.

Christian missions, in their broad and multiform results, doubtless have a part to play in the history of our times corresponding closely to that training of Old Testament ritual and discipline which can be so plainly traced in the calling and governance of the Jewish nation. History is, in fact, repeating itself. The Old Testament dispensation as a school of national life finds, in a measure, its counterpart in Missions a department in the modern school of national lifethe activities of modern missions among existing nations. Our own Christendom is in a large sense mission fruitage, and now Christianity, true to its Founders purpose, is becoming the teacher of all nations, in very much the same sense that the ancient dispensation was the schoolmaster for the training of a single elect nation for its place in history. The Bible is full of the national life, not only of the Hebrews, but of contemporary peoples; and if a modern Bible of mission history could be written by inspired discernment we should surely discover the same almighty sovereign purpose working for the accomplishment of its high designs in the training and destiny of modern nations. The ultimate, although not the primary, object of missions is to prepare men and women to be better members of human society, and more helpful participants in the social and national development of the generation to which they belong—it being understood that the most effective method of accomplishing this is to bring them as individuals into right relations to God and His law. The attainment of this object implies a steady advance towards a higher national life, and a fuller preparedness of the people to be clothed upon with the fresh, new garments of a cultured civilization. Without this recognition of duty to the State, and the development of an aspiring national sentiment in the direction of political order, industrial progress,




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and social morality, even the best results in individual character will lose much of their efficacy and value.

The future of nations is therefore in a very real sense marked out and determined by the reception they give to missionary agencies, and the ascendancy which Christian ideals attain in their individual and social development. The "principle of projected efficiency," so emphasized by Mr. Benjamin Kidd,1 is an excellent formula for the larger utility and helpful tendency of missions in The "principle of projected efficiency" exemplified in, the larger trend of missionary influencesocial and national evolution. That projected potency which works for the future building up of nations is embodied in missionary activities. These carry in themselves an efficiency which can make one generation an operative factor in another to produce a resultant uplift to higher levels of life. To many who have some knowledge of Oriental nations it may seem to be a practically hopeless undertaking to lead them to appreciate and strive after the finer ideals of Christian civilization. It is just in this connection that the lessons of history are pertinent and incontrovertible. Teutonic culture and Anglo-Saxon civilization—let us not forget it—have developed from the fierce temper and barbaric social code of the races of Northern Europe. Thus along this road of slow and painful advance nations now exemplifying the highest civilization of the age have already walked, and others will in due time follow in their footsteps. The Japan, the Korea, the China, and the India of to-day, as compared with the status of those same nations a generation or two ago, are examples of an Oriental Christendom in the making. Faith based not only on the promises of God but upon visible historical precedent may rest assured of this, but there must be patience while the "increasing purpose" of the centuries is being realized.

Questions which are identified with the national life of a people pertain to such matters as the form and animus of government, the establishment and enjoyment of civil rights and privileges, the conduct of politics, the Christian teaching a valuable asset in the historic development of nationsenactments of legislation and their administration as law, the personnel of public service, the adjustment of international relationships, and the defense of the State. In connection with such questions the influence of Christianity need not be revolutionary in order to be helpful. It may exercise a transforming and guiding power which will lead a nation by easy stages of progress out of comparative barbarism into the heritage of civilization. In many

1 Kidd, "Principles of Western Civilization."




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respects Eastern nations, left to themselves in isolation, dependent upon their own resources, had reached, probably, their limit in the progress towards a higher civilization. If there was to be further advance, some outside help was seemingly essential. This might come as a gift from without, or, as in the case of Japan, it may be largely self-sought and assimilated with an intelligent recognition of its value. It need not necessarily denationalize them, but should rather shape their further development in harmony with national characteristics. In this connection the influence of Christian missions has been both timely and, to a remarkable degree, adapted to this higher ministry. The unique part which each nation has to play in human history, and the special contribution of service which it is to render in the interests of world civilization, will lose none of their distinctive features through the entrance of the leaven of a common Christianity. In this age of the world nations can no longer remain isolated or live a separate, exclusive life, out of touch with the rest of mankind. International relationships are already world-embracing. Missions, therefore, in so far as they contribute to the molding of the national life of peoples whose historic development seems to have been hitherto arrested, are a factor in shaping and furthering the world's international amenities. It is by no means a matter of indifference to Christendom what kind of a nation Japan is to be; it is even now, in fact, a question of absorbing interest and deep moment. China is already an important factor in the sphere of international politics. The whole East is stirred with a new life, and points of contact with the outside world are fast multiplying. The service which missions have thus far rendered among these different peoples in preparing them for creditable entrance into relationships of international rapprochement is of higher value than is generally recognized.

The gradual discipline and training which missions may be said to exert upon the national life, Some striking features of the national discipline and training which may be credited to missionshowever clear it may be to those who are intimately identified with missionary activities, is not so likely to be immediately apparent to a casual or remote observer; while in some of its more obscure phases it may even seem to be of the nature of an inference based upon a high degree of probability, or a conviction inspired by faith rather than by sight, in the minds of students of contemporary history. As time passes, however, it will no doubt become more manifest, and may finally appear as a demonstrated sequence supported by clear evidence, as the historic unfoldings of our modern world exemplify. If in our closer investigation, as we




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study this subject, we discover that in the national outlook of non-Christian peoples there are clearer visions of freedom and finer conceptions of patriotism; if we find better and wiser legislation, and more adequate views of the sacredness of law and justice; if higher standards of administrative method are being established, and a more serious sense of the responsibility of authority is manifest, then our case is so far provable. If, moreover, loftier ideals of public service and more intelligent recognition of the import and value of international relationships are taking their place in the national consciousness, and if we discover increasingly valuable contributions not only by missionaries themselves, but by educated natives, brought to the common interests of science and civilization—the larger life of the world's progress—we may regard all this as additional evidence of worth. If it is further manifest that these signs of a higher national development, appearing among peoples hitherto backward and stolid, are traceable in any appreciable measure to the inspiration and guidance of missionaries, then surely we shall have good reason to regard these indirect results of missions as of real and substantial value. We shall now enter upon several lines of detailed inquiry concerning these important themes which, it is thought, will be found worthy of careful study, and will, we trust, repay patient investigation.

I. CULTIVATING THE SPIRIT OF FREEDOM AND TRUE PATRIOTISM.—Our first theme relates to the The missionary evangel a charter of soul-freedomquestion: What have missions done to awaken and nourish the love of freedom, and to instil a true and wise patriotism? The missionary evangel is inseparable from the spirit of liberty, and as it addresses itself to hearts long under the dominion of superstition and ignorance it inevitably awakens aspirations after freedom. The struggle usually begins when a breach with traditional religious views and customs becomes manifest and unavoidable. It is the fight for freedom of conscience which issues eventually in the casting off and putting away of shackles. Although Christianity has no definite or direct political mission, yet it is not an unnatural result if this effort to secure religious and intellectual freedom should turn the thoughts of alert peoples and incipient nations




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towards political liberty. The very experience of being addressed as a free and responsible being, in a religious sense, naturally suggests possibilities of corresponding civil liberty. When a man realizes that he is free before God, he sooner or later aspires after freedom before the State. A free Christian is apt to feel unhappy as a political slave. The best that he can willingly do under the circumstances is to be patient and loyal, in a spirit of dutiful obedience to existing authority. In the meanwhile, the missionary himself in his person and citizenship is to him a visible type of a civil freeman, and the more he learns of the history of Christianity and its influence in the development of Western civilization the more he is inclined to reflect upon the possibilities of freedom in other spheres than that of religion.

This by no means implies that it is the tendency of missions or the practice of missionaries to This implies no discrediting of civil allegiance to existing governmentsdally with, much less to teach, political treason, or to foment rebellion against established civil government On the contrary, it is their studied purpose to promote a spirit of respect for law and of obedience to civil rulers. To do otherwise would be regarded by a wise missionary as a foolish and dangerous course. He enters into the social and political life of peoples who were long ago organized under some established form of government, which it is his duty to recognize and honor, and also to inculcate the same spirit of respect and obedience to local governmental authority among his converts. To undertake to undermine or discredit any existing form of legitimate government is neither his function nor his aim. He is no anarchist or revolutionist, but rather seeks to give a proper sanction to civil authority, as representing, however imperfectly, an ancient divine ordinance as well as a human instinct essential to the well-being of organized society.1 Not even the practical attainment by converts of the status of religious freedom need therefore disturb or loosen the ties of civil allegiance under which they were born, or to which they owe becoming fealty. The spirit of freedom of which we are speaking does not, moreover, necessarily imply disloyalty to the State. It may be cultivated even under a despotic form of native government, or under foreign rule—probably more freely in the latter than in the former case. It thus becomes both the duty and the privilege of Christianity to lift up subject peoples to higher ideals of per-

1 On the relation of Missions and Politics consult that memorable paper of Instruction to Missionaries prepared by the late Rev. Henry Venn, Secretary of the Church Missionary Society, and published as an Appendix to the Annual Report of the Church Missionary Society in 1861.




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sonal manhood and spiritual freedom without interfering with their relation to the ruling government. It cannot be denied, however, that it inevitably prepares a people to feel all the more keenly the wrongs of oppression and the evils of a despotic use of power, while quickening within them, meanwhile, that deep gladness which the gift of soul-freedom brings to hearts long enthralled:

"A liberty Which monarchs cannot grant, nor all the powers Of earth and hell confederate take away, Which whoso tastes can be enslaved no more— The liberty of heart derived from heaven."

It has been a popular charge against missionaries by despotic governments—a charge which is sometimes thoughtlessly echoed in Christendom— that they foment political discontent and disloyalty. This, in the case of Protestant Political disloyalty not encouraged by Protestant missionaries missions at least, is an unjust accusation. The methods of Roman Catholic missionaries, especially in China, Siam, and the Levant, it can hardly be doubted, do give some occasion for such an accusation. They have been made, perhaps sometimes unwittingly, instruments for furthering the political aims of Western Governments, and have taken advantage of this fact to secure for themselves a prestige in civil matters which has not always been used with discretion, and has frequently given serious offense to native governments. It may be confidently asserted, on the other hand, that Protestant missions are political neither in spirit nor in aim, and that they exercise extreme caution lest they misuse extraterritorial privileges in behalf either of themselves or their converts. The personal instruction and example of Protestant missionaries, we repeat, unless it be in very exceptional instances, consistently recognize and sustain existing secular authority. It may sometimes happen that a heathen or Moslem government demands something to which the Christian conscience cannot assent without dishonoring God. Under such circumstances the rule of supreme allegiance is the same in all lands. In any event, whatever semblance of truth there may be in the charge, even from the standpoint of a heathen government, it is manifest that the indictment would hold equally against the entrance of all intellectual light and all progress towards higher standards of civilization. Were we to admit the aspersion, we would be called upon to condemn all uplifting influences and all the processes of enlightenment as revolutionary; yet to brand commercial and material advancement as intentional agents of political change would be quite,




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on a par with the attempt to fix this stigma upon the missionary as in any sense implying deliberate intention or direct purpose to incite treason to the State. We submit, therefore, that, so far as the aims and methods of Protestant missionaries are concerned, there is nothing in the accusation which can fairly be interpreted to their discredit. They are simply teachers of ennobling religious and ethical principles which must be in eternal conflict with evil, and can give no countenance either to private or to public wrong-doing.

Turning now to another aspect of this theme, we note that missionary agencies are useful media for implanting a new and chastened conception of the essence and practical import of freedom, and for training a nation to use it wisely when attained. It is often Lessons imparted in the true import of liberty, and the limitations which should govern its exercisethe case among nations partially civilized that the meaning of personal liberty is entirely misunderstood. Its scope has been determined by the traditions, usages, and religious or social sanctions of a semi-barbaric environment. In many things liberty has become synonymous with license. Christianity brings new tastes, new limitations, and new standards to the cause and pursuit of liberty. It defines true freedom as the unrestricted opportunity for every man to make the best of himself, and secure the best in life, without transgressing human or divine law, and without inflicting selfish wrong upon his neighbor. Until a people shall recognize and appreciate that freedom involves responsibilities, and is limited by moral and legal restraints, they are not ready to be free. It therefore becomes the mission of Christianity to place the needed restraint upon unseemly customs, to adjust the idea of liberty to legal restrictions, to introduce its own righteous code of conduct, and to draw clearly the distinction between heathen license and Christian liberty.1 In the name of true freedom it must sometimes condemn certain of the hitherto unrestrained personal and social indulgences which have been condoned and even sanctioned by heathen-

1 "Some writers have said that Christianity, as introduced by the missionaries, has robbed the native of his primitive hilarity, and made him dull and unhappy. Could these writers have seen cannibal Fiji as it was when the lurid glare of oven-fires spread dismay through a district, and the exacting demand for human victims sat like a perpetual nightmare upon the community, they would never have formed such an opinion. In material comfort, personal safety, and freedom; in knowledge and intellectual interest; and in sustained joyousness, the present-day life of the Polynesian is immeasurably superior to what it was in pre-missionary times." —Address by the Rev. Joseph King, Organizing Agent of the London Missionary Society in Australia, at the Ecumenical Conference on Foreign Missions, held in New York City, April, 1900.




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ism. It must abolish customs which in the lax social environment of the Orient have become inseparably associated with personal freedom. It must advocate a regulative code of laws concerning matters which from time immemorial have been left to individual choice. On the other hand, it must resist radical tendencies which are apt to appear in a transitional era when some of the former restraints of barbaric custom are giving way under the pressure of civilization and culture. The exit from the bondage of hitherto dominant superstitions and tyrannical traditions must not be allowed to degenerate into a contempt for or disregard of all restriction.

In thus checking the license of heathenism, while at the same time endeavoring, as may be needful, to place proper limitations to a misunderstood and misused liberty, missions have delicate duty as well as a responsible service to render. They often Missions, while nourishing the spirit of liberty, also train a people to enjoy freedom and use it arighteducate the moral nature into an attitude of prejudice and revolt against customs which have been hitherto practised without self-reproach, but which in the light of higher ethical teaching are perceived to be ignoble and abhorrent. They thus place conscientious limitations upon license or undue liberty, and bring the force of public opinion to bear in checking objectionable indulgence. In these high spheres of service, Christianity has long exercised a notable influence in Christendom. It has cultivated the spirit of liberty, while it has educated a manhood fitted to enjoy it. Through the medium of missions it will be equally helpful among the more backward nations. Let us be careful not to regard with impatience, far less with scorn, the slow movement of social or political changes among Eastern peoples. Intense conservatism dominates life in its individual, social, and political aspects. We, in our environment of freedom and enlightenment, are born to conditions and to the unquestioning acceptance of principles which only generations of training can establish among less favored peoples. Both the idea and the practice of self-government, according to constitutional standards, are, as yet, generations away among most Asiatic peoples under present conditions. The capability of one Asiatic or primitive African race wisely or justly to exercise authority over another is generally more or less to be questioned. In other respects, also, it is needful that the enlightening and helpful influence of missions should have an opportunity to prepare the people for the responsibilities of a higher national life.

The scope of this section includes not only the influence of missions in inculcating true views of liberty, but also a consideration of




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their efficiency in promoting and fostering a spirit of true patriotism. The defective estimate of the Enlightened views of the import and demands of true patriotism are cultivated by missionary trainingfunction and demands of patriotism which often prevails among Orientals, and the misleading tendencies which it fosters, have been noted in Volume I. (pp. 375-377). It will therefore be sufficient in this connection if we can demonstrate that missions exercise an enlightening and corrective educational discipline in nourishing patriotic sentiment, and can cite some illustrations of their influence in cultivating a higher type of patriotism than usually obtains in the Orient. There is manifestly a close affinity between the inculcation of correct ideas of liberty and the instilling of sound views of patriotism. A wise and helpful patriotism must go hand in hand with enlightened conceptions of liberty, and ought to harmonize with a proper use of freedom in the accomplishment of the ideal purpose and function of the State.

In view of the intense national consciousness and the passion of patriotic allegiance which characterize the Japanese, it might naturally be questioned whether mission influence in Japan would bring to light facts illustrative of our present theme; yet a careful examination may convince us to the contrary. It has been a tremendous strain upon the nation to be introduced so suddenly to the responsibilities of Japanese patriotism an intense sentiment, but not always ideal in practice constitutional government, and to be called upon to assume so important a rôle in international relationships. It can hardly be doubted, however, that the leaven of Christianity in the empire, however limited and partial its scope, has given a certain poise and wisdom to Japanese statesmanship. Religious liberty as guaranteed in the Constitution is due to Christian influence more than to any other cause. It has developed also an enlightened sense of the real meaning and sacredness of liberty, guiding and restraining its use and making it essentially serviceable to the nation. It has certainly exerted a noteworthy influence over the minds of many prominent leaders in the country's political and social life. Baron Komura, Minister of Foreign Affairs; Baron Hayashi, Japanese Minister at London; Prince Iwakura; Count Okuma; Marquis Ito; Count Inouye; and many other prominent leaders of Japan have been either educationally or socially under Christian influence to an extent which has, no doubt, powerfully governed their lives and molded their views. Admiral Uriu is a Christian, as was the late Admiral Serata. The noble public services of the late Mr. Kenkichi Kataoka, a Christian statesman who was several times elected to the speakership of the Diet, are referred to elsewhere




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(infra, p. 335). The Christian representation in Parliament, it may be stated, has been far beyond what the numerical status of the Christian population would seem to make possible, showing the extent to which the members of that community are honored and trusted by the larger constituency of the empire. The Emperor of Japan has been pleased recently to express his appreciation of various forms of Christian work in his country, and has, with the coöperation of the Empress, extended financial aid to several good causes.

Extremely radical and mistaken conceptions of the nature and the proper function of patriotism have at times obtained more or less recognition among the Japanese. It has been proclaimed with fanatical insistence by certain Chauvinists among them that the Spasms of false patriotism in Japanese national developmentJapanese patriot must be intolerant of all Western ideas, must hate the foreigner, and even reject Christianity as a religion incompatible with national loyalty and patriotic aspirations. This false theory of patriotism developed at one time into what might almost be pronounced a national disease, for which the suggestive name of "Nipponism" has been proposed by a Japanese journal. It was dominant only a generation ago, when the government edict against Christianity was in full force,1 and it is still regarded with favor in some of the state schools. It threatened as recently as 1898 to prohibit the worship of God, as inconsistent with the homage due to the Emperor, and at the same time, in connection with public education, efforts were made to exalt the Emperor as an object of supreme worship.2 A wiser view happily

1 This edict has appeared in different forms; even as late as 1868 it was published as follows: " The Evil Sect called Christian is strictly prohibited. Suspicious persons should be reported to the proper officers, and rewards will be given." The edict was publicly displayed throughout the empire, hardly a village, however small, being without one. That it was no paper-fulmination is evident from the fact that about four thousand Japanese Christians in that very year were torn from their homes, tied together, clothed in the red garments used for criminals, and distributed throughout the empire, many of them being sent to lonely and remote places. "They were to be employed as laborers, or kept as prisoners, during the space of three years, by no fewer than thirty-four daimios. If during this time they repented, they were to be set free; if not, they were to be beheaded."—Griffis, "Verbeck of Japan," p. 150.

2 "A strong nationalism underlies all Japanese life, and has been, and still is, one of the greatest barriers to the progress of the Gospel. We know that true Christianity is not only not antagonistic to patriotism and loyalty, but that wherever it exists the truest patriotism and the most ardent loyalty will be found. Our Japanese friends, however, do not think so, and because of this, and of the fear that Christianity will revolutionize many of (he customs which they hold as dear as life itself, they view it with distrust and hostility. This is often the secret of cases of persecution amongst different classes and in public institutions, such as government schools, where, in spite of the religious toleration secured by the Constitution, Christianity is often opposed by both teachers and pupils. In a recently reported case, a pupil under training in a normal school, irreproachable in conduct and diligent in his studies, was expelled simply because he said that God was superior to the Emperor. . . .

"Many of the thinking men of Japan are not satisfied with things as they are. If they do not recognize the deep spiritual needs of men, as we do, they nevertheless feel that religion is a necessity. This, so far as it goes, is something to be thankful for, as it is an indication of earnest thought, and of a feeling after something which only Christianity can reveal. Popular prejudices, too, however they may at times be strengthened by the rising tide of nationalism, or by the misrepresentations of those whose interest it is to oppose Christianity, are being uprooted, and perhaps in no period since the country was opened were there ever more attentive and earnest hearers:"—Archdeacon Warren, of Osaka, in The Spirit of MissionsFebruary, 1898, p. 70.




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prevailed, however, and it was not long after officially declared that the honor required as due to the Emperor was not of the nature of religious worship, but simply a recognition of his authority and supremacy as an earthly ruler. To us this seems a most sane and natural declaration; but to the Japanese it was apparently a highly perplexing question.

Dr. Griffis, in an article on "The Old and the New Japan,"1 thus writes: "In order to The Japanese patriot must face perplexing questionsdiscern and appreciate the coming of Christ's. kingdom in Japan, we must sympathize with the Japanese and know their difficulties. Certainly the patriotic Christian in Japan has vexed questions to answer and tough problems to master. It will not do to tamper with the foundations of law and order. In the, Japanese social vehicle, even of progress, the Emperor is the kingbolt. In theory he owns the whole soil. He is the sun in whose light all bask. From him comes all law. The very Constitution (of 1889) is his gift. His ministers govern, his soldiers and sailors act, by the power which he confers. Everything that is good in Japan has come from his 'divine ancestors.' How shall the patriot and Christian Japanese reconcile this ancient theory with the claims of Christianity, or even of God, with whom the Emperor's ancestors were, professedly at least, not acquainted?"2 That Christianity has exerted

1 Life and Light for Woman, January, 1900, p. 6.

2 That we have not misrepresented the strange extravagance of the extreme party in Japan upon this subject may be seen from the following extract from a secular paper in Japan, proposing that Japanese Christians should be required to answer the following questions, propounded evidently with the view that their replies would be self-convicting, and demonstrate the impossibility of true patriotism among them. The inquisition proposed is as follows :

"(1) Can the worship of His Sacred Majesty, the Emperor, which every loyal Japanese performs, be reconciled with the worship of God and Christ by Christians? (2) Can the existence of authorities that are quite independent of the Japanese State, such as that of God, Christ, the Bible, the Pope, the head of the Greek Church (the Czar), be regarded as harmless? (3) Can the Japanese who is the faithful servant of Christ be regarded at the same time as the faithful servant of the Emperor, and a true friend of His Majesty's faithful subjects? Or, to put it in another way, is our Emperor to follow in the wake of Western Emperors, and to pray: 'Son of God, have mercy on us'? (4) Can the Christian convert answer the above questions in a manner that will satisfy our reason?"—Quoted in The Missionary, February, 1898, p. 54.




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a controlling influence in guiding them to a right decision cannot be doubted. The action of the Department of Education in 1899—then controlled by conservatives and agnostics—in prohibiting all religious instruction in schools enjoying government sanction and privileges, was not, it is true, acceptable to enlightened Japanese. It should be noted also that the missionary body, through a representative committee, consulted with Marquis Ito concerning the restrictions, and were granted through his efforts an interview with Marquis Yamagata, the head of the Cabinet. They left the latter with the assurance on his part "that their statement had given him new light on the subject, and would receive careful consideration."

The absurd idea that true patriotism cannot coexist with the Christian faith will soon be altogether abandoned among intelligent Japanese. The war with China, and the great conflict with Russia have fully demonstrated that the Christian element in the Christianity no foe to liberty or true patriotismcountry is possessed by a spirit of fervent loyalty to the empire. It is manifest, however, that there was, and to some extent there still exists, in Japan a real danger from false patriotism, and from the possible failure to appreciate the higher meaning and scope of true liberty. It would be a misfortune for Japanese national life to sacrifice a higher and broader freedom for a lower and narrower patriotism. A Japanese scholar and student of national progress, in the course of an article on the "Ethical Life and Conceptions of the Japanese," refers, albeit in somewhat inadequate terms, to the helpfulness of Christianity in contributing to the enrichment of the ethical thought of Japan. His words are: "Christianity has certainly contributed a very important and essential element to Japanese ethical thought. I refer to the idea of individual or persona) liberty. This idea is now at the foundation




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of our political, legislative, and social order, and it is something our people never knew before, or at least never knew in the breadth and depth of its meaning. We did not learn it, indeed, from reading the Bible, or directly from Christianity; we learned it through the law, literature, and institutions of the West. Yet, since the development of this idea in Europe is due in no small degree to the influence of Christianity, we might say with truth that this is one important contribution Christianity has already made to Japan."1 Mr. Yokoi, in stating this truth, has ignored too much the direct power of Christianity in Japan, nor does he seem to give adequate recognition to the national services of such missionaries as Hepburn, McCartee, Greene, De Forest, Pettee, Verbeck,2 and many others, in fashioning the political development of the New Japan into sympathy with Western ideals. How wisely Dr. Verbeck viewed the responsibilities of such service to the Japanese State may be seen in the following extract from one of his communications: "Now, although I never lose sight of our Master's saying, 'My kingdom is not of this world,' and though I know that missionaries ought to avoid getting mixed up in political affairs, yet, when these people come and sincerely inquire after the most likely measures that would conduce to the welfare of their country, I do not feel at liberty to refuse them a hearing and advice, in a place where honest.advisers are few, if at all extant. I am, of course, careful in such cases to state clearly that properly such matters are beyond my province, to avoid all party spirit and feeling, and to impress the idea that my private desire and hope are only for the welfare, not of a section, but of the whole country."3

An account of a tour by Dr. De Forest, of Sendai, affords a striking confirmation of the direct Missionary instruction broadens the outlook of an extreme nationalisminfluence which a missionary often exerts in molding public opinion upon national themes. In the course of his journey opportunity was given the for a public address in a Japanese temple, in a village where no foreigner had ever been seen before. The Doctor spoke upon international relations, which he soon turned into an apology for Christianity as a source of great blessings to Western civilization. It is safe to say that a flood of light was

1 Mr. Tokiwo Yokoi, in the International Journal of Ethics, January, 1896, p. 199.

2 Griffis, "Verbeck of Japan," pp. 151, 152; for a sketch of Dr. McCartee's services, see The Evangelist, May 22, 1902, pp. 604-607, and the New York Observer, July 17, 1902, p. 73.

3 Griffis, "Verbeck of Japan," p. 173.




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thrown upon the grave problems which confront the New Japan. The address was so highly appreciated that its repetition was called for upon three occasions, and its publication solicited. 1 It seems manifest that Christian influence in Japan will go far to modify the narrowness of extreme nationalism, and who can doubt that this will in the end be a beneficial factor in the progress of liberty and the inculcation of true patriotism in the nation? The fact that Japan's national power has been so immensely increased and extended by her recent victories on land and on sea gives an international import, as well as an additional value, to this special aspect of mission influence.

In the history of the national reform movement in Korea there are indications that Christian influences have prompted and guided to a considerable extent the changes which have been brought about in the direction of a more liberal and just government policy. One of the earliest American missionaries to that country, Dr. H. N. Allen, while still in his missionary capacity, was a persona grata at the Currents of missionary influence discoverable in the national reform movement in KoreaKorean Court. His successful professional services to Prince Min, who was so grievously wounded in the émeute of 1884, secured him the appointment of physician to the King, and with his colleagues he befriended his Majesty in times of personal peril. He was subsequently appointed by President McKinley as American Minister to Korea, where for many years he occupied an official status of great influence as one who honestly sought the highest welfare of the nation. Dr. and Mrs. Underwood have also been special friends of the Emperor (so named since 1897), and the latter was appointed physician to the ladies of the Court, her services being received with the utmost appreciation and confidence. The "Independence Club" at Seoul was founded in 1896, and, although suspended in 1899, had a formative influence, with its membership of over two thousand, in shaping and helping forward the rapid changes of that critical period. It was not professedly a religious, still less a Christian, organization, yet among its prominent founders and active promoters were several natives who were either themselves Christians, or had been in contact with free institutions in America, and had enjoyed the privileges of Christian education.2 Dr. Philip Jaisohn, one of its chief founders, is an example, as is also Mr. Yun, who was at one time its President. At Dr. Jaisohn's suggestion, the Club built the "Independence Arch"

1 The Missionary Herald, March, 1898, p. 106.

2 The Missionary, April, 1899, pp. 153-157; The Missionary Record, May,1899, p. 164.




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in the suburbs of Seoul to commemorate the deliverance of Korea from political subjection to China, an event brought about by the war between Japan and China, and ratified by the Treaty of Shimonoseki, April, 1895. It is worthy of note that the late Rev. H. G. Appenzeller, an American missionary, was asked to offer a prayer at the public ceremonies attending the laying of the corner-stone on November 21, 1896.1

The Club had a striking history as an instrument of moral protest against corrupt official despotism, The Independence Club, and its protest against official despotismwhich fought hard to recover its former supremacy. Under the pressure of events it gradually assumed a political röle, and, while thoroughly loyal to the person of the Emperor, brought its influence to bear upon the Government on behalf of reforms, and in strenuous protest against the attempts to revive the corruption and scandals of earlier political methods. It petitioned the Emperor, besieging his palace in an attitude of deference and appeal rather than of menace, and succeeded in securing, for the first time in the history of Korea, a recognition on the part of the supreme ruler of the existence of public opinion, and the right of the people to be heard in matters which concern their welfare. The struggle was an exciting one, but the precedent was finally established of the Emperor receiving his people, listening to their appeals, and granting their requests2 There is a subtle revolutionary power in the silent influence of Christian ideas which sometimes sways the minds of men and shapes public policy before its presence is clearly recognized. The platform of the "Independence Club" was no doubt an evidence of this in the spirit and scope of the changes it advocated. It is worthy of notice that the Club accomplished its most strenuous work

1 The original purpose which actuated the founders of the Club is indicated in the following paragraph from the pen of Dr. Jaisohn. He announces that it was organized "to discuss matters concerning national improvements and customs, laws, religions, and various pertinent affairs of foreign lands. The main object of the Club is to create public opinion, which has been totally unknown in Korea until lately. The Club is really the centre of distributing useful information. It is therefore more of an educational institution than a political wigwam, as is supposed by some. These weekly meetings produce wonderful effects upon the thoughts of the members. They begin to realize the superiority of Western civilization over Eastern civilization; they are gradually becoming imbued with the spirit of cohesion, nationalism, liberality of views, and the importance of education."—The Korean Repository, August, 1898, p. 286.

2 "The Year 1898 in Korea," by O. R. Avison, M. D., The Assembly Herald, August, 1899, pp. 79-82.




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after the King had assumed the title of Emperor, on October 12,1897, but it was these aggressive efforts at political reform which finally caused its suspension.

The attitude of all Korean Christians in national affairs is one of conspicuous loyalty to Korean Christians are true patriotsthe Emperor, of obedience to the laws, and at the same time of hearty sympathy and encouragement to the Reform Party in its battle with the old despotism.1 Without taking to itself any political function, or without interfering in the affairs of the State, Christianity stands for liberty, and casts its silent and weighty influence on the side of justice and freedom. Some of the younger members of the Korean Church have been inclined to use the Church for political purposes, but missionaries have firmly discountenanced the idea, while at the same time recognizing the individual privilege and responsibility of citizenship on the part of Christians.2

1 "It will readily be seen that the Protestant missionaries and the Korean Christians are in an exceedingly delicate and difficult position. The missionaries strongly believe with the Board [Presbyterian, of U. S. A.] that all respect should be paid to the lawfully constituted authorities, that special care should be observed not to needlessly embarrass them, that the laws of the land should be obeyed, and that it is better for the disciples of Christ to patiently endure some injustice than to array Christianity in antagonism to the governments under which they labor. On the other hand, the Gospel always has been and always will be a revolutionary force in a corrupt nation. It tends to develop in men a sturdy independence, a moral fiber, a fearless protest against wrong, which in the end make them what the Puritans were in England and what our revolutionary sires were in America. It will not do this as quickly among the indolent and apathetic Asiatics as it did among the more virile Anglo-Saxons. But, whether sooner or later, the consequences are as inevitable as the movement of the planet; Christianity and iniquity cannot live together in peace. For this very reason all the more care should be exercised not to prematurely precipitate a conflict. Already ambitious political leaders have tried to enlist the coöperation of the Korean Christians, but the missionaries have promptly and decidedly prevented the consummation of the intrigues. It would be as foolish as it would be suicidal to allow the infant Church to array itself against the Government. God may bring about a better day in Korea without any violence at all."—Brown, "Report of a Visitation of the Korea Mission of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions," p. 6.

2 "One of the most interesting and striking features of the Korean Church is its patriotism. Our belated coasting vessel deposited us in North Korea on a Sunday morning, and along the Tatong River our attention was called to villages in which, on bamboo poles, small Korean flags were flying. Those flags marked the residences of Christians or were flying over churches. It is a practice which has grown up among the Christians, without missionary pressure, to run up the national colors over their homes and churches on Sunday. They do it to proclaim the character of the day and to mark their own respect for it."—Speer, "Missions and Politics in Asia," p. 253.




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The opportunity for Christianity to exercise its wholesome and elevating influence in the political development of the New Korea is exceptional. Its progress in the country is phenomenal. In the city of Pyeng Yang, for example, which was occupied in 1893 only after a struggle for a foothold which threatened to be fatal to missionaries and native Christians alike, there has been a Pentecostal growth almost unparalleled in mission fields.

The recent entrance of China into the current of the world's progress, and her confused and turbulent onward movement therein, offer a study of the deepest interest in contemporary world politics.1 The diplomatic, military, and The missionary occupation of China, and its dynamic power in this transition periodcommercial aspects of the subject fill a large place in current literature, as well as in the present activities of statecraft. Too little recognition has been accorded, however, to the import of the missionary occupation of China in its dynamic bearings upon this modern transitional era in the empire. Diplomats, soldiers, merchants, and captains of industry have had their part to play in influential spheres, but in the deeper soul-life of the Chinese people, in the culture of fine manhood and womanhood, in the struggle to grasp the essential principles of true civilization and to understand the inspiring motives of sound patriotism, the missionary has been their trusted guide and counsellor. He is their schoolmaster, and at his feet multitudes are learning to sit in receptive confidence and dawning hope. The national consciousness of China has been rudely and sternly awakened during the past half-century, especially in the last decade. Contact with outside nations has come in a series of shocks that have sent a tremor through the vast, inert mass of the body politic. China is no longer dormant in the deep recesses of her national exclusiveness. The Western world has been elbowing its way through her open doors, and she is facing a destiny of which her sages never dreamed. The temptation to exploitation has been tremendous. Concessions, treaty exactions, revenues, commercial privileges, international compacts, and even territorial rights, have been looked upon as so many avenues of triumphal entry to the hidden riches of the empire. It is to these aggressive exploitations of the dreaded foreigner more than to any other one cause that the Boxer émeute of 1900 was due. The foreigner seemed to the Chinese imagination to be plotting a campaign of plunder, dispossession, and economic ruin. The offense was not missions so much as threatened spoliation; it was not the religion of the missionary which aroused the passions of the Chinese,

1 Reinsch, "World Politics," pp. 85-258




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but rather the greed, recklessness, and superciliousness of the invader. Happily the policy of selfish and forcible exploitation in the Far East has now passed into history, and is not likely to be revived.

In the midst of the tumultuous and agitating changes through which China is passing, in personal, intimate contact with the Chinese people, stands a modest but insistent messenger of the God of Nations—the missionary. In his the rationale of teaching The missionary in China an expounder of the rationale of Western civilizationfunction, and in the far-reaching scope of his counsel and example, he is a past-master in the school of national character. His record in the modern history of China most assuredly touches the nerve-centres of a people's life, and reaches to the innermost sources of a nation's power. It is an open secret that the Emperor Kwang Hsü was led into the recent reform movement by the reading of literature prepared and published by missionaries. Stupendous changes were pending, the Emperor seemed to have discovered with astonishing insight the true path of progress, but he trod it with too swift and eager steps. The clash with conservatism and with the powerful spirit of reaction in the oligarchy imposed seemingly another stadium of delay upon Chinese national progress. Since then the true secrets of Western civilization have been expounded throughout the vast empire by the ethical teachings of the mission church, by informing and suggestive literature, by educational culture, by philanthropic service, and by industrial training. The subtle influence of missions in propagating the higher patriotism has been manifested in many significant examples.1 Hundreds of young men who have been under mission training are now eager advocates of the reform programme.2 The strongest protests against the high-handed deposition of the Emperor by the Empress Dowager and her political following were made by the enlightened element in the empire, many of whom had been directly or indirectly under mission influence. A glance through the periodical literature of mission educational institutions, an attentive ear to the sermons of many Chinese pastors, a hasty scrutiny of the programmes of public exercises in

1 A Chinese peasant came to Ching Chou Fu one Sunday morning to pay his taxes, and being attracted by the singing as he passed the church door, stopped to investigate, and heard the preacher pray for the Emperor and his ministers. "Surely this must be a good doctrine," he thought as he pondered this strange lesson in patriotism. "Whoever heard of praying for the Emperor!" Further investigation confirmed him in his opinion, and he has become a humble and useful follower of Christ. — The Missionary Herald of the Baptist Missionary Society (London), December, 1903, p. 644.

2 Work and Workers in the Mission Field, September, 1899, pp. 378-381.




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schools and colleges, will reveal the fact that the patriotic spirit in the hearts of youthful Chinese strikes a clearer and truer note than ever before in the history of the empire.1

The inquiry may be suggested here whether there was not a Chinese patriotism which antedated the confessedly recent and somewhat indirect impact of the missionary upon the political life of China. To this query an affirmative answer may be conceded, The proverbial attitude of the Chinese towards the Governmentbut with a distinct emphasis upon the fact that it was Chinese patriotism after its own kind. It may be characterized as supercilious, narrow in vision, provincial in scope, unresponsive to the political claims of the Government, dominated by ignorance and superstition, and seeking the interests of self rather than those of the nation. The proverbial attitude of the Chinese people towards the imperial Government, the central oligarchy, or even the provincial officials, is one of indifference and suspicion. Their immediate concern is rather with the head men or local officials, whose appointment is largely in their own hands, in accordance with the rude democratic system which has prevailed for ages. The patriotism of the masses of the people is thus limited largely to what concerns their local environment. The literati and the official classes look upon the service of the State as an opportunity for personal aggrandizement. Absolute theories of Government prevail, yet practically there is considerable power left in the people themselves, which they upon occasion can use to discipline and regulate their immediate rulers. The exercise of this popular sovereignty

1 "With its other great benefits, Christianity will confer upon China real patriotism, at present existing almost entirely in the blind impulses of the bias of national feeling. During the political crises of the past few years, the great mass of the Chinese people have been profoundly indifferent to the fate of their country, and in this respect there has been little distinction between scholars, farmers, merchants, and coolies. Each individual has been chiefly occupied in considering how in any cataclysm impending he could make with fate the best bargain for himself. If there are any exceptions to this generalization, so far as we know they consist exclusively of those who have been acted upon by forces from outside of China. The Christian converts are now sufficiently numerous to show in what direction their influence will be felt in the not distant future. They are keenly alive to what is taking place in the empire, and they may almost be said to be the only Chinese in it who are so. China will never have patriotic subjects until she has Christian subjects, and in China, as elsewhere, Christianity and patriotism will be found to advance hand in hand."— Smith, "Village Life in China," pp. 348, 349.

Cf. also The Chinese Recorder, February, 1896, p. 72; July, 1901, pp. 368, 369; The Spirit of Missions, April, 1897, p. 191; June, 1899, p. 285; The Missionary Herald, August, 1898, pp. 302, 303 ; June, 1901, p. 243.




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is generally allowed to lapse, but when aroused in times of desperation resulting from oppressive exactions and crushing injustice on the part of officials, it often breaks out in riotous and open rebellion so violent and determined in its temper that head men, district magistrates, and, in rare instances of coherent action, even provincial rulers themselves, are brought to account.

The people upon such occasions usually carry their point by strenuous and sometimes by unique methods, but such movements are not patriotic in any true sense of that word. They are rather for self-defense, and are marked by insane excesses and riotous violence. These outbursts of popular fury can be incited or controlled to a notable extent by the influence of the literati, who often instigate them for their own ends. The potential patriotism of the Chinese not a negligible quantityIt is manifest that we have here a potential patriotism misdirected and misused. Lifted to a higher plane, and inspired by purer motives of consecration to the best interests of the nation, it would be a mighty power in China as elsewhere. Rightly guided the Chinese can be, and some day no doubt they will be patriotic to a degree which will command the respect of the world. A striking evidence of this is found in the strange story of the Taiping Rebellion (1853-1863), with its threefold crusade against "idolatry, opium, and the imps"—the Manchu rulers. It would require too much space to recite in detail the remarkable features, and to study the historic origin and impelling motives of this memorable insurrection. It is sufficient for our present purpose to note that its inspiration and vitality were strangely identified with some of the foundation truths of Christianity, and that it was a marvelous exhibition of patriotic fervor. As an illustration of the capacity for the high degree of patriotism and stern devotion to moral conviction latent in the Chinese, it is a most suggestive incident.1 The fortitude and loyalty to truth evinced by thousands of Chinese Christians during the persecutions of 1900 are also indicative of high possibilities in the line of patriotism. The stuff of which martyrs are made serves equally well for the making of patriots. These signs all serve as premonitions of the strenuous life which may some day develop in an awakened China, seized with moral enthusiasm, and stirred by the passions of national ardor. No one will do better

1 Cf. for succinct accounts of the Taiping Rebellion, Speer, "Missions and Modern History," vol. i., pp. 13-70; Stock, "History of the Church Missionary Society," vol. ii., pp. 296-312; Williams, "A History of China: being the Historical Chapters from 'The Middle Kingdom,' with a Chapter on Recent Events by F. Wells Williams," pp. 223-272.




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and finer work in molding this new national consciousness, when it comes, and in directing it so that it will serve the purposes of national progress and international peace, than the missionary. It is not to be desired that Chinese customs and methods of administration, in so far as they are useful and orderly, should be superseded by Western methods. It will be sufficient if an enlightened patriotism shall infuse a new spirit into existing methods, modifying, restraining, and guiding the executive arm, and making it an instrument of public justice rather than of private vengeance or scandalous greed.

India, so far as our present theme is concerned, presents as yet a study in colonial rather than in national development, and brings us into contact primarily with British imperialism rather than with missionary effort. It is not, however, an easy The relation of missions to imperialism in Indiamatter in any adequate survey of the modern history of India to separate entirely these two phases of the subject. England's political power and material resources are mighty agencies in the fulfillment of her great mission in India; so also are the spiritual energies and the moral forces represented by missions, which will be instrumental even in a more fundamental sense in fashioning whatever of national character may develop in the Indian people. The English missionaries, and even those who are not of British nationality, are in the eyes of the natives much identified with the ruling class. With certain aspects of imperialism missionaries can have no sympathy. In the old Roman sense of military supremacy based upon conquest, with revenue exacted by tribute and taxation as its leading feature, and servitude as a not uncommon incidental accompaniment, no true missionary can view it with favor. In its more modern economic aspects, as an instrument for securing commercial privileges and industrial concessions, it may or may not be an offense. In its higher significance, however, as representing a national trust, and presenting a providential opportunity to rule in justice and make all the functions of government and every phase of diplomatic and commercial contact work together for peace, prosperity, and progress, it becomes a working partner and a helpful coadjutor of missions.1 The two agencies can be mutually helpful in

1 "If Imperialism meant what some affirm that it means, it could have no relation to missionary work, however powerful a factor it might be in present-day politics. But if it represents, on the other hand, a spontaneous impulse by means of which the foremost races of the world are beginning to realize their true mission and world-wide responsibilities, a great forward movement which springs from the inner life of a nation seeking to realize itself, a conscious awakening to a destiny which prepares the way for the 'stewardship of the fulness of times' when all things shall be summed up in one supreme unity in Christ as King, and if this spirit is destined rather to gather strength with future years than to be dissipated, then Imperialism is a fact of the most tremendous significance, deserving of the most careful and earnest study. . . . The races embraced under one Imperial rule are cared for in their internal relations, whilst, under the Pax Britannica, they are protected from hostile attack. They are trained for self-government, and respond to the impulse of a common patriotism." Consult the entire article on "Modern Imperialism and Missions," by the Rev. T. A. Gurney, in the Church Missionary Intelligencer, July, 1902, pp. 481-488.




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working towards one common end—the preparation of less favored races for an entrance into the rich inheritance of our modern civilization, and the actual guidance of their footsteps into those shining paths which learning, culture, and scientific achievement have opened for the upward climb of humanity.

The author is in hearty sympathy with the view that, barring some regrettable features, British rule in India an instrument of ProvidenceBritish rule in India is, all things considered, an illustration of the nobler phases of imperialism. As such, it is an instrument of Providence which will, no doubt, be used by God for the uplifting of a vast population, and for the realization of incalculable benefits to a people who, should they ever be welded into unity and crowned with the graces and virtues of orderly living, will represent a wonderful combination of Oriental culture and charming dignity of character.1 It can hardly be denied that in connection with the English supremacy Christianity has manifestly been the political friend of Indian races. It has been a decisive factor in determining the spirit and policy of English administration, and has aided in securing a measure of civil liberty and legal protection which would not be possible under native rule. The cry of oppression in India appears to be unjustifiable. Local, and also municipal, self-government, where the population is over 4000, are conceded by British rule,2 while as full a share in the administration as conditions will at present justify is granted to competent natives. The exigencies of Government may require at times a firm hand, and sufficient power to insure order, since it is sometimes necessary even in the best ordered communities to use force with prompt and vigorous decision. India as a whole, however, is in the end benefited, as it is saved, by this administrative rigor, while all rightful liberties are conserved. The religious opinions and prac-

1 The Missionary Review of the World, April, 1898, pp. 275-278; The Independent, January 11, 1900, pp. 125-127.

2 Cf. article on "Self-Government in Oriental Dependencies," by J. W. Jenks, in The American Monthly Review of Reviews, November, 1902, pp. 580-588.




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tices, the social customs, the peculiar modes and habits of life of the natives, so far as the obligation of good order allows, are, and have been, respected. It is even a question whether these concessions have not involved, in some instances, a laxity which was inconsistent with the full moral responsibility of a civilized government.

It has been, and is still, a delicate and even dangerous problem in Indian administration to determine just Perplexing problems in Indian administrationhow far it is right or safe to go in the exercise of authority when the public interests clash with traditional usage. In the opinion of the conservative Hindu or Moslem, no requirement of official duty and no demands of the public welfare will justify the slightest infringement of his supreme authority as lord and master of his home. Its privacy is under no pretense to be disturbed. It may be reeking with plague, but no sanitary rules are to be enforced within its doors, if they affect its master's amour propre or violate the traditional sanctity of its seclusion. Upon this point the Hindu or Moslem is utterly unapproachable. He cannot even be reasoned with, much less compelled to submit to force, without being driven to desperation. That such an invasion, even as a safeguard to imperilled millions, should be reconcilable with his self-respect is inconceivable to him, though every possible consideration should be shown to his feelings, and the minimum infringement of custom be secured.

In the political, religious, and social atmosphere of India it becomes then a real service to society to The education of Christian manhood the best possible service of missions to the Stateteach the true conception of self-respect, the full view of public duty, the reality of brotherhood as opposed to the caste system, the obligation of self-control, the conditions of self-government, and the privileges, as well as the proper limitations, of liberty. The demand which certain educated Indians are urging with increasing vehemence, that a larger share in the government of the country shall be committed to their hands, is one which the British authorities will no doubt grant in increasing measure as conditions justify, but not with undue haste nor without sufficient guarantees. Some Englishmen are extremely pessimistic as to the results of the present liberal policy of the Government,1 asserting that little can be expected from any enlarged scheme of native

1 Morison, "Imperial Rule in India." Mr. Morison advocates a vigorous imperialism in India, as a more effective policy on the part of the British Government than any system which contemplates eventual self-government as the goal of British statesmanship. These extreme views, however, are open to question,




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coöperation, which is likely, it is alleged, to be both misunderstood and abused by the irreconcilable Indian. These fears, however, may be dismissed if Christianity becomes the religion of India. There is no possible guarantee which is better than educated Christian manhood at its best. It is safe to say that a Christian education and training is to be valued highly as a preparation, on the part of the natives of India, for the assumption of the responsibilities of office in the service of the Government.

It can hardly be questioned, therefore, that there must be a deep providential meaning in the contemporary existence and operation of British rule and Christian missionary effort in India. No formal treaty of alliance securing mutual support and defense exists, A providential meaning in the conjunction of British rule and Christian missions in Indiabut the two great regenerative forces are working side by side, no doubt in accord with the sovereign design of the God of Nations. Thus assigned, each to its separate sphere of work, they are bound to combine for the common good, because each has its part to fulfill in accordance with an overruling purpose which secures more effectively than any formal pledges could do the mutual advantage of harmonious and supplemental coöperation. This coagency in some of its aspects is of great value. The positive Christian tone of mission education, for example, becomes of immense moral import to India, in view of the non-Christian character of government education. Many of the noblest statesmen who have served British interests have recognized the advantages of this mutual helpfulness, and have regarded the missionary enterprise as an invaluable support and an essential factor in the accomplishment of the higher mission of Great Britain in India. Perhaps the noblest exposition of an ideal outcome to British rule in India is that which has been made memorable by the thoughtful words of Sir Herbert Edwardes.1 This mission of coöperation is further

1 The passage referred to is from an address by Sir Herbert Edwardes, and reads as follows : "Suppose there were to arise in the hearts of any number of our countrymen a strong conviction that India is a stewardship; that it could not have been for nothing that God placed it in the hands of England; that He would never have put upon 200,000,000 of men [now 300,000,000] the heavy trial of being subject to 30,000,000 of foreigners [now 40,000,000] merely to have their roads improved, their canals constructed upon more scientific principles, their letters carried by a penny post, their messages flashed by lightning, their erroneous notions of geography corrected; nor even to have their internal quarrels stopped and peace restored, and life in many ways ameliorated; that there must have been in India some far greater want than even these which England needed to supply, and for which Portugal and France were not found worthy; and that the greatest and oldest and saddest, of India's wants is religious truth—a. revelation of the real nature of the God whom for ages she has been 'ignorantly worshipping.' Suppose this conviction, springing up in the hearts of a few young men, were to work like leaven there, and spread from home to home, and gradually grow up into that giant thing that statesmen cannot hold—the public opinion of the land—what would be the consequence? Why, this. The English people would resolve to do their duty. This battling, independent England, which has fought so hard to be allowed to govern herself, would do unto others as she wished to be done by. This humbled England, which also fought so hard to withhold self-government from America, would recoil from another War of Independence. In short, England, taught by both past and present, would set before her the noble policy of first fitting India for freedom, and then setting her free. There is but one principle which has the life in it to regenerate a pagan nation by regenerating its atoms. That way, that principle, is Christianity. Till India is leavened with Christianity she will be unfit for freedom. When India is leavened with Christianity she will be unfit for any form of slavery, however mild. England may then leave her; with an overthrow of idolatry and a true faith built up; with developed resources, and with an enlightened and awakened people, no longer isolated in the East, but linked with the civilized races of the West. Yes! England may leave her freely, frankly, gladly, proudly leave the stately daughter she has reared to walk the future with a free imperial step. The world with all its brilliant histories would never have seen so truly great a close to a great national career. I believe firmly this is what God meant England to do with India, and God grant that she may do it!"

Cf. article on "Our Indian Empire," by the Rev. J. A. Murray, in The Mission Field, London, December, 1898, pp. 441-447.




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emphasized by the fact that a dependent people have a right to expect from Christian rulers not only material benefits and military protection, but intellectual enlightenment and spiritual culture. The interests of the sovereign nation also require this, and in no way can these ends be so swiftly and so certainly secured as by the missionary evangel.

The great hindrance hitherto to any national movement in India has arisen from the stress and tumult of Is there a potential national sentiment among Indian races?racial or political rivalries, and the desolating wars thus instigated. Rulers, races, and religions were forever in relentless and mutually exterminating conflict. They were not able to attain to an attitude of tolerance, much less to make any approach to unity. This has made the welding of a nation out of the congeries of races in India appear like a political chimera doomed to failure; yet within a generation, and increasingly of late, there are signs that an incipient national sentiment is stirring many hearts throughout the great peninsula. The uniting of diverse tribes and races into one political whole has usually been wrought either under the stress of economic necessity, or in support of common interests, or by the presence of a common danger. Our own colonial




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history is an illustration. We were made one by the pressure of public interests, and the call of menacing peril, which all alike recognized. Our unity as well as our liberty was thus the outcome of political and economic urgency, and was secured to us only through a strenuous experience of sacrifice and suffering.1 In India, however, we seem to discover signs of what may be regarded as an unprecedented political spectacle—the possible welding into unity of races originally diverse and unfriendly, as it were in a school of academic training, rather than by the discipline of sacrificial experience. It is confessedly a tremendous experiment, and there can be little hope of its succeeding, unless the power of a controlling and penetrating moral dynamic should gain a spiritual ascendancy over the Indian people, and win their allegiance and patriotic devotion to a political policy which is the outcome of peaceful compact rather than of revolutionary violence.

Is it possible, one might naturally ask, for such a racial aggregation as India to be thus molded by any The influence of missions conducive to Indian loyalty and political sobriety imperial power, however just, generous, liberal, and considerate it may be, which at the same time must of necessity be politically supreme? It is in its bearings upon a question like this that the importance of the missionary service in India appears.2 Granted that English rule is wise and beneficial, is it not at the same time essential that a capacity to appreciate it as such should be created in the people, and that loyalty to the ideals, and, perhaps with certain modifications, to the methods, of British administration should be awakened? That this is to a notable extent the function of missions is manifest in the exceptional loyalty of Indian Christians to British rule as the present rallying-point of unity. The attitude of British sovereignty to this spirit of potential union in India involves one of the most delicate problems of statecraft which imperial relations can present. It is, we believe, insoluble (so far as India is concerned) without incurring perilous risks, and almost certain disaster, unless missions coö perate freely and effectively in preparing those vast

1 Thompson, "The Hand of God in American History," pp. 22-38; Macdonald, "Select Charters Illustrative of American History, 1606-1775," pp. 374-381.

2 "One of Dr. Wilson's Indian friends, who had risen to a position of influence, thus wrote of the veteran missionary: 'Since his arrival in India, no less than eighteen governors have ruled over the Western Presidency, but Dr. Wilson did more for the Presidency of Bombay, in the way of educating the people, composing books suited to their wants in the various languages, inducing them to be loyal subjects of the British Crown, collecting ancient manuscripts and histories of the country, etc., etc., than all the eighteen governors together.'"—Holcomb, "Men of Might in India Missions," p. 207.




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populations for a peaceful and loyal issue.1 The tendencies of mission influence are already strikingly manifest in the undoubted loyalty and peaceableness of Indian Christians as a class, in their reasonableness, their patriotic sanity, and their readiness to recognize their privileges, and to rejoice in the blessings of justice, security, and freedom.2 An unprecedented moral tone, and a calmness of political temper, coupled with the keenest aspirations after liberty, are characteristic of the Christian communities of India.3

British imperialism, in perhaps the not very distant future, will be put to a crucial test when it faces an India The moral and intellectual discipline of missions a valuable stimulus and guide to national aspirationseducated, alert, and aspiring, yet still tempered by a Christian dignity and sobriety worthy of trust and confidence. To be sure, much that is extremely disappointing is bound to appear in the effort to enlist native coöperation in discharging the serious responsibilities of government. Even highly civilized communities, however, are not exempt from discouraging experiences of this kind. The manhood, as well as the administrative esprit de corps, which is essential to the proper handling of authority, is, as a rule, the product only of long and arduous apprenticeship. The contribution which missions will make towards the training of the people for a prospective national movement in India is chiefly in the line of moral and intellectual discipline. Deliverance from the confused and darkening counsels of ignorance, and escape from the

1 "Canada is at the present time a part of the British Empire. She is loyal to the empire because she is free, and she is free because she knows what to do with freedom. I am fully convinced that when India is as capable of self-government as Canada is, she will get it from the British Government either in the form of independence or as a self-governing part of the empire. I was exhorting the natives, or Hindu Christians, of Bangalore to quit them like men in view of that good time coming; to prepare for it, to train their children in view of it, so that it may not take them unawares. It may not come in their time, neither in their children's time, 'but come it will for a' that.' And when it does come the Christians will be the salt of it."—The Rev. John McLaurin (A.B.M.U.), in The Hindu, September 30,1897.

2 Cf., for statements concerning the memorable loyalty of native Christians during the Mutiny, Stock, "The History of the Church Missionary Society," vol. ii., pp. 225, 226, and for a graphic account of the great speech of Sir Herbert Edwardes, on "The Safety of a Christian Policy in India," based upon the experiences of the Mutiny, see Idem, pp. 232, 233. Cf. also an address on "Indian Christians as Citizens of the British Empire," by the Rev. T. Davis (C.M.S.), published in The Christian Patriot (Madras), January 27, 1900.

3 Cf. a valuable article by Professor S. Satthianadhan, M.A., LL.D., on "The Native Christian Community in India; Its Position and Prospects," in The Church Missionary Intelligencer, September, 1900, pp. 641-650.




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enslaving features of superstition, are primary qualifications for a wholesome development of the national consciousness. Temperance, self-control, poise, and capacity of discernment are assuredly among the most valuable preparations for citizenship, and these are all the manifest fruitage of missions. The Church, moreover, is becoming a school in the forms of constitutional government, and in the practice of mutual consideration. It is even exemplifying, in recent movements towards denominational consolidation in North and South India, and in All-India conventions of the Young Men's Christian Association, the working possibility of unity, and is teaching also the great lesson of religious equality as against caste. Christian communities in India, even when, as in many instances, they are gathered from the lowest social levels, are in large measure liberated from the disabilities of an outcast people, shunned and ostracized.1

Education promotes discussion, and encourages the cherishing of ideals. Societies, Missions encourage among Indian races wholesome views of liberty and patriotismassociations, congresses, and conventions are springing up from the sowing of mission seeds. These broaden the vision, deepen the conviction, and guide the aspirations of the educated classes upon questions of national importance. They both

1 "The Christians are undoubtedly raised to a higher level both morally and spiritually, and I might say physically. Formerly, many of them were virtually slaves, very poor and ignorant, and without any standing socially. Now they are free, and their condition is vastly improved in every respect."—The late Rev. John Scudder, M.D., D.D. (Ref.C.A.), Vellore, Madras, India.

"Our Christians thus far have come, almost without exception, from the Malas and Madigas, the outcasts of the Telugu people. Comparatively few have to suffer persecution, when they turn to Christianity. On the contrary, they rise in social standing."—Mrs. J. E. Clough (A.B.M.U.), Ongole, Madras, India.

"Acquaintance with Christian truth, and the enlargement of view which it brings, makes them [native Christians] dissatisfied with their material circumstances, and urges them towards efforts for their improvement. They refuse to cringe before their social superiors, and strive to assert their manhood by claiming their rights in the community. Though still oppressed, they are in many cases able to resist oppression and defend their rights. I have known cases in which the high-caste people have bitterly opposed the introduction of Christianity into a pariah community on the avowed ground that if the pariahs became Christians they would soon be educated, and would wear decent clothes, and become the equals of themselves."—The Rev. W. Howard Campbell, M.A., B.D. (L.M.S.), Cuddapah, Madras, India.

"Equality of political privileges in admission to offices and courts where natives preside has been gained for thousands of poor people, although in the distant regions the non-castes must still stand outside the buildings and appear at the windows."—The Rev. L. L. Uhl, Ph.D. (Luth. G.S,), Guntur, Madras, India.




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limit and accentuate liberty, and differentiate an enlightened from a childish and ignorant patriotism. It is interesting to note that among the recent publications of the Christian Literature Society for India there is a monograph by the Rev. E. P. Rice, of the London Missionary Society, on "True Patriotism," in which the theme is presented with a searching analysis and a pointed, practical wisdom which make it most wholesome reading for educated India1 In a united address of congratulation from Indian Christians to King Edward on the occasion of his coronation, drafted by Mr. K. C. Banurji, are sentiments which indicate plainly the attitude of the heart of Christian India towards a political sovereignty which is actuated by justice, liberality, and self-restraint. When India is won for the sisterhood of Christian nations the contribution of missions to her political as well as her religious regeneration will be indisputable. Sir Alfred Lyall has recently expressed his conviction that India "will be carried swiftly through phases which have occupied long stages in the lifetime of other nations."

A similar brief for missions as the promoter of a healthful spirit of liberty, and the inspirer of a sound patriotism, might be made from data furnished in Burma. A racial dignity and a manly and sane political tone characterize the Karen tribes among The racial dignity and sane political tone of the Karen Christians in Burma which missions have been so successfully conducted. In Dr. Alonzo Bunker's interesting volume entitled "Soo Thah: A Tale of the Making of the Karen Nation" will be found the evidence of an awakening of the Karen clans to the call of unity, and their aspiring efforts to inaugurate a national movement in support of British rule, at the time of the Burman rebellion.2 Mr. Smeaton, then Chief Commissioner, in his book, "The Loyal Karens of Burma," gives the following testimony: "It is not often given to witness such a remarkable development of national character as has taken place among the Karens under the influence of Christianity and good government. Forty, aye, thirty years ago, they were a despised, grovelling, timid people, held in open contempt by the Burmese. At the first sound of the Gospel message, they sprang to their feet, as a sleeping army springs to the bugle-call. The dream of hundreds of years was fulfilled; the God who had cast them off for their unfaithfulness had come back to them; they felt themselves a nation once more. Their progress since then has been

1 The Christian Patriot, April 19, 1902, editorial comments on "True Patriotism."

2 Bunker, "Soo Thah," pp. 235-248.




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by leaps and bounds, all from an impetus within themselves, and with no direct aid from their rulers; and they bid fair soon to outstrip their Burmese conquerors in all the arts of peace."

In Siam a remarkable list of political and material benefits may be traced both directly and indirectly to mission occupation.1 The late King, who reigned from 1851 to 1868. was in part educated by a missionary, the The friendly estimate of missions on the part of the Siamese Government Rev. J. Caswell. His son, the present King, is a ruler of exceptional moderation and liberality, who has enjoyed opportunities of observation and culture during visits to other lands. He is a strict Buddhist, but broadly tolerant in his attitude towards other religions. His appreciation of the real service of missions to his people is singularly wise and discerning, and his treatment of missionaries is marked by cordiality, generosity, confidence, and in certain respects practical coöperation. There are thousands of supposedly well-informed Christians in our churches who might profitably sit at the feet of the King of Siam, and be instructed in regard to the multiform benefits of missions to his country. The King himself has allotted valuable property, at a nominal value, for mission uses. He and his nobles have, moreover, contributed to the support of mission schools. The Queen has established a scholarship fund in a mission school for girls. The public utterances of royalty and of high officials indicate clearly an attitude of cordiality as well as gratitude towards the mission enterprise, and of personal esteem for the missionaries.2 This

1 See "Report of a Visitation of the Siam and Laos Missions," by the Rev. Arthur J. Brown, D.D., Secretary of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, pp. 1-4.

2 "The present King and his Ministers make no secret of their indebtedness to our missionaries. They cordially avow it to the American visitor. 'Your missionaries first brought civilization to my country,' said the Minister of Foreign Affairs. The United States Minister, the Honorable Hamilton King, says that at a banquet in 1899 Prince Damrong, the Minister of the Interior, declared in the hearing of every one at the table: 'Mr. King, I want to say to you that we have great respect for your American missionaries in our country, and appreciate very highly the work they are doing for our people. I want this to be understood by every one, and if you are in a position to let it be known to your countrymen, I wish you would say this for me.'. . . In his published report of this incident, Minister King adds : 'The King of Siam is a man of fine education, keen insight, and broad culture. He speaks the English language well, and appreciates it keenly as a medium of civilization for his people. He understands his people and their needs. He is a hard worker, and keeps himself remarkably well informed of what is going on in his own country, and he has profited much by his recent visit to Europe. From such a ruler these expressions of toleration and encouragement mean much. The work of the Protestant missions in this country has been especially fruitful in good results along the general lines of Christian education and civilization, influencing alike those in high estate and of low degree.' "—Brown, "Report of a Visitation of the Siam and Laos Missions," p. 4.




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estimate on the part of the ruling minds in Siam is distinctly gratifying as well as fully justified. Through the royal welcome which has been given to missions the people have been brought, as in a day of beneficent visitation, under the discipline of what The virtual prohibition of proselytism from Islam in the Moslem Statemight be called a university course in civilization.

The political outcome of missions among Moslem races remains to be considered, and presents difficult and disturbing problems. Church and State in the traditional Moslem code are so closely identified that religious proselytism becomes from a Moslem point of view a political offense. Conversion to Christianity, in the opinion of the Mohammedan, brings the convert from Islam at once under the ban of treason both to Church and State. This extreme position has now been abandoned in large sections of the Moslem world, but rather under the pressure of circumstances, and as an unwilling concession to the diplomatic insistence of Christian Powers. In that stronghold of Moslem fanaticism—the Turkish Empire—while universal tolerance has been officially — even effusively—proclaimed, the concession is regarded by the Turkish Government as applicable only in the case of Christians who may wish to change their religious faith. It has never been willingly conceded in the case of Moslems, and it has been necessary to enforce it in numerous individual cases by the power of outside authority in holding the Government to its pledges. The most famous of these manifestoes is known as the Hatti Sherif of Gul Haneh, and was issued by Sultan Abd-ul-Medjid in 1839. It was a veritable charter of civil and religious liberty, full of revolutionary promises and pledges. It was too liberal for approval in conservative Moslem circles, and has been practically a dead letter in many of its provisions, except that it has proved a basis for diplomatic pressure in many critical emergencies. The serious and final struggle for religious liberty among Moslems has not come as yet in Turkey and Persia. In certain sections of the Moslem world, now under Christian rule, as for example in India and Egypt, religious freedom, to be sure, exists, but as yet it is due rather to political necessity than to freely conceded privilege and popular acquiescence based upon any general change in the traditional views of the Moslem community.

Missions prosecuted among the Christian subjects of Moslem rulers have not involved directly the question of the religious liberty of Mos-




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lems. They present, however, some points of contact with the political sovereignty of the Moslem State where acute issues may be easily created, and have in fact frequently arisen. Turkish rule is often grievously oppressive and always exacting and rigorous in its absolutism. In the case of Christian subjects living side by side with Moslems it has frequently been marked by unjust discriminations The uplift and improvement of Christians in Turkey not welcomed by Moslem rulersand degrading indignities, political and social. This immemorial trend in the direction of permanent subjection and disability makes the uplift and improvement which missions bring to subject races under Moslem rule an unwelcome innovation, involving changes which, though legitimate and beneficial, are not viewed with favor by Moslem society, still less by governmental authority. Moslem pride is wounded by the passing of its ancient social prestige, which cannot maintain itself in the face of the superior intelligence and capability of the advancing Christian races. The Government takes offense because the rising generations of Christian subjects are so bright, so enterprising, so progressive, and so possessed by the ideals of a higher civilization that the incongruities and practical difficulties of the old régime have become not only troublesome and antiquated, but manifestly absurd. The ill-will of Moslem society towards subject Christian races is thus aggravated, and under the incitement of jealousy a malicious satisfaction is taken in their humiliation. The authorities are disturbed and alarmed because the exactions and wrongs of official injustice are not borne as meekly as of old.1 This inflammable condition sometimes issues in fierce conflicts, in which Christians are goaded to madness, and Turkish power sates itself in reprisals. The helpless Christian becomes the prey of malice and cruelty, sometimes resulting in what is practically a policy of extermination, based not so much upon any really unreasonable and revolutionary attitude of the subjugated communities, as upon the passions, the traditions, and the fears of Turkish officialdom. It may be said, moreover, in explanation of the Christian standpoint, that relief and help have been solemnly promised by the Turk, and all but guaranteed by the Christian Powers in treaties and diplomatic pledges, as for example in the Sixty-first Article of the Berlin Treaty of 1878, and also invoked by repeated outbursts of sympathy and loud calls for action on the part of European nations in behalf of these suffering communities. They have thus been encouraged to believe that they had friends who would not stand by and witness their annihilation.

1 Ramsay, "Impressions of Turkey," pp. 233, 234.




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The charge has sometimes been freely made that American missionaries in Turkey have been the fomenters of revolution, and have encouraged a hopeless agitation. This false accusation has been utilized to place upon them the responsibility of the American missions in the Turkish Empire make no attempt to disturb the political statuswholesale massacres which have marked the fanatical crusades of the Turkish Government and the Moslem populace against the subject Christian races. It has been accentuated in connection with the late massacres of the Armenians, and superficial critics have sought in this connection to fix a stigma upon missions in general as both meddlesome and impertinent, a needless menace, in fact, to the peace and happiness of the world. So far as American missions in Turkey are concerned, the accusation is not sustained by facts.1 No one has realized better than the missionaries the hopelessness of any attempt at an Armenian revolutionary propaganda, and the dangers involved in such an agitation. They could not, however, control, nor could the great body of the law-abiding Armenian public itself restrain, the reckless folly of a few radical spirits. The missionaries, for the sake of their own work, and in the interests of the Christian communities, invariably insist upon

1 At the Ecumenical Missionary Conference held in New York in 1900, the Rev. George Washburn, D.D., President of Robert College, Constantinople, made the following statement: "American missionaries in Turkey have no political ends in view, of any kind or shape whatever. They have not gone to Turkey either to overthrow the Turkish Government, or to reform the Turkish Government, or to have anything to do with the ruling of the country. All that any American missionary asks of Turkey is that he should be protected in those rights which are guaranteed to all Americans by solemn treaty between the United States and Turkey. As a general rule, the relations in which missionaries stand to the Turkish Government are of the most friendly character; and the last thing that any missionary in Turkey desires is to have a conflict with the Turkish authorities. I am not connected directly with any missionary society. I have lived in Turkey for forty-two years, and I know pretty well what the American missionaries in Turkey are doing, and I can testify that it is always their special effort to avoid doing anything which can give to the Turkish Government reason for making complaints against them. They obey the laws, and respect the authorities of the country. As you know, certain circumstances have arisen in that country which have given rise to certain claims; but the position which the missionaries take in regard to these things is exactly that which has been laid down by the Government of the United States. This position has been stated over and over again by the most distinguished Secretaries of State, who have had these questions in hand. It is this, to put it in the language of Mr. Elaine, when he was Secretary of State: 'For us to ask from the Turkish Government for anything for missionaries which we would not ask for merchants would be unjust. To ask for them anything less than we ask for merchants would be still more unjust.'" —"Report of the Ecumenical Missionary Conference, New York, 1900," vol. i., p. 452.




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obedience to the laws, respectful treatment of rulers, and a policy of patience exhibited in the use of strictly legal methods of redress in the case even of flagrant wrongs, rather than by a resort to violent and defiant measures. During the late crisis in Armenia they counselled quietude and good order, and this was indeed the attitude of the helpless Christian communities to a noteworthy and pathetic extent; yet nothing could avert the cruel storm of Turkish fanaticism and savagery. The policy of the missionaries was to share in unselfish heroism the dangers, and in some measure the sufferings, of their native converts. It is safe to say that if American missionaries could make effective their advice to Oriental Christians, and could convince the Government of the real attitude of the Christian races, there would be less reason to fear the recurrence of such appalling outbursts.1 Earl Percy, M. P., and Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, in his "Highlands of Asiatic Turkey" (page 114), states the result of his observations as follows: "Whatever the faults and follies of individual missionaries may be, I am firmly convinced that the wisest and most experienced among them are sincerely anxious to do nothing to weaken by their teaching the authority of the central Government."

While it is true that this is the policy of the missionary body, it would not be candid to The only political offense of missions in Turkey is the benefits they confer upon the subject Christian racesignore in this connection the fact that missions bring a most helpful stimulus and an incalculable increment of betterment to the Christian races in Turkey. These benefits, moreover, make them better citizens, both in quality and in capacity, and it would be a master-stroke of policy on the part of Turkey to recognize this fact, and seek to conserve and encourage these uplifting agencies working for the good of her people.2 Every advantage which missions have to offer is open to the Moslem as well as to the Christian subjects of the Porte, and if the Government were inclined to

1 Cf. Bérard, "La Politique du Sultan," pp. 264-266.

2 "The work of the American missionaries has been to produce an educated middle class in the Turkish lands; and they have done it with a success that implies both good method in their work and good raw material to work upon. I have come in contact with men educated at Robert College in widely separate parts of the country, men of diverse races and different forms of religion, Greek, Armenian (Gregorian), and Protestant; and have everywhere been struck with the marvellous way in which a certain uniform type, direct, simple, honest, and lofty in tone, had been impressed on them. Some had more of it, some less ; but all had it to a certain degree; and it is diametrically opposite to the type produced by growth under the ordinary conditions of Turkish life,"—Ramsay, "Impressions of Turkey," p. 227.




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welcome it, a reformation of promising import, and a new type of citizenship, of a quality hitherto unknown in Turkey, are ready to enter and make over the empire according to the best ideals of progressive statehood. At present the Turkish authorities, from the Sultan downward, are dooming their Moslem subjects to social and moral decay, as well as to national obscurity, in all that constitutes the glory and power of a people under the conditions of modern civilization. It is apparently also their determined policy to prevent the advance of the Christian races, and to maintain an adverse and intimidating attitude as a barrier to any disproportionate betterment of their Christian subjects.

That Christians in Turkey are growing in intelligence and capacity, that they are in the path of progress, and in training for a larger and firmer grasp of opportunity, that they have a deepening appreciation of the privileges of culture and Missions an immense boon to Oriental Christians who have been for centuries under the rule of the Moslemcivilization, that freedom seems more attractive, and patriotism is quickened by a more inspiriting outlook, is not to be doubted, nor is it to be deprecated; it is the natural result of moral, intellectual, and social improvement. American missions in Turkey have conducted a broad and solid educational campaign, have disseminated the best literature, have established churches of a pure evangelical faith, and have planted colleges of exceptional excellence at strategic points in the empire. The outcome has been greatly to the advantage of the Christian races, who have availed themselves of these facilities for enlightenment and culture. Every people that has climbed upward in the world's history has in some form faced its conflicts and grasped its opportunities. In the case of Christian races in Turkey the environment is full of difficulties and dangers. The transitional movements must be made in the face of hostility, suspicion, and jealousy on the part of irresponsible rulers. Violent measures must be looked upon as hopeless; dangerous temptations must be resisted; self-control, patience, wisdom, and law-abiding order must be observed; yet the thrill of aspiration, the cheer of hope, and the consciousness of new gifts and enlarged capacities cannot be banished. It has been the endeavor of resident missionaries in Turkey to lend a helping hand to those entrusted to their care, and at the same time to guide them in wisdom and self-control along this perilous way. Instead of being teachers of revolutionary sentiments, they have counselled self-restraint and, so far as any political agitation is concerned, the most rigorous self-repression.

The Persians have been characterized as a people without patriot-




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ism.1 They love and admire the physical features of their The unhappy fate of the Christian populations of Persiacountry, and regard it as the choicest of lands; but the Government is so corrupt and unjust, the outlook of life so depressing, its opportunities so meagre, its social condition so disorderly, and its racial or religious hostilities so disquieting, that the spirit of loyalty and patriotic devotion finds nothing to which it desires to cling or which it wishes to perpetuate. The only hope of national unity and enthusiasm seems to be either in some beneficent foreign domination, accepted gladly by all, or in some great uplifting change in the moral, social, and economic condition of the people, bringing with it ideals of human brotherhood, political unity, and civil liberty, which would prove a rallying-point for hearts now drooping in despair. Christianity has lifted other peoples to new life, and led them, not without struggle, into noble national careers. May we not expect that, working in harmony with favoring political and economic changes, it will bring a brighter day to Persia? In this hope the work of missions goes steadily on. Its fruits will appear in due time.

"Oh, sometimes gleams upon our sight,Through present wrong, the Eternal Right,And step by step, since time began,We see the steady gain of man."

From Asia we turn to Africa, and our attention is at once fixed upon the The political rôle of missions among primitive African racesvaried environment of world-wide missions and the manifold scope of a missionary's service. In our survey of India we were studying the outcome in the midst of an ancient civilization leagued with massive religious and philosophical systems, with its vast population governed, at the present time, by experienced and enlightened masters of imperial policy. In Turkey and Persia we found Moslem authority, with its rigorous and depressing rule, dominating subject races—illustrations of ancient and inflexible systems of Islamic despotism. Turning to Africa, we come into contact with primitive races, still in their religious and political childhood. We pass, as it were, from the political university to the kindergarten. There is, however, a striking and unique feature to this mission kindergarten in Africa. Among its pupils will be found to be included an unwonted number of those who occupy positions of authority and power, kings and chiefs who have entrusted to them, within certain limitations, the

1 See article by Dr. W. A. Shedd, in The Evangelist, February 7, 1900, entitled "A People without Patriotism."




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making or the unmaking of populous nations. Providence, apparently, has made missionaries in Africa, to a noticeable extent, the teachers and mentors of men in authority. The opportunity has thus been given, and, as we shall see, worthily used, to mitigate the cruel absolutism of savage rule, and lead tribal chieftains and the kings of primitive peoples to govern with a wisdom and justice which have inaugurated in certain instances a new era in the history of African humanity. Khama, the royal scholar of the London Missionary Society, is an illustration, and so is Lewanika, the pupil of the French Barotsi Mission, and Daudi, the King of Toro, and Apolo Kagwa, the Katikiro of Uganda, the last two being on the roll of the Church Missionary Society.

Khama, the beneficent King of the Bamangwato, was for many years a Missions a valuable adjunct to colonial rule in Africawilling disciple and intimate friend of Messrs. Mackenzie and Hepburn, of the London Missionary Society. The civilization which has been introduced among his people has been of the uplifting kind, making them an orderly, tractable, temperate, and peaceable community.1 The Rev. W. C. Willoughby, a resident missionary at Khama's capital, has been also of late his counsellor and friend. The British Government has had no more loyal and sympathetic coadjutor in every worthy aim than this African ruler. He is a happy illustration of the coöperative efficiency of missions in cementing and quickening a political entente, on the basis of a just regard for the welfare of native tribes. Some of the possible risks and sufferings which might be expected to attend the inevitable occupation of Africa by superior races may thus be greatly mitigated by the help of missions, particularly in mediating to the mutual advantage of both alien and native peoples. In numerous instances already native tribes have been enabled to understand the motives and aims of foreigners, and to meet them in a spirit of confidence, which has greatly facilitated cordial relations, and made far easier than it otherwise would have been the adjustment of the native mind to new and strange relationships. It is not necessary, let it be noted, to the force of our argument to show that this has been the issue throughout Africa, since if we can point to some representative instances where missions, finding their opportunity, have grasped it, and wrought well in the interests of peace and mutually satisfactory diplomacy, then our point is proved.2

1 Hepburn, "Twenty Years in Khama's Country." Cf., for fuller references to Khama, Volume II., pp. 14, 15, 106-108.

2 "The gravest problem in South Africa is the native problem. There are not a million white people south of the Zambesi; but there are probably six or eight millions of blacks. What shall we say of the task of welding the black and the white together, so as to form one strong, self-reliant, and mutually helpful brotherhood? And yet, stupendous as the work may seem, it must be done. And the Christian Church alone can do it. In spite of the strong stream of European immigrants that flows steadily into South Africa, the blacks are increasing faster than the whites. The Fingoes in the Transkei are not only prosperous, but probably ten times as numerous as they were sixty years ago. The Zulus, in Natal, have doubled their numbers in twenty years. In thirty years the Basutos have quadrupled, overflowing into the Orange Free State and the Cape Colony. The Bechuanas are probably four times as numerous to-day as when Dr. Livingstone was a missionary among them. Dying out at the touch of civilisation! Why, the natives of South Africa were never so thoroughly alive. And this vitality of the natives may mean the permanent enrichment of the empire, if we are wise enough to use it. For the native is absolutely indispensable to the development of South African industry, whether it be mines or manufactures, husbandry or handicrafts. . . . The brain of South African industry is at present covered with a white skin; and apparently will long continue so. But its brawn is covered with a black skin ; and there is no immediate prospect of a change. The problem is to harmonise brain and brawn, so that each may take its proper place in the common service. For if the strength of man be not controlled by his intelligence you have madness ; and if the muscle of a community breaks finally with its brain, you have — What? Madness, also; only we call it anarchy, when it affects a community." — Rev. W. C. Willoughby (L.M.S.), in The Chronicle, July, 1900, pp. 164, 165.




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Lewanika, the King of the Barotsi, who of his own choice elected for himself and Some examples of transformed kingly policy which may be credited to missionshis people the protection of British rule, and who was one of the guests at King Edward's coronation, was for many years the friend and pupil of the late Rev. François Coillard, of the French Evangelical Mission. How cheerfully, patiently, and faithfully that gentle and saintly missionary led him out of pitiless savagery into enlightenment and self-control, teaching him the meaning and worth of liberty, and making him a blessing to his people, is told with artless simplicity in Pastor Coillard's charming book, " On the Threshold of Central Africa." Lewanika himself has not as yet publicly professed Christianity, polygamy being his stumbling-block, but he is apparently a transformed man, and the spirit of a Christian ruler is, for the time being at least, dominant over heathen heredity and an excessive natural tendency to violence and cruelty. While this is all true, we should speak with some reserve of one who has not been as yet thoroughly tested, and whose convictions are still somewhat inchoate.1 His son, Litia, the heir-apparent, is a Christian and a

1 Captain Alfred Bertrand, of the Swiss Federal Army, during explorations in Barotsiland in 1896, met Lewanika, and chronicles his observations in the following statement: "From the accounts of previous travellers as to the treachery, rapacity, cruelty, and degradation of the Barotsi, we expected to take our lives in our hands. All the greater, therefore, was my astonishment when I saw with my own eyes the transformation, both in the moral and the material domain, effected during the ten years that the missionaries had been at work. . . . The king, in whom we had expected to find a bloodthirsty tyrant, I first met in church, seriously and intelligently joining in the service. At his court we found order, cleanliness, courtesy, and hospitality. Every month Lewanika and his chiefs used to celebrate the new moon by orgies of strong native beer-drinking. When I visited Lealuyi, he had already forbidden the making and consumption of intoxicants throughout the country, and had set the example by himself becoming an abstainer. To-day I am assured he has not tasted alcohol for seven years."




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monogamist, and so is his Prime Minister. In Basutoland, quite another section of South Africa, also under British rule, are the French missionaries of the Swiss Romande churches. With a high sense of honor, they have thrown all their influence in favor of native loyalty to British sovereignty, and to them, in part at least, are due the remarkable docility and quiet self-control of 20,000 armed and eager Basuto warriors, who during the late war were quite ready to fight the Boers if an opportunity to settle some old scores had been granted them.1

Daudi, King of Toro, on the western borders of Uganda, offers another illustration of a transformed kingly policy as the fruit of missionary instruction. Uganda has become virtually a part of Christendom. The birthday of its young king is celebrated by a service of thanksgiving to God, in the new and imposing cathedral at Mengo, and in the same place a convocation, the attendance upon which filled the edifice, was held in honor of the coronation of King Edward.2 At the coronation itself there appeared, as the representative of Uganda,

1 " I have spoken of the French Protestant missionaries. It is unquestionably owing in a great measure to the conduct of these noble men and women that the Basutos have so implicitly obeyed even the Resident. During all the years of their mission work, these missionaries have kept France out of sight, and spoken to the people only of England. They have never allowed a native to learn a word of French, and have taught English alone in their schools, saying that, as the Basutos are under the English flag and must live among an English-speaking people, English is what they will need. Hence the missionaries have themselves learned English that they might teach it to the Basutos. They have thus been the makers and the saviours of that nation, and the Basutos requite them with their implicit confidence. Moshesh and Letsie followed their advice, though it often ran counter to the wishes of the people at large; but the results have been so favourable for the nation, that now it is almost enough for them to know what the missionaries advise, and that course will be taken. As a matter of the lowest and most selfish consideration, the British people should stand by that Mission and assist those who have done Britain such service."—The Rev. G. D. Mathews, D.D., in The Mission World, April, 1900, pp. 181, 182.

2 The Church Missionary Intelligencer, December, 1902, pp. 913, 914.




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Apolo Kagwa, the Prime Minister and Chief Justice of that wonderful little kingdom, now under British protection. He was an early convert to Christianity, and has a remarkable record of enlightened zeal for his country's welfare. He was a pupil, when a boy, of the English missionaries Mackay and Ashe, and in both his public and private life is a man of exemplary and dignified deportment. The estimate placed upon his character and services is evident in the address of the officials of the Church Missionary Society presented to him on the occasion of his visit to London in 1902.1

The effect of a tendency so clearly illustrated in the instances referred to is manifestly Reading the same Bible a bond of peace and confidence between African chieftainsin the interests of liberty, good order, and patriotism, albeit these may not be identified with democracy or constitutional forms of self-government, as in our own political environment. The outcome is nevertheless the destruction of savage despotism, the establishment of well-guarded constitutional rights, the encouragement of mutual confidence, and the substitution of peaceful measures instead of incessant tribal warfare. " How is it I have confidence in Maanghé, and that Maanghé has confidence in me? " asked the African Christian chief Mohlaba before a large assembly. " It is because we both read this book." As he said this he held up the New Testament.2 The author of " Daybreak in Livingstonia " writes: " In a few years after the arrival of the missionaries, there was a remarkable willingness to settle quarrels in an amicable way by first consulting the ' Mzungu' (white man), and without having recourse to clubs and spears." In this connection the testimony of Mr. Joseph Thomson, F. R. G. S., after his visit to the Central African Lakes in 1879, four years after the planting of the Livingstonia Mission, is important.3

1 The Church Missionary Intelligencer, July, 1902, pp. 545, 546. See also, for a sketch of Apolo Kagwa, The Church Missionary Gleaner, July, 1902, p. 108.

2 Regions Beyond, November, 1900, p. 428. For another striking illustration of the unifying power of the Gospel, see an account of the friendly relations between the Christians of Abeokuta and Ibadan, even in times of hostility between the rival cities, in Stock, " History of the Church Missionary Society," vol. ii.,p. 444.

3 " ' Where international effort has failed,' he says, ' an unassuming Mission, supported only by a small section of the British people, has been quietly and unostentatiously, but most successfully, realising in its own district the entire programme of the Brussels Conference. I refer to the Livingstonia Mission of the Free Church of Scotland. This Mission has proved itself, in every sense of the word, a civilising centre. By it slavery has been stopped, desolating wars put an end to, and peace and security given to a wide area of country.' After further reference to the good work accomplished, he remarks, ' Surely here are exploits being done which ought to make us proud of our nation, showing, as they do, how thoroughly the broad and catholic spirit of Livingstone still survives among his countrymen.' " —Jack, "Daybreak in Livingstonia," p. 240.




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With the entrance of colonial law, and the social changes that enlightenment brings, old The influence of missions in aiding the African to adjust himself to a constitutional régimepolitical traditions and forms of government decay. A new era of liberty and order dawns. The passing of the chief with his hitherto unlimited authority, and the lapse of local officialism with its formerly unquestioned absolutism, are striking changes in the present-day political life of Africa.1 The moral influence of missions amidst these trying transformations is of incalculable value as a solvent of bitterness and a reconciling force working for peace and aiding in the adjustment of the native mind to the entrance of just administrative law into the hitherto undisputed realm of arbitrary authority. It is difficult for us who have been born under a constitutional régime to realize how great to the native mind is the change involved in the transfer of the fixed centre of government from the personality of the ruler to the sovereignty of the State—a change which makes law rather than force the basis of authority and the sponsor of liberty. We may note also the salutary results of Christian education and Church fellowship. Under all these transforming influences the political life of the African native is changing, and seems to be slowly shaping itself into harmony with constitutional law and order. We should not, however, fail to note in passing how promptly and acutely the menacing problems of Church and State will appear

1 A prominent paper in South Africa remarks: "The halo that surrounded a chieftainship is fast fading away. Native society, once aristocratic, is now democratic; the franchise and the land laws have altered the old style of things. So far as the present residue of the feudal system of tribal legislation is concerned, its day is doomed; and, in its doom, it must carry those who have been its administrators and upholders. The Colonial Magistrate, the embodiment of administrative and judicial powers, holds officially the position that chiefs once held, and behind him and his legal decisions he has the force of an empire. This the gradual spread of education and the administration of law have made the native peoples understand most thoroughly. The effect has been that the position of chief or headman, even in the territories most recently acquired, is not what it once was. Once the chief was monarch of all he surveyed; now, government surveys and title-deeds take away from him the last emblems of his powers. With his title-deeds in his hand, the humblest henchman may defy the chief to go to law with him. Law protects individual right; and the native is not slow to appreciate what law does for him. Chiefs are not the absolute monarchs, backed by the custom and the power of a tribe, that they once were. They are only agents of a force that they cannot understand, but which they fear and respect."—Editorial in The Christian Express, June 1, 1899, p. 85.




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even in the primitive environment of African missions. The Chief whose political following may have embraced Christianity, unless extraordinary wisdom and discernment are given him, is likely to claim the same ascendancy and arbitrary power in the Church that he has possessed in his miniature State. The importance of wisdom and tact on the part of foreign missionaries in dealing with such a situation is apparent.1 While progress in many instances may be slow, yet the forces that are effecting the change have a staying power and a molding influence which will insure their final success. In furthering these ends the contribution which missionary influence is making to the growth of liberty and the kindling of a national life among African races is worthy of all honor. It is yet, it is true, in its initial stages, and of necessity works in coöperation with existing political conditions ; but its service is none the less beneficent on this account. In numeious instances, moreover, mission establishments and the friendly intervention of missionaries offer a refuge to the oppressed, and, as occasion demands, act as intermediaries in suggesting to native friends the solution of menacing difficulties.2

Turning to Australasia and Oceania, we find ourselves for the most part still in contact with primitive races. The political services of missions in AustralasiaWe should not fail in this connection to give due attention to the fact that the colonial churches of Australia and New Zealand, whose growth has run parallel with the political development, have obviously been an influential factor in furthering the civil interests of these colonies. In his Hulsean Lectures on "The Ecclesiastical Expansion of England," Bishop Barry has called attention to the influence of ecclesiastical movements upon the political expansion of Great Britain. The growth of a colonial church to the independent status of a synodical organization, while maintaining kindly and fraternal relations with the Mother Church, has made a corresponding policy in the sphere of imperial relationship easier, and no doubt has hastened its realization. The Bishop of North Queensland, in an address at the anniversary of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, in May, 1899, emphasized the services of that Society in cementing friendliness and confidence between Great Britain and her Australian colonies. "I do not think,"

1 For illustrative incidents, see Lovett, "The History of the London Missionary Society," vol. i., pp. 628, 639-641, and 730. Another example, the scene of which is in Samoa, will be found on page 396 of the same volume.

2 Jack, "Daybreak in Livingstonia," p. 93. The Missionary Record of the United Free Church of Scotland, April, 1901, pp. 156-158.




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the Bishop said, "that the people of England sufficiently understand how much this Society, from a purely patriotic point of view, is doing for the strength, the gain, and the real glory of the British Empire. I am not speaking of that imperialism which measures its strength by counting its soldiers and its ships, nor of that imperialism which proudly gloats over statistics of exports and imports, but I am speaking of that imperialism which sees, in every new territory occupied, another splendid opportunity for conveying to those over whom it is set the blessings which we have received from our forefathers. If, as a deep thinker has lately said, one of the threefold cords which must bind the colonies to the mother country is the community of religion, then the Society is doing a glorious work in binding our sons and daughters to England."1

In New Zealand, especially where missionary work was in advance of colonization, the ties established by missions have been useful in giving a kindly tone to the progress and adjustment of political relationships.2 Bishop Selwyn, Missionary coöperation in the adjustment of political relationships in New Zealandconsecrated in 1841 as the first Bishop of New Zealand, was a spiritual father to both the English and the Maori communities. Of the forty thousand Maoris now in New Zealand about half are baptized members of the English Church, and the Maori people have a representation in the Legislative Council, besides four native members in the House of Representatives of New Zealand. A nation of cannibals has thus been brought, almost entirely by missionary effort, into a state of civilization, and prepared for citizenship and the enjoyment of both religious and civil liberty. In connection with Te Aute College is a Students' Association representing the reform aspirations of the "Young Maori Party," and dedicated to a patriotic effort to bring the Maoris more completely into line with the higher civilization of Christianity. The typical Maori cannibal, with his fierce and cruel nature, has been changed into an heir of liberty, and is moving side by side in the pathway of progress with a prosperous and free colonial community inheriting the best traditions of English freedom.

A melancholy picture, with touches of pathetic sentiment, has sometimes been drawn of the tendency of native races to decrease and die out under the pressure of Christian civilization, and the Maoris and Hawaiians are often quoted as examples. The truth is that Christian civilization as represented in missions is a saving and re-

1 The Mission Field, June, 1899, p. 230.

2 Barry, "The Ecclesiastical Expansion of England," pp. 256, 257.




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deeming agency. The gradual disappearance of these peoples may be traced, as in the case of The decay of primitive native races not chargeable to missionsother waning native races, not to the effects of Christianity, but to unwholesome and perilous modes of life, combined with the blight of evil and vicious indulgences that follow so often in the wake of so-called civilization. The Hon. William P. Reeves, in his recent book on New Zealand, in explaining the reason why the Maoris were dying out, says: "The Maoris might be healthy men and women if they would accept the teaching of sanitary science as sincerely as they took in the religious teaching of the early missionaries. If they could be made to realize that foul air, insufficient dress, putrid food, alternations of feast and famine, and long bouts of sedulous idleness are destroying them as a people, and need not do so, then their decay might be arrested and the fair hopes of the missionary pioneers yet be justified. So long as they soak maize in the streams until it is rotten, and eat it together with dry shark food, the merest whiff of which will make a white man sick; so long as they will wear a suit of clothes one day and a tattered blanket the next, and sit smoking crowded in huts, the scent of which strikes you like a blow in the face ; so long as they will cluster round dead bodies during their tango, we wakes; so long as they will ignore drainage—just so long will they remain a blighted and dwindling race: and yet observers without eyes will talk as though there were something fateful and mysterious in their decline."1

The late Rev. James Chalmers, of the London Missionary Society —called the "Great Heart of New Guinea"—has illustrated in his noble life the extensive and helpful influence which a missionary

1 Reeves, "The Long White Cloud," p. 58.

The Rev. J. M, Alexander, a writer upon the South Seas, has expressed substantially the same view. He says : "Physicians have proved beyond question that the diminution of the Pacific islanders has been caused by diseases introduced by the vices and intemperance of the white races. Christianity has only retarded this diminution. In the islands where missions have not been established, the diminution has been the most rapid. In some of these islands the natives have become almost extinct. But in other islands, where missions have done their best work, and where foreigners have seldom come, the natives are increasing in number. In some of the secluded localities of the Samoa Islands the population has been increasing at the rate of one per cent, per annum. The Rev. Mr. Moulton, missionary in the Tonga group, has asserted that the population of the Tonga Islands has increased twenty-five per cent, in twenty years, and that in the Island of Niué the increase is more than three per cent, per annum. The explanation is that these islands lie out of the common track of ships, and that in them missions have been very successful."—Alexander, "The Islands of the Pacific," p. 51.




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may exert upon the political development of savage races. First in his sojourn upon the Island of Rarotonga, and subsequently among the wild savages of New Guinea, he was instrumental in guiding whole communities by his wise Christian counsel and Chalmers of New Guinea, and his political services to the savage races of that island example. The late Robert Louis Stevenson calls him one of the "pioneers of civilization and love," and ranks him among the heroic bearers of "the cross of light and progress."1 In Rarotonga he was at once a religious teacher, a moral disciplinarian, a political counsellor, and almost an arbiter of destiny. His labors in the interests of temperance were the salvation of the people. "As missionary," he writes, "I am consulted on every important point, and my decision generally is taken as settling any question."2 When he removed to New Guinea he entered upon pioneer work among the most degraded and savage cannibals. Finally, when the hour of British annexation came, his services to the Government, and, it may be noted, to the native communities as well, were recognized and appreciated. Commodore Erskine, in his official report in 1884, wrote: "It will readily be seen that it would have been impossible for me to have carried out this programme without the assistance of the Revs. Messrs. Chalmers and Lawes, whose acquaintance with the people and knowledge of their habits are well known and acknowledged. From the moment of my arrival these gentlemen have placed their invaluable services entirely at my disposal. They have been ready day and night to assist me in every possible way; they have spared no pains in translating and explaining the terms of the proclamation and addresses which I have made, and in collecting the numerous chiefs, who, but for them, would never have come near the ship. These gentlemen, who first came and settled single-handed amongst these wild and cannibal tribes about ten years ago, have by their firm but conciliatory and upright dealings established such a hold over the natives, as many a crowned head would be proud to possess. I have been lost in admiration of the influence which they command over these savage but intelligent people." 3

1 Lovett, "James Chalmers: His Autobiography and Letters," p. 354.

2 Ibid., p. 83.

3 Lovett, "James Chalmers : His Autobiography arid Letters," p. 254.

The testimony of Vice-Admiral Bridge is also a striking tribute. In a letter to the Times, dated May 4, 1901, he says : "I first met Mr. Chalmers in 1884, when the British flag was hoisted in Southern New Guinea by the present Sir James Erskine, who then commanded the squadron on the Australian station. I was at that time serving under Sir James's orders; and I am sure that my distinguished chief will be most ready to testify to the value of the assistance rendered him in a difficult operation by Mr. Chalmers and his colleague Dr. Lawes. Mr. Chalmers accompanied me in the ship I then commanded on an expedition to Kapakapa and Kailé on which I had been sent by Sir James Erskine. At my urgent request Mr, Chalmers again accompanied me, early in 1885, on a special expedition—in H. M. S. Dart, commanded by the present Captain, W. Usborne Moore—to Northeastern New Guinea and Rook Island. His vigilance, cheeriness, readiness of resource, and extraordinary influence over native savages made his help quite invaluable. I can honestly say that I do not know how I should have got on without him. He had an equal power of winning the confidence of savages quite unused to strangers, and the respect, and even love, of white seamen. Notwithstanding the great inconvenience and, I fear, not inconsiderable expense to which he had been put by giving his valuable services in the expeditions mentioned, he firmly refused to allow his name to be officially submitted in any claim for pecuniary remuneration, or even to accept the legitimate compensation to which he was entitled."— Ibid., pp. 265, 266.




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Similar testimony is at hand concerning the work of the Wesleyan Mission in New Guinea. Valuable testimony of Sir William Macgregor while Governor of British New GuineaSir William Macgregor, a former Governor of British New Guinea, and at one time Acting High Commissioner and Consul-General for the Western Pacific, stated in an address to the Australian Wesleyan Board of Missions that "Missions from his point of view, in a country like New Guinea, were a necessary adjunct to the work of the Government. Savages were made into law-abiding citizens better by Christian missions than by any other process."1 Much might be said upon this subject concerning the national outcome in the direction of civilization and freedom in connection with the missionary work of the American Board in the Hawaiian Islands and Micronesia; and in accentuating the noble results of the services of the Wesleyan Missionary Society, and subsequently of the Australian Wesleyan Missions, in the Fiji group; of the Presbyterians in the New Hebrides; and of the Melanesian Mission among numerous islands of the Banks, Santa Cruz, and Solomon groups.

Missions among the Indian tribes of North and South America, and among the Negroes of the West Indies, A missionary idealist and his political achievements among savage Indian tribesbeing also among primitive and savage peoples, present similar features to those just reviewed. Preparatory training for the responsibilities of citizenship, the adjustment of native public opinion to social and political transformation, and the promotion, through kindly processes of mediation, of amity and good-will between inferior and superior races, are all

1 See a report of the address in Work and Workers in the Mission Field, July, 1898, pp. 281, 282.




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important, though indirect, issues of the missionary enterprise. A most remarkable and suggestive illustration of the way in which a missionary idealist may bring about a condition of constitutional liberty and civic order meets us at once as we touch the far west coast of the American Continent. Mr. William Duncan of England arrived at Fort Simpson, British Columbia, in October, 1857. His purpose was to open a mission among the Tsimshian Indians, who then numbered about 2300. Their condition was one of extreme degradation and savagery. The method adopted by Mr. Duncan was to inaugurate a civic and social life of entire separation from the rude and degenerate environment of the natives. His unique plan of colonization involved a new and radical social and civic programme as a necessary outcome of religious reformation. All who would join the new colony were required to pledge themselves to abandon all the indecent and superstitious heathen customs, and to strive after moral, sober, cleanly, industrious, peaceful, and orderly living. The community grew apace, until its population numbered one thousand. Various industries were established, especially salmon-canning. Years of prosperity and happiness followed, until difficulties arose, partly theological with missionary supporters in England, and partly political with the Canadian Government. The conflict with the Canadian Government as to their agrarian rights resulted in their migration in 1887 to the Territory of Alaska, where the United States Government assigned to them Annette Island, which by act of Congress was set apart as a reservation for their use.1 The official title of this noteworthy colony is "The Town and Associated Community of Metlakahtla." It is self-governing, according to constitutional forms adapted to meet its own requirements. A formal application for membership involves a subscription to certain unique provisions.2 It is to be hoped that the United States

1 The action of Congress, approved March 3, 1891, is included under "An Act to Repeal Timber-Culture Laws, and for Other Purposes." Section 15 of this Act is as follows: "Until otherwise provided by law, the body of lands known as Annette Island, situated in the Alexander Archipelago, in southeastern Alaska, on the north side of Dixon's entrance, be, and the same is hereby, set apart as a reservation for the use of the Metlakahtla Indians and those people known as Metlakahtlans who have recently emigrated from British Columbia to Alaska, and such other Alaskan natives as may join them, to be held and used by them in common, under such rules and regulations and subject to such restrictions as may be prescribed from time to time by the Secretary of the Interior."— "Education in Alaska, 1896-1897," Report of the Commissioner of Education, p. 1627.

2 This notable declaration of independence and pledge of faithful citizenship is as follows : "We, the people of Metlakahtla, Alaska, in order to secure to ourselves and our posterity the blessings of a Christian home, do severally subscribe to the following rules for the regulation of our conduct and town affairs: (1) To reverence the Sabbath and to refrain from all unnecessary secular work on that day; to attend divine worship; to take the Bible for our rule of faith; to regard all true Christians as our brethren, and to be truthful, honest, and industrious. (2) To be faithful and loyal to the Government and laws of the United States. (3) To render our votes when called upon for the election of the town council, and to promptly obey the by-laws and orders imposed by the said council. (4) To attend to the education of our children and keep them at school as regularly as possible. (5) To totally abstain from all intoxicants and gambling, and never attend heathen festivities or countenance heathen customs in surrounding villages. (6) To strictly carry out all sanitary regulations necessary for the health of the town. (7) To identify ourselves with the progress of the settlement, and to utilize the land we hold. (8) Never to alienate, give away, or sell our land or building lots or any portion thereof to any person or persons who have not subscribed to these rules."—"Education in Alaska, 1896-97," Report of the Commissioner of Education, p. 1628.




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Government will regard itself as pledged in honor to maintain the integrity and perpetuate the privileges of this remarkable community, typifying as it does the ideals and achievements of Christian statesmanship seeking to mold intelligent and orderly citizens out of an untamed and brutish horde.

A work of transformation has been wrought, perhaps less unique in its features but not less effective in its results, by the Canadian churches, and by the Church Missionary Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, whose missions among the Indian tribes of the vast Canadian wilderness have Indians of North and South America beginning to respond to the claims of order and good citizenship been successfully and laboriously prosecuted under great difficulties.1 In the United States fruitful missions have long been conducted among numerous Indian tribes. The flourishing Indian educational institutions now established by the United States Government are an additional evidence that a loyal, patriotic, and useful Indian citizen can be made out of most unpromising material. In South America missionary work has been conducted by the South American Missionary Society among the Chaco Indians, and by other societies in various sections of the Continent. The history of governmental dealings with Indian tribes in South America has many painful features, but the efforts of missionaries have done much to give a new and brighter outlook to these forlorn and hunted people, and to bring them into livable relations with their more civilized neighbors. In the West Indies, work among the Negro population has had a distinctly

1 Stock, "The History of the Church Missionary Society," vol. ii.,pp. 608, 609 vol. iii., pp. 238-253.




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national outcome in quickening patriotism, prompting obedience to law, and securing an intelligent devotion the duties of citizenship.

The entrance of Protestant missions into the Roman Catholic countries of Mexico and Central and South America has carried with it a distinctive message of the Gospel to those in spiritual bondage. A marked influence also has been exerted Protestant missions and their work on behalf of religious liberty in South Americaupon the State in securing a favorable policy as to both religious and political freedom. The formation of a liberal, as distinguished from the clerical, party has been traceable in most instances to the influence of missions. Distinct and unprecedented concessions have been made to various Protestant missionary agencies which have worked in the interests of the larger liberties of the people. It would not be right to ascribe all liberal sentiment among the Latin Races of the American Continent to mission initiation, yet there can be no doubt that the missionary enterprise has been an efficient ally of liberalism, and as such is representative of patriotism and freedom.1 New problems and new opportunities present themselves to the American Government and the American churches in connection with our recent acquisition of Porto Rico and our changed relations to Cuba. On the Sabbath evening which preceded the inauguration of the first President of the Cuban Republic, a union evangelical religious service was held in Havana, where addresses were delivered on "The Gospel and Human Liberty" and on "Civic Righteousness." A tract upon "Truth and Liberty" had been prepared, and was printed by the American Tract Society, and freely distributed over the Island. It is an exposition of that clarion text, "Ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free."

2. PROMOTING THE RECONSTRUCTION OF LAWS AND THE REFORM OF JUDICIAL PROCEDURE.—A characteristic The influence of Christianity on Roman legislationfeature of Roman Law at the beginning of the Christian Era was its relentless attitude towards the individual. Personality—with some exceptions in favor of the official class—seemed to have but faint claims to recognition, and few distinctive rights worth regarding. The

1 Cf. article on "The Struggle for Liberty in South America," by Bishop Henry W. Warren, in The Missionary Review of the World, May, 1902, pp. 356-363.




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military or civil interests of the State were supreme and over-shadowing in their requirements. The common individual was ignored, and his personal interests might be sacrificed with absolute unconcern, as of no consequence in comparison with the demands of imperial policy, or of the customs, traditions, and even the whims, of patrician society. There is, probably, at the present time in certain sections of Christendom more humane legislation for the protection of dumb animals than there was on behalf of slaves in the Roman Empire. The status of women and children, of the poor and infirm, of foreigners under suspicion (especially prisoners of war), and of those who for other reasons were in need of rescue and helpful ministry, was cheerless and desperate, so far as the hope of legal intervention on their behalf was concerned. As Christianity made headway in the empire, there began slowly, and apparently without any concerted design on the part of the leaders and masters of Roman policy, to creep into legislation the recognition of something due to personality. A changed attitude was apparent towards marriage and the family, placing needful restrictions upon parental authority, and prompting more considerate treatment of women and children. A spirit of solicitude arose concerning the outcast and helpless classes, and efforts were made to establish a humane oversight of their condition, and to extend to them all the protection which a generous and lenient rather than a rigid interpretation of the law could secure. As time passed, numerous individual instances of public and private charity appeared, and Roman legislation developed a new spirit, marked by distinctly Christian features.1

This commendable change accentuated the duties which, according to Christian standards, were involved in The call of conscience in the Roman Statenatural kinship and in the more general claims of humanity. Purely legal requirement was reinforced by the voice of conscience asserting a measure of obligation based upon morality and equity. Slavery, which gave reins to passion, greed, and cruelty, was frowned upon and curbed. Slaves might become freemen under certain conditions, and have their rights as such permanently secured to them. Cruel sports, which made the Roman holiday a scene of blood and frenzied brutishness, and turned the arena into a human slaughter-house, were put under the ban. Criminals were no longer the doomed victims of merciless penal inflictions. These changes in the spirit and interpretation of Roman Law may be fairly credited to the growing power of Christianity. Its

1 Brace, "Gesta Christi," pp. 9-113, passim.




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majestic influence was alone capable of giving a new tone and a new direction to the will of the State and the spirit of society, which in turn found expression in legal enactments.1 The status of man—of every man—began to be estimated, and his personal rights to be considered, not simply in view of his relation to the State, but in view also, and primarily, of his spiritual kinship to God and His Son Jesus Christ. It was this vision of man in the light of the fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of Christ which finally modified the rigors of Roman legislation towards even the lowest and weakest in the ranks of humanity.

It was a slow process, since the struggle with patrician lordship and with pagan sentiments and customs was The gradual accentuation of individual libertysevere; at last, however, Rome yielded, and our modern world has inherited in the Justinian Code the extremely valuable fruitage of the initial Christian modifications of the harsh and barbarous features of the ancient Roman system. The subsequent dominance of the Teutonic ideals of personal liberty and constitutional limitation was in the line of effective coöperation in hastening the great transformation which is revealed in the more humanitarian and clement attitude of modern legislation where individual rights are concerned. In fact, the outcome of medieval conflicts may be characterized as the gradual accentuation of individual liberty—political as the result of the overthrow of State absolutism, intellectual as the result of the Renaissance, and spiritual as the result of the Reformation. It is the principle of New Testament liberty, in its various applications, asserting itself as a dominant force in the modern progress of the world.

Among the survivals of the Roman Empire we may therefore regard, with the Christian religion, the inheritance of Roman Law as

1 "As respects legislation, naturally little could be done till the Empire had become publicly Christian, but with Constantine we have already numerous enactments which show the new spirit that had entered society, and under the succeeding emperors these evidences of Christian influence are multiplied. The Theodosian Code is little more than a compilation of the decisions of the Christian emperors. Even in the earlier period, it is not wholly unreasonable to see in the gradual ameliorations introduced into many of the laws under the influence of the newer Stoicism an indirect result, at least in part, of that atmosphere of mercy with which the Christian Church was already bathing Paganism."—Orr, "Neglected Factors in the Study of the Early Progress of Christianity," pp. 225, 226.

A list of the reforms of Constantine in the laws relating to women, children, slaves, etc., may be found in "Dictionary of Christian Biography" (Smith and Wace), vol. i., pp. 636-637.




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a potent agency in evolving the nobler features of modern civilization.1 This modification of Roman Law by the Christian spirit, and by Teutonic regard for personal liberty, is a fact which appears in all European codes, but especially in English and American law. The century of colonization just closed has brought the more advanced races of Christendom into contact with, and in numerous instances into the control of, vast populations scattered throughout the less civilized portions of the earth. This fact of necessity involves, in greater or less degree, the introduction of European ideals of justice, and the establishment, in some measure at least, of that system of law which now dominates Christendom. In this process missions take an active part—not, it is true, officially as an instrument of the State, but informally by personal influence, and by indirect processes of education, social guidance, moral inspiration, and soul-culture. At points of first contact with barbarous races, as we shall see, missions have sometimes given the initial lessons in law and justice as the modern world knows them. The savagery of legal procedure based upon absolutism, torture, superstition, and cruel ordeals vanishes in many instances through the persuasive and enlightening instructions of the missionary. This is simply a present-day sequence of the influence of Christianity in discrediting the ordeals of early Teutonic Law, and abolishing the "wager of battle" as the method of passing judgment on the guilt or innocence of one accused of a crime in the Middle Ages.2 Powerful governments have freely acknowledged this agency of missions as a moral force of inestimable value in molding native opinion into harmony with enlightened principles of law and justice. The attempt to overthrow by force alone heathen systems of rude and arbitrary justice, based upon custom, sentiment, superstition, and sacred tradition, corresponding as they do in native estimate to the sanctity of common law in civilized lands, is recognized always as a dangerous procedure, and in fact often turns out to be a disastrous undertaking. If missions can do some pioneer work, or coöperate by moral influence in leading the native mind into an enlightened comprehension of new ideals, and preparing it to take a receptive attitude towards better methods, the process will be immensely facilitated.

We must not deceive ourselves here by imagining that European colonial governments have always been careful to infuse the spirit and

1 Taylor, "The Classical Heritage of the Middle Ages," pp. 65-70. Bryce, "The Holy Roman Empire," pp. 29, 30.

2 Emerton, "An Introduction to the Study of the Middle Ages," p. 85.




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method of modern law into their administration. In not a few cases, Missions a potent instrumentality in modifying the legal ideals and methods of barbarous racessubstantially the old Roman system has been adopted for the government of inferior races. An official or patrician class, as in the Spanish and Portuguese colonies, for example, has ruled subject races with sole reference to its own political and social interest, the chief aim being to secure revenue by taxation and trade exploitation, with little if any regard for the moral and material welfare, the intellectual and political progress, or even the judicial rights, of the masses of the people over whom they rule. There are, however, noble and gratifying exceptions, as every student of colonization knows, which limit the application of this statement.

A glance at mission influence among the savage races of Africa and the South Seas will The relation of the missionary to the problems of Church and State in a non-Christian environmentreveal some interesting features of the firsthand contact of missions with the simpler and ruder forms of legal procedure. We can then study the subject in its relation to the more advanced races of the Orient, among whom extensive and complex, but still primitive, systems of law have long been in operation. Among these savage races missions often face a condition which has always been characteristic of heathenism. We mean the close relationship—in many instances even the practical identity—of Church and State. This was true of ancient empires, especially so of Rome, and its pervasive influence is traceable in the marked connection between Church and State prevailing in European Christendom through all the centuries, until that unique phenomenon of final and complete separation appeared in the American theory of the relation of Church and State, which now dominates the Western Republic. Political rule and religious authority in the native governments of Africa, and to a notable extent throughout Asia, do not as a rule represent two separate sources of power, but in most instances are lodged in one and the same personality, or are inseparably associated as a common function of government. This fact will sufficiently explain that close contact of the missionary with legal interests in many native communities. As a religious guide and leader he is regarded by the natives as the depository of legal wisdom and authority, and the assumption of responsibility in these matters is looked upon by them as natural and in accord with traditional custom.

The progress of Cape Colony since the British ascendancy in 1795 belongs to political rather than missionary history, although it is a matter of record that missionaries have sought at times to secure more favorable treatment of native races on the part of the Govern-




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ment.1 Vanderkemp early in the last century, and John Mackenzie 2 in its latter half, interested themselves especially in securing a considerate and humane government attitude towards natives. Missions and colonial rule in South AfricaComplaints on the part of missionaries were instrumental as early as 1811 in bringing to trial Europeans who were guilty of cruelty to natives, and in 1827, as the result of missionary representations, led by Dr. Philip, "the famous Fiftieth Ordinance in Council was issued, with the consent both of the Home and Colonial governments, which placed all free persons of colour on the same footing as Europeans."3 Still later examples of this were the petitions of the Free Church Synod of Kaffraria, and the Congregational Union of South Africa, to the Colonial Government in 1895. The subject-matter of these appeals called the attention of the colonial authorities, in a spirit of respectful protest, to certain tendencies and enactments in recent legislation which were regarded by the petitioners as "oppressive, unjust, and immoral." The specifications enumerated were the "Labour Tax of the Glen Grey Bill, certain clauses of the East London Municipality Act, and the Haarhoff Resolution, or so-called Curfew Bill." These are described as bearing " a repressive aspect towards the natives, and fitted to awaken serious alarm in them, and in all who have their best interests at heart." The missionaries further state that in their opinion "the proper way to combat the evils aimed at by the legislation referred to, is the prohibition of the sale of liquor to natives." 4

Where native Christian communities have attained sufficient enlightenment and wisdom to discover the The proper relationship between missions and colonial administrationsuperiority in many respects of civilized law over native customs, they have themselves petitioned colonial authorities to institute on their behalf certain legal enactments that would insure their deliverance from the native code and give them the benefit and protection of more humane legislation. Discerning students will at once recognize the difficult and delicate features of proceedings such as have been mentioned. The question of the proper adjustment of colonial law to native systems

1 Wilmot, "The Story of the Expansion of South Africa," p. 88.

2 "John Mackenzie, South African Missionary and Statesman," by his son, the Rev. Dr. W. Douglas Mackenzie, chap, x., passim, and numerous other paragraphs throughout the book.

3 Slowan, "The Story of our Kaffrarian Mission,"p. 13.

4 The Christian Express, Lovedale, South Africa, September 2, 1895, p. 131, and October 1, 1895, p. 146.




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and modes of procedure is an extremely perplexing one at all times. Colonial authorities have as a rule endeavored to respect the native laws in force as far as possible, but, as time passes on, the necessity of a more civilized code becomes so manifest that its gradual introduction seems almost imperative, and the constant tendency under this pressure is "to sterilize the lawmaking faculty of popular custom among the natives."1 It is natural under these circumstances that any seeming obtrusiveness on the part of missionaries should be sometimes deprecated, and even strongly resented, by the representatives of political supremacy; yet their tactful and courteous efforts to aid the government authorities in meeting the legal difficulties arising from the clashing of inharmonious systems have usually been received with favorable consideration. The familiarity of the missionary with native views and customs has enabled him to give expert counsel, the value of which has frequently been recognized. Missionary literature contains many references to the friendly and mutually helpful relationship between government officials and resident missionaries, although the championship of native interests which at times engages the missionary is apt to place him in an attitude which might easily occasion irritation among those in authority.2

It must be borne in mind that pioneer missionaries sometimes find themselves of necessity Pioneer missionaries among primitive races are often called to be arbiters and judgescompelled to assume the rôle of arbiters and judges where native interests, especially among their converts, are in conflict. The late Pastor Coillard, of the French Evangelical Mission on the Upper Zambesi, stated that even among the foreigners of that section of Africa, where serious complications occasionally arise, "all the Europeans formed themselves into a court of equity, under the presidency of the missionary—their decisions, with the sanction of the chief, having the force of law." 3 He gives still further examples of missionary jurisdiction, where even the interests of native chiefs or officials were in conflict. In the "Life of Bishop Maples," a pioneer missionary in East Central Africa, numerous references to the temporal headship of missionaries, and their services as judges in cases where legal responsibilities must be assumed, are to be found.

1 Reinsch, "Colonial Government," p. 347.

2 Major Macdonald, in his recently published volume, "Soldiering and Surveying in British East Africa," has an instructive and appreciative paragraph on this subject, concerning the useful and tactful political services of missionaries in Uganda. (Cf. pp. 143, 144.)

3 Coillard, "On the Threshold of Central Africa," p. 49.




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"A great deal of my time," he writes in one of his letters, "is taken up nowadays with what is called 'Magambo'—i.e., discussions and decisions upon questions that arise as to property, injury, &c., between two parties, of which one is in our own village and the other in the village of a neighbouring chief." He compares this procedure among primitive peoples with the administration of justice in civilized lands as similar in aim and result, and writes of its efficiency in suppressing outlaws and preventing crimes.1 The "Life of Dr. A. C, Good," a missionary to West Equatorial Africa, refers to his acting as umpire among his people. "All the time he sat as if Judge on the Supreme Bench against every form of prevalent and condoned wickedness." The great variety of cases in which he was called upon to act is surprising.2 In the early days of the Blantyre Mission, until the establishment of English rule, the Scotch Mission was "the centre not only of the religious life of the district, but also of the administrative life as well. Native causes were constantly brought to the missionaries for settlement, and the chief of the mission staff was the 'father' of the people."3

This informal acceptance of legal responsibility has even in some instances been assumed, at the request of interested parties, by native Christian ministers and laymen whose character and life have won the confidence of their people. Of a local clergyman connected with the mission of the American Protestant Episcopal Church on the West Coast, his Bishop writes: "I saw him sit amongst the kings and sages of his people, where no other young man had ever sat, and when I asked them why he was there, they answered: 'True, he is very young, but God has put a plenty of His Book in him, and he is fit to sit with us and make laws.'" 4

We have already cited in another connection (pp. 270—274 supra) examples Missionary intervention a protection to the victims of barbarous rule.of the influence of missionaries over kings and chieftains, leading them to abolish barbarous laws and customs, and give to their people more civilized statutes. Were it necessary to multiply instances, many more might be noted indicating the growing

1 "Life of Bishop Maples," pp. 20, 100, 117, 146, 174.

2 Parsons, "A Life for Africa," pp. 270, 271.

3 Rankine, "A Hero of the Dark Continent," pp. 156, 157.

4 Article in the Spirit of Missions, October, 1896, p. 478. A similar instance is recorded by the Rev. Dennis Kemp (W.M.S.), in "Nine Years at the Gold Coast,"p. 119. Mr. Kemp writes to the author: "Differences of opinion in heathen families are frequently settled by leading laymen of our Church. Christian ministers have been called in to arbitrate between heathen kings and. chiefs."




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respect for law, and the increasing desire for enactments in contravention of native laws and customs, when these are recognized by enlightened native communities as objectionable and burdensome. The missionary has, moreover, exercised a most beneficial influence in saving natives from the harsh and brutal penalties so often inflicted under their own law, and in rescuing them from the machinations of private vengeance and deadly malice, which at times subsidize legal enactments, that they may accomplish their purpose the more readily in the name of justice. The cruelties of the slave-trade have offered many opportunities for helpful intervention by African missionaries, especially to those of the Universities' Mission, the Church Missionary Society, the London Missionary Society, and the Scotch Presbyterians, all along the East Coast of Africa and its hinterland. Whole villages and larger communities of rescued slaves have come at times under the jurisdiction of missionaries who have exercised official authority in these "cities of refuge." Freed slave settlements have been founded in East Africa, especially the one at Mombasa opened by the Church Missionary Society, where the services of Sir Bartle Frere were commemorated by naming it Frere Town. Missionary influence and stimulus have also been most useful factors in the establishment of organizations like the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, having in view the advocacy of proper governmental measures for dealing with slave-trade problems.1

Nothing, however, more strikingly illustrates the beneficence of missionary agency in the deliverance of The savagery of native law and custom a menace to African communitiesAfrican natives from the terrors of that legal doom to which their own barbarism has consigned them than the mitigations which have been secured in the horrible procedures incidental to the charge of witchcraft, and the inexorable demands of the trial by ordeal to determine the guilt or innocence of an accused party. These aspects of native savagery have been the despair of civilized governments in their contact with African races. The "Witchcraft Suppression Act of 1895" in Cape Colony indicates the strenuous measures thought to be necessary even at that late date to insure its abolishment.2 The gruesome native customs above referred to have in all probability proved the doom of multitudes every year for centuries. According to Bantu law, every one accused of crime was counted guilty unless he could prove his innocence.

1 Stock, "The History of the Church Missionary Society," vol. iii., p. 76.

2 For the text of this enactment see Volume I., p. 201, and for remarks upon witchcraft, see Volume I., pp, 198-201.




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Under the system of common law based upon tradition and precedent which was in use among them, the head of a family was held responsible for its good behavior, and a kraal was regarded as collectively guilty for the crime of any of its residents, and also a clan for the misdeeds of any of its members. Ordinary misdemeanors and crimes were brought to public trial according to a well-known routine of native procedure, which was usually conducted with decorum. When all the evidence had been presented, an opinion as to the guilt or innocence of the accused was given by the councilors, or head men, and the chief then pronounced the official verdict, which contemplated only two modes of punishment, either a fine or death.

In cases, however, where witchcraft was the charge, all decorum seemed to vanish, and the whole Terrors which attend the charge of witchcraftcommunity was thrown into a state of intense excitement amounting often to panic. The usual formalities were accordingly dispensed with. A distinguished student of early South African history thus describes the scene : "The whole clan was assembled and seated in a circle ; the witchfinder, who was fantastically painted and attired, went through certain incantations ; and when all were worked into a state of frenzy he pointed to some individual as the one who had by bewitchment caused death or sickness among the people, murrain among cattle, blight in crops, or some other disaster. The result to the person so pointed out was confiscation of property and torture, often causing death. The number of persons who perished on charges of dealing in witchcraft was very great. The victims were usually old women, persons of eccentric habits, men of property, or individuals obnoxious to the chief. Any person in advance of his fellows was specially liable to suspicion, so that progress of any kind towards what we should term higher civilisation was made exceedingly difficult by this belief. No one except the chief was exempt, however, from being charged with dealing in witchcraft. The cruelties practised upon the unfortunate individuals believed to be guilty were often horrible."1 What more terrible fate could befall unhappy victims thus doomed in the name of law!

In arraignments where ordinary evidence failed to be satisfactory in the common law trials the dread The helpfulness of missions in discrediting native methods of dealing with witchcraftresort was to torturing ordeals to demonstrate the guilt or innocence of the accused.2 These traditional methods, although now discredited or suppressed where colo-

1 Theal, "The Beginning of South African History," pp. 57, 58.

2 bid., p. 59.




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nial rule is effective, still linger in immense sections of the Continent, or are practised in secret where prohibited by law. Many instances of helpful effort on the part of missions to banish these cruel travesties of justice might be given. Sufficient citations bearing upon this subject, however, will be found in Volume II., pp. 348-352.

Among the savage races of Oceania and Australasia similar conditions have prevailed, and almost identical The passing of legal barbarities in the Pacific Islandsmethods and results may be cited. In numerous instances early missionaries became the advisers and gu\ides of native rulers in the revision and reconstruction of laws, and often succeeded in influencing them in promulgating superior codes. It is written of the Rev. G. Gill (L.M.S.), who resided in Mangaia, in the Hervey group, from 1845 to 1857, "that oppressive laws were cancelled by the king and chiefs at his suggestion." 1 In Rarotonga, also of the Hervey group, the pioneers Williams, Pitman, and Buzacott were instrumental in "transforming a wild, fierce, and warlike race into a semi-civilized, law-abiding people."2 When James Chalmers went there in 1867 he became an influential helper of the native authorities in legal reform and reconstruction, especially in the great conflict with the drinking habits of the natives.3 King Pomare II. of Tahiti, in the Society Islands, was baptized in 1819, and soon after promulgated from the pulpit of the Mission Chapel a code of laws enforcing the principles of Christian morality as thoroughly as, and even more minutely than, is customary in the legislation of Christendom.4 A deputation from the London Missionary

1 The Rev. W. W. Gill, "From Darkness to Light in Polynesia," p. 338.

2 "In 1828, the only law was the arbitrary will of Makea, influenced by any motive which might sway his heart, full of the violent passions which despotism and heathenism usually foster in savage natures. In 1857, two codes of laws had long been in existence—one for the natives, and another for foreigners. Makea, the most valiant and dreaded chief on the island, bowed to the majesty of law, and thus gave the people an unmistakable pledge that laws would be administered with out respect of persons."—Extract from "The Life and Labours of the Rev. Aaron Buzacott," quoted in "The History of the London Missionary Society," vol. i., p. 355.

3 Lovett, "James Chalmers : His Autobiography and Letters," chap, iv., passim.

4 The scene is described in the following paragraph: "Pomare then proceeded to read and comment upon the laws respecting murder, theft, trespass, stolen property, lost property, Sabbath-breaking, rebellion, marriage, adultery, the judges, court-houses, etc., in eighteen articles. After reading and explaining the several articles, he asked the chiefs if they approved of them. They replied, aloud, 'We agree to them, we heartily agree to them.' The King then addressed the people, and desired them, if they approved of the laws, to signify the same by lifting up their right hands. This was unanimously done, with a remarkable rushing noise, owing to the thousands of arms being lifted at once. Thus all the articles were passed and approved. Brother Henry concluded the meeting with a short address, prayer, and blessing. This interesting scene may be better conceived of than described : to see a king giving laws to his people, with an express regard to the authority of the Word of God, and the people receiving the same with such universal satisfaction, was a subject very affecting to us all."—Lovett, "The History of the London Missionary Society," vol. i., p. 222.




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Society, while visiting the South Seas (1821-24), reported after their sojourn in Tahiti their great satisfaction at seeing "all these islands living under just and humane laws."1 This, let it be noted, was long before the French occupation in 1842.

In Raiatea, another island of the Society group, Missionary efforts to protect native communities from the aggressions of foreign greedwhere John Williams began missionary work in 1818, the chief Tamatoa was an early convert, and on May 12, 1819, "a code of laws, drawn up by the missionaries and approved by Tamatoa, was formally adopted."2 A similar statement is made concerning Lifu, about 1860, where Messrs. Macfarlane and Baker had established a mission.3 Soon after the annexation of New Guinea, Chalmers was busy with the Australian authorities seeking the prohibition of the labor traffic. He was in fighting trim, too, in opposition to a Sydney syndicate which was swindling the natives of his beloved parish by purchasing their fine sugar land of a fake chief for a penny an acre.4 A very recent

1 Ibid., vol. i., p. 237.

2 "The distinguishing feature of this code was the introduction of trial by jury. This in itself was an enormous advance, since hitherto the chief's word had been law, and in the most absolute sense 'the king could do no wrong.' Now, to some e