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  • 3b591g32w?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: John Bent, who stands bare-chested with hands raised as in prayer, stands chained to the stake while flames and smoke surround him. Bent is surrounded by a group of soldiers; one soldier, in the bottom left-hand corner of the image, stokes the fire beneath Bent's feet. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/39, which appears in the second, third, and fourth early English editions (1570, 1576, 1583) to illustrate various martyrdoms, but in the third edition (1576) it is only used to represent the martyrdom of John Bent. JPEG file (464 KB).
  • Ws859n79n?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: "MD" (see "Soldiers drag two Christians by ropes" in this collection). and Two soldiers tie a man's limbs to the branches of two trees that have been bent together. One soldier works from a ladder, and the other works from a low branch. The man's right arm and left leg are tied to the right-side tree, while his left arm and right leg are tied to the left-side tree. The man will be torn apart as soon as the trees return to their normal position. (Cartouche: "Christians torne asunder with trees.79." ["Christians torn asunder with trees. 79."]). This woodcut appears on the "Table of the Ten First Persecutions of the Primitive Church" foldout illustration in the second (1570) and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/1A (detail). JPEG file (465 KB).
  • Cc08hn585?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: "MD" (see "Soldiers drag two Christians by ropes" in this collection). and A woman and man, both bound, hang by their hair on either side of a tree. A second woman hangs by the ankles at the man's right. The first woman is partially clothed, and the man and the second woman are each dressed in loincloth. (Cartouche: "Some hanged by the heare and feete.41.80." [ "Some hanged by the hair and feet. 41. 80."]). This woodcut appears on the "Table of the Ten First Persecutions of the Primitive Church" foldout illustration in the second (1570) and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/1A (detail). JPEG file (303 KB).
  • 8910k118k?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: A soldier beats a man, who has been stripped and chained to a wooden block. The soldier wields a club in his upraised right arm. Welts appear on the beaten man, who bleeds. (Cartouche: "Christia[n]s bones broken with battes.58." ["Christians' bones broken with bats. 58."]). This woodcut appears on the "Table of the Ten First Persecutions of the Primitive Church" foldout illustration in the second (1570) and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/1A (detail). JPEG file (212 KB). and "MD" (see "Soldiers drag two Christians by ropes" in this collection).
  • 8g84mt362?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: An ecclesiastical official ("Officiall" ["Official"]) removes Wycliffe's bones from his coffin [identified xylographically as "Wycklyfes Bons" ["Wycliffe's bones"], and a "Sum[m]oner" ["Summoner"] and an archdeacon ("Arch. De." ["Archdeacon"]) burn them. A second official ("Comissari." ["Commissary"]) pours the ashes into the River Swift ("The ashes of Wickleffe cast into the riuer." ["The ashes of Wycliffe cast into the river"]), while a crowd observes. The scene transpires before the church at Lutterworth (identified xylographically), where Wycliffe was rector. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/4, 11223/4. JPEG file (992 KB).
  • Ff365c29k?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Badby ("Lorde Iesus Christ helpe me." ["Lord Jesus Christ help me"]) stands waist-high in a flaming barrel, and workers tend the fire. Two richly dressed figures direct the execution from horseback and converse with Badby. Soldiers and civilians stand by. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/6, 11223/6. JPEG file (979 KB).
  • Wp988s020?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: "MD" (see "Soldiers drag two Christians by ropes" in this collection). and This three-page woodcut insert illustrates thirty-five distinct scenes of torture and suffering. Foxe titles the composite image, "A Table of the X. first Persecutions of the Primitiue Church vnder the Heathen Tyrannes of Rome" ["A table of the ten first persecutions of the primitive church under the heathen tyrants of Rome"]. Workers at John Day's printing house employed just three woodblocks to create the image, which contains three segments pasted together. Speeches attributed to martyrs in individual scenes are keyed to locations in Foxe's text. The longer passage that runs across the bottom of the image explains Foxe's apocalyptic perspective on Christian history. The composite image illustrates martyrdoms spanned by the reigns of emperors Tiberius and Constantine I. The greatly expanded second edition (1570) of the Book of Martyrs, in which this insert first appears, begins its account with these martyrs, in a deliberate act of historical appropriation whereby Foxe reconstructs the deaths of early Christians as proto-Protestant martyrdoms. This woodcut also appears in the fourth edition (1583), but it does not appear in the first (1563) or third (1576) editions. Because it could easily be removed and posted on walls or posts, the illustration is frequently missing in surviving copies of the work. Of all Foxe illustrations, it is perhaps the scarcest to survive to the present day. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/1A. JPEG file (17.9 MB).
  • 6h440z98c?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Simson lies in anguish on the rack ("Cutbert Simson upon the racke." ["Cuthbert Simpson upon the rack"]). Under the direction of a priest and two richly dressed figures, two workers operate the device. Stairs ascend upward at the left of the image. In an upper right insert, Simson stands handcuffed and bound in an iron collar that descends to the ground ("The description howe Cutbert Symson stoode in an engyne of yron three houres within the Tower, commonlye called Sceuyng tons gyues" ["The description how Cuthbert Simson stood in an engine of iron three hours within the Tower, commonly called Scevingtons gives"]). In an upper left insert, Simson receives an arrow passed through his fingers ("The gratynge of an arrowe throughe Cutbert Symsons fyngers" ["The grating of an arrow through Cuthbert Simson's fingers"]). These incidents transpire at the Tower of London, which served as a prison during the Tudor period. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/50, 11223/101. JPEG file (990 KB).
  • Sn00b440m?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Two soldiers observe as Tyrrell burns Allin's right hand by means of a lit candle. Allin had been carrying water to her mother, who lies sick in bed. Within the house, a man (presumably Allin's father) kneels before her mother and folds his hands in prayer. In an upper insert, Allin and her parents suffer martyrdom. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/52, 11223/99. JPEG file (997 KB).
  • Xs55mj51m?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: As Burton sits backward on an ass, soldiers lead him through a town and a friar gestures at him. Burton wears garments that are decorated with devils. He burns at the stake in an upper insert, where soldiers supervise the execution and a crowd observes. Burton receives martyrdom at the hands of Spaniards. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/53, 11223/104. JPEG file (1.03 MB).