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  • 3b591g32w?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: John Bent, who stands bare-chested with hands raised as in prayer, stands chained to the stake while flames and smoke surround him. Bent is surrounded by a group of soldiers; one soldier, in the bottom left-hand corner of the image, stokes the fire beneath Bent's feet. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/39, which appears in the second, third, and fourth early English editions (1570, 1576, 1583) to illustrate various martyrdoms, but in the third edition (1576) it is only used to represent the martyrdom of John Bent. JPEG file (464 KB).
  • 0r9679787?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Workers lower Gardiner into a fire from a gallows, and a group of soldiers observes from a distance. The martyrdom occurs on a Portuguese shoreline. The stumps of Gardiner's wrists drip blood, following the removal of his hands. This woodcut appears only in the 1559 Latin edition. No Luborsky and Ingram #. JPEG file (2.43 MB).
  • Rj430b207?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: As Margery Polley burns, she gazes upward and crosses her arms at her chest. She is fully clothed. The martyrdom occurs at Tonbridge. This woodcut appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/73. JPEG file (4.06 MB).
  • 4x51hq63v?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Five out of these six burning martyrs fold their hands in prayer or raise them outward. This woodcut appears five times in the second edition (1570) to illustrate the burning of W. Coker, W. Hopper, Henr. Laurence, Rich. Colliar, R. Wright, and W. Stere (at Canterbury) (sig. LLLL1v, p. 1868); Christopher Lister, John Mace, Joh. Spencer, Simon Joyne, Rich. Nicols, and Joh. Hammond (at Colchester) (sig. GGGGg4v [left], p. 2090); W. Waterer, Steph. Kemp, W. Haye, T. Hudson, W. Lowick, and W. Prowting (at Canterbury) (sig. MMMMm6v, p. 2154); Henry Ponde, Raynold Eastland, Robert Southam, Matthew Ricarby, John Floyd, John Holiday, and Roger Holland (in Smithfield) (sig. TTTTt6r, p. 2237); and Rob. Milles, Ste. Cotton, Rob. Dynes, Ste. Wight, John Slade, and Will. Pikes (at Brainford) (sig. UUUUu2r, p. 2241). The image first appears in Henry Bull's edition of Certain most godly, fruitful, and comfortable letters of such true saints and holy martyrs as in the late bloody persecution gave their lives (London: John Day, 1564). Luborsky and Ingram 5886/1, 11223/75. JPEG file (3.86 MB).
  • Ws859n79n?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: "MD" (see "Soldiers drag two Christians by ropes" in this collection). and Two soldiers tie a man's limbs to the branches of two trees that have been bent together. One soldier works from a ladder, and the other works from a low branch. The man's right arm and left leg are tied to the right-side tree, while his left arm and right leg are tied to the left-side tree. The man will be torn apart as soon as the trees return to their normal position. (Cartouche: "Christians torne asunder with trees.79." ["Christians torn asunder with trees. 79."]). This woodcut appears on the "Table of the Ten First Persecutions of the Primitive Church" foldout illustration in the second (1570) and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/1A (detail). JPEG file (465 KB).
  • Cc08hn585?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: "MD" (see "Soldiers drag two Christians by ropes" in this collection). and A woman and man, both bound, hang by their hair on either side of a tree. A second woman hangs by the ankles at the man's right. The first woman is partially clothed, and the man and the second woman are each dressed in loincloth. (Cartouche: "Some hanged by the heare and feete.41.80." [ "Some hanged by the hair and feet. 41. 80."]). This woodcut appears on the "Table of the Ten First Persecutions of the Primitive Church" foldout illustration in the second (1570) and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/1A (detail). JPEG file (303 KB).
  • 8910k118k?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: A soldier beats a man, who has been stripped and chained to a wooden block. The soldier wields a club in his upraised right arm. Welts appear on the beaten man, who bleeds. (Cartouche: "Christia[n]s bones broken with battes.58." ["Christians' bones broken with bats. 58."]). This woodcut appears on the "Table of the Ten First Persecutions of the Primitive Church" foldout illustration in the second (1570) and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/1A (detail). JPEG file (212 KB). and "MD" (see "Soldiers drag two Christians by ropes" in this collection).
  • N296x5139?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: As Collins burns at the stake in Smithfield, a guard holds Collins's dog by the tail and prepares to cast it in the fire. According to Foxe, Collins suffers martyrdom for having held his dog aloft, in mockery of the consecrated host, while he attended Mass. This crime also implicates the dog, who must accordingly suffer Collins's fate. A crowd of soldiers watches in the background, and the burning martyr gazes at the guard. This woodcut appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/51. JPEG file (3.54 MB).
  • 2801pp31b?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Bound and clothed, Wisehart hangs suspended over a fire. Chains and rope hold him to a gallows at both the waist and neck. The martyrdom occurs at St. Andrews, Scotland. This woodcut appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/55. JPEG file (3.53 MB).
  • R781wp13w?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: An unclothed man burns at the stake. He raises his arms and positions his palms outward. This woodcut appears twice in the first edition (1563), near Foxe's discussion of the burning of William Sautrey (sig. O5v, p. 142) and "the story of Thomas Rhedon a french man, and a Carmelite friar burnt in Italy" (sig. Kk6v, p. 360). It does not appear in the third (1576) and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11222/5, 11223/5. JPEG file (547 KB).
  • Ff365c29k?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Badby ("Lorde Iesus Christ helpe me." ["Lord Jesus Christ help me"]) stands waist-high in a flaming barrel, and workers tend the fire. Two richly dressed figures direct the execution from horseback and converse with Badby. Soldiers and civilians stand by. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/6, 11223/6. JPEG file (979 KB).
  • Rj430b029?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: An unclothed man burns at the stake. He raises his arms and positions his palms outward. This woodcut appears once in the second edition (1570) to illustrate the burning of William Sawtre (sig. Hh3v, p. 618). It does not appear in the third (1576) and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11222/5, 11223/5. JPEG file (547 KB).
  • Xs55mj51m?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: As Burton sits backward on an ass, soldiers lead him through a town and a friar gestures at him. Burton wears garments that are decorated with devils. He burns at the stake in an upper insert, where soldiers supervise the execution and a crowd observes. Burton receives martyrdom at the hands of Spaniards. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/53, 11223/104. JPEG file (1.03 MB).
  • Mw22vc616?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Some of these burning martyrs extend their hands before them, and others fold or cross their hands in front of them. The martyrs are clothed. This woodcut appears three times in the fourth edition (1583) to illustrate the burning of [George] Catmer, [Robert] Streater, [Anthony] Burward, [George] Brodbridge, and [James] Tuttie (at Canterbury) (sig. NNNN4r, p. 1708); Thomas Loseby, Henry Ramsey, Thomas Thitell, Margaret Hyde, and Agnes Stankey (at Smithfield) (sig. NNNNn6r, p. 1976); and John Corneford, Christopher Browne, John Herst, Alice Snoth, and Katherine Knight (otherwise called Katherine Tynley) (sig. UUUUu2v [right], p. 2053). Luborsky and Ingram 11223/78. JPEG file (3.76 MB).
  • 1n79hb29x?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Some of these burning martyrs extend their hands before them, and others fold or cross their hands in front of them. The martyrs are clothed. This woodcut appears twice in the second edition (1570) to illustrate the burning of George Catmer, Robert Streater, Anthony Burward, George Brodbridge, and James Tuttye (at Canterbury) (sig. MMMM3v, p. 1884) and Tho. Loseby, Henry Ramsey, Thomas Thyrtell, Margarete Hyde, and Agnes Stanley (at Smithfield) (sig. NNNNn4r, p. 2161). Luborsky and Ingram 11223/78. JPEG file (3.76 MB).
  • K643b7043?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Two clothed women fold their hands in prayer as they burn. This woodcut appears twice in the third edition (1576) to illustrate the burning of Agnes Potten and Joane Trunchfield (at Ipswich) (sig. AAAAa2r, p. 1787) and Margaret Thurston and Agnes Bongeor (at Colchester) (sig. LLLLl5r [left], p. 1913). Luborsky and Ingram 11223/89. JPEG file (3.66 MB).
  • 2514ns61t?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Two clothed and bearded men burn at the stake. The martyr on the left rests his left arm on the shoulder of the right martyr, and both martyrs raise an arm upward. The martyrs gaze at each other as they burn. This woodcut appears twice in the second edition (1570) to illustrate the burning of Robert Glover and Cornelius Bongey (at Coventry) (sig. NNNN1r, p. 1891) and William Seaman, Thomas Carman, and Thomas Hudson (at Norwich) (sig. TTTTt4r, p. 2233). Luborsky and Ingram 11223/79. JPEG file (3.93 MB).
  • 1g05fj805?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Two clothed and bearded men burn at the stake. The martyr on the left rests his left arm on the shoulder of the right martyr, and both martyrs raise an arm upward. The martyrs gaze at each other as they burn. This woodcut appears twice in the third edition (1576) to illustrate the burning of Robert Glover and Cornelius Bongey (at Coventry) (sig. IIII2v, p. 1620) and William Seaman, Thomas Carman, and Thomas Hudson (at Norwich) (sig. MMMMm6v, p. 1928). Luborsky and Ingram 11223/79. JPEG file (3.93 MB).
  • Pc289q90t?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Two clothed women fold their hands in prayer as they burn. This woodcut appears twice in the second edition (1570) to illustrate the burning of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield (at Ipswich) (sig. FFFFf1v, p. 2072) and Margaret Thurston and Agnes Bongeor (at Colchester) (sig. SSSSs1v, p. 2216). Luborsky and Ingram 11223/89. JPEG file (3.66 MB).
  • 6d570350b?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: A chained man burns at the stake. He faces toward the left of the image and clasps his hands in prayer. This woodcut appears fourteen times in the third edition (1576) to illustrate the burning of Richard Houeden (sig. KK4r, p. 643); Babram (at Northfolk) (sig. PP5v, p. 706); Christopher Shomaker (at Newberry) (sig. BBb5r, p. 793); Gyles (sig. HHh3v, p. 862); N. Peke (at Ipswich) (sig. FFF5v, p. 1106); Kerby (at Ipswich) (sig. OOO6r, p. 1203); Adam Wallace (sig. RRR5r, p. 1237); Thomas Tomkyns (at Smithfield) (sig. SSSs1r, p. 1461); Nicholas Halle (at Rochester) (sig. FFFF6r, p. 1591); James Abbes (at Bury) (sig. GGGG2r [right], p. 1595); John Noyes (at Laxfield) (sig. LLLLl5v, p. 1914); William Nicole (at Herefordwest, Wales) (sig. MMMMm6r [right], p. 1927); Thomas Benbridge, Gentleman (sig. NNNNn6v, p. 1940); and Thomas Benion (at Bristow) (sig. OOOOo3v [left], p. 1946). Luborsky and Ingram 11223/18. JPEG file (3.57 MB).
  • Cf95jj67b?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Three female martyrs on the left side of the image hold their hands before them in prayer. One of the three men, at right center, holds his arms away from his body. A second man, at the far right, prays with folded hands outstretched. All six martyrs are clothed. This woodcut appears twice in the fourth edition (1583) to illustrate the burning of John Fishcocke, Nicolas White, Nicolas Pardue, Barbara Final widow, Bradbrege's widow, Wilson's wife, and Benden's wife (at Canterbury) (sig. OOOOo2v, p. 1981) and William Bongor, Will. Purcas, Tho. Benold, Agnes Siluerside alias Smith, Helene Ewring, and Elizabeth Folkes (at Colchester) (sig. QQQQq4v, p. 2008). Luborsky and Ingram 11223/96. JPEG file (3.91 MB).
  • 0p096d68s?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Even though this image contains six martyrs, Foxe uses it to illustrate the 1557 burning of ten martyrs at Lewes. The six martyrs, both women and men, burn at three stakes. Four of them fold their hands in prayer. A fifth, at the rear, raises his arms above his head, and a sixth, at the far left, points upward with his right arm and extends his left. Even though the design of this woodcut is similar to other woodcuts that undergo repetition in the Book of Martyrs, this woodcut appears only once in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/97. JPEG file (4.01 MB).
  • M613n462n?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: A clothed woman and three clothed men burn at two stakes. The woman folds her hands before her in prayer. One of the men, at the right, faces forward and displays his palm. A second man stands in profile on the left and raises both arms above his head, while a third man, at the rear, raises his left arm. This woodcut appears twice in the second edition (1570) to illustrate the burning of Rafe Allerton, James Austoo, Margery Austoo, and Richard Roth (at Islington) (sig. SSSSs1r, p. 2215) and John Corneford, Christopher Browne, John Herst, Alyce Snoth, Katherine Knight, and Katherine Tynley (at Canterbury) (sig. XXXXx2r [right], p. 2253). Luborsky and Ingram 11223/100. JPEG file (3.78 MB).
  • 6m311v79d?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: "MD" (see "Soldiers drag two Christians by ropes" in this collection). and Four men stand bound to a pole. Three men are clothed in loincloth, and the fourth stands with his back to the viewer. The man on the far right looks upward, and two of the men wear crowns of thorns. A soldier drives a spear into one of the men, whose blood flows. (Cartouche: "The Christians most cruelly thrust through.89." ["The Christians most cruelly thrust through. 89."]). This woodcut appears on the "Table of the Ten First Persecutions of the Primitive Church" foldout illustration in the second (1570) and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/1A (detail). JPEG file (502 KB).
  • 8049gb789?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Flames engulf Haukes ("O Lord, Receiue my spirite." ["O Lord, receive my spirit"]), who burns outside Coxehall in Essex. Haukes raises his arms above his head and gazes upward as he slumps against his chain. A man on horseback supervises the execution, and a crowd of soldiers and alarmed civilians observes. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/31, 11223/69. JPEG file (1.05 MB).
  • 4j03d512j?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Cardmaker ("I. Cardmaker." ["J. Cardmaker"]) stands barefoot before piles of faggots and addresses two richly dressed men on horseback. Chained to a stake among faggots, Warne ("Bevvare of idolatry" ["Beware of idolatry"]) addresses civilians and soldiers, who gesture in return. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/30, 11223/68. JPEG file (980 KB).
  • 1257b023p?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: "MD" (see "Soldiers drag two Christians by ropes" in this collection). and A man dressed in loincloth burns in an iron chair. A soldier tends the fire beneath the man, who gazes upward and extends his hands outward in helplessness. (Cartouche: "Maturus & Sanctus fried in an yron chaire. 47." ["Martyrs and saints fried in an iron chair. 47."]). This woodcut appears on the "Table of the Ten First Persecutions of the Primitive Church" foldout illustration in the second (1570) and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/1A (detail). JPEG file (406 KB).
  • Cn69mb117?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Five martyrs burn at Smithfield: Tho. Loseby, Henry Ramsey, Thomas Thyrtell, Margarete Hyde, and Agnes Stanley. They are chained to two separate stakes; all are fully clothed and have their hands clasped in prayer. They are engulfed by large flames and thick black clouds of smoke hover above them. A group of soldiers surrounds them; the soldier to the left of the image has his right hand extended and appears to be pointing to one of the martyrs. Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/78, which only appeared in the second early English edition (1570). It is also the same design used to illustrate "The martyrdom of George Catmer, Robert Streater, Anthony Burward, George Brodbridge, and James Tutty." JPEG file (479 KB),
  • W6634940v?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: "The Martyrdome of Thomas Benbridge, Anno 1558 July 19." Thomas Benbridge, fully clothed with arms lifted upward, and chained, burning at the stake. He is bearded and has both hands lifted upward. He gazes down at the crowd of soldiers that surrounds him. One soldier at the bottom right of the image tends the fire. Another soldier who stands at the left of the image appears to be administering the martyrdom. The caption of the image indicates that this martyrdom took place on July 19th of 1558. In earlier editions, this martyrdom is represented by Luborsky and Ingram 11223/16 and appears only in the fourth (1583) early English edition. However, it is a completely new design here. JPEG file (509 KB).
  • W6634934q?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: "The patient Martyrdome of a poore woman at Exeter, being one Prests wife." A woman, identified as Prest’s wife (“God be Mercifull [Merciful] to me a Sinner”) stands fully clothed and chained to the stake. She has her arms raised as if she is gesturing while speaking to the crowd that surrounds her. A crowd of soldiers observes. Heavily revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/103, which appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) early English editions. JPEG file (534 KB).
  • 2j62sb60j?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Alexander [Sander] Gouch and Driver’s wife [Alice Driver] stand naked and chained back-to-back while they burn at the stake. Driver’s wife faces the left of the image and has her arms extended to the crowd before her. Alexander Gouch faces the right of the image and has his left hand raised and his pointer finger extended and his right arm extended toward the soldier before him. A crowd of soldiers observes. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/49 and 11223/98, which appear in the first (1563), second (1570), and fourth (1576) early English editions. JPEG file (529 KB).
  • Dr26z4360?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: "The burning of Richard Yeoman Minister at Norwich 1558 July 10." Richard Yeoman, arms extended toward the crowd that surrounds him, stands fully clothed, bearded and chained burning at the stake. A crowd of soldiers observes. In earlier versions this martyrdom is represented by Luborsky and Ingram 11223/19 and 12000/1, which appear multiple times in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) early English editions. It appears here as a completely new design. JPEG file (525 KB).
  • 1j92gf05t?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: "The description of the horrible Burning of Iohn [John] Badby, and how he was used at his death." Badby pleads, "Mercy Lord Iesus [Jesus] Christ mercy" (in earlier editions he says, "Lord Iesus [Jesus] Christ helpe [help] me"), as he is boiled in a barrel while workers stoke the fire beneath him. According to Foxe’s text surrounding this image, a procession of the Sacrament of God’s Body, preceded by men with torches and led by the Prior of St. Bartholomew in Smithfield, passes by the scene, while others, including a prince (the king’s eldest son) and a bishop, look on. Several buildings are present in the background which do not appear in earlier editions. Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/6 and 11223/6, which appear in all four early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). JPEG file (455 KB).
  • Jw827j49d?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: “A description of [the] Lollards Tower, where Mr. Richard Hunne was murthered [murdered].” Richard Hunne (Hun), a merchant-tailor who resided in London, hangs in the corner of the prison cell in Lollards Tower in St. Paul's Cathedral while the three men allegedly responsible for Hunne's death exit. One of the men, who holds the keys to the prison cell, blows out the candle in the cell before he exits. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/12 and 11223/36, which appear in all four of the early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). JPEG file (273 KB).
  • X059cf06x?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Christopher Shoomaker, an elderly bearded man, stands chained to the stake, fully clothed and with hands clasped and his face turned upward. His lips appear to be open and he may be speaking, perhaps to the soldier in front of him who is gesturing with his hand. He is surrounded by a crowd of civilians and soldiers. In earlier editions this martyrdom is illustrated by Luborsky and Ingram 11223/18 and appears only in the second (1570) and third early English editions (1576) to depict the burning of Christopher Shoomaker. This engraving, however, is an entirely new design based on Luborsky and Ingram 11223/19 and 11223/39 but is different from the design of "The burning of Babram." JPEG file (446 KB).
  • Pv63g610b?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Thomas Man, bald and with a long beard, stands fully clothed chained to the stake. His head is bowed and his hands are clasped in prayer. He is the only figure in the image and is surrounded by flames and clouds of smoke. In earlier editions, the burning of Thomas Man only appears in the third early English edition (1576) and is represented by Luborsky and Ingram 11223/14, which is the same woodcut used to represent various other martyrdoms and includes other people in the scene. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/19. JPEG file (289 KB).
  • Ng451q08f?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: “The Death & Martyrdom of Damlip.” Adam Damlip, clothed only in a loincloth, lies on ground after being cut down from hanging by the neck on the gallows above; the rope is still around his neck. His bowels are ripped out by the hands of the executioner, whose axe lies on the ground by Damlip beside a small fire. A man on horseback appears to be the supervisor for the execution; a large crowd observes from behind. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/53, which appears in each of the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) early English editions. JPEG file (398 KB).
  • Gq67jz11k?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: “The order and manner of the burning of the constant Martyr of Christ, John Lambert.” John Lambert, naked and chained to a stake, stands with both arms outstretched upward and says "None but Christ, none but Christ." Men from either side of Lambert poke the fire while a richly dressed man sits and watches on horseback and a crowd of clergy and soldiers stand nearby. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/19 and 11223/50, which appear in all four early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). JPEG file (460 KB).
  • 1j92gf23r?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Robert Barnes, Thomas Garret, and William Jerome in Smithfield, a district of London which was the scene of over 200 martyrdoms during the reign of Mary I, are chained together to the stake; high flames and large dark clouds of smoke surround them. A few soldiers surround the men and two of them stoke the fire. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/20 and 11223/52, which appear in all four early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). However, in the earlier editions, a large and alarmed crowd is present whereas in the 1684 edition, only a few soldiers stand by. JPEG file (443 KB).
  • Qn59q9696?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: A large, dark cloud of smoke hovers over Kerby, who is chained to the stake and surrounded by a large fire. Kerby has both arms extended upward with the palms of his hands facing up. A large crowd of soldiers on foot and on horseback surround him. In earlier editions, the martyrdom of Kerby was represented by Luborsky and Ingram 11223/18, which appears in the second (1570), third (1576) and fourth (1583) early English editions. This is a completely new design to depict Kerby's martyrdom. JPEG file (443 KB).
  • Zc77sw984?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Thomas Wats, fully clothed and with his hands clasped in prayer, stands chained at the waist to a stake. He is engulfed by flames and a black cloud hovers above him. A woman and several children, tears streaming down their faces, plead for his life. Wats is surrounded by a large crowd of soldiers; a civilian man is arguing with a soldier. In earlier editions, this martyrdom is illustrated by Luborsky and Ingram 11223/14, which appears in each of the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) early English editions. This illustration is a completely new design with some elements similar to Luborsky and Ingram 11223/64. JPEG file (439 KB).
  • 8s45qg90n?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: John Bradford ["Repent England]" and an apprentice, John Lease ("Jesus receive us)," stand chained to a stake in the midst of a large fire while a black cloud of smoke hovers above them. A crowd of soldiers, a few of whom tend the fire, surround them. Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/34 and 11223/72, which appear in all four of the early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). JPEG file (431 KB).
  • M613n474f?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Four martyrs-- John Bland, John Frankesh, Nicholas Sheterden, and Humfrey Middleton--are chained to two stakes. All four are fully clothed. A group of soldiers surrounds the burning martyrs and several soldiers tend the fire in the foreground of the image. In earlier editions this martyrdom is illustrated by Luborsky and Ingram 11223/37, which appears in each of the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) early English editions. This version is illustrated by a completely new design. JPEG file (369 KB).
  • 8g84mt515?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: The martyrdom of three women and an infant at the Isle of Garnsey. The caption of the image indicates that this martyrdom took place on July 18th, 1556. All three women are naked and chained to the stake while an infant emerges from the womb of the woman in the middle. All three women have their arms outstretched and are engulfed by the flames beneath them. They are surrounded by a group of soldiers, several of whom tend to the fire. According the text that surrounds the image, the infant initially was thrown out of the fire only to be cast back in once it hit the ground. Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/46 and 11223/93, which appear in all four early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). JPEG file (503 KB).
  • H702qc54g?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: John Apprice, who is blind, and the lame Hugh Laverocke are martyred at Stratford the Bowe, near London. Both Apprice and Laverocke are chained to the stake and are surrounded by faggots and flames. Laverocke holds two crutches in his hands while Apprice has his eyes closed and his hands outstretched toward the crowd surrounding them. Both men are fully clothed and are surrounded by a fairly large group of ambivalent soldiers. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/90 and appears in each of the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) early English editions. JPEG file (541 KB).
  • 47429g50z?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Three women-- Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thackvel, and Joan Horns, are burned at the stake. All three women are fully clothed and have their hands clasped in prayer. The execution takes place at Smithfield and the women are surrounded by a group of soldiers, several of whom are on horseback. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/91, which appears in each of the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) early English editions. JPEG file (535 KB).
  • Tt44pt71t?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Two guards roast a naked man, whom they have bound to a spit. One of the guards ladles vinegar and salt over the martyr. The bucket containing the vinegar-salt mixture rests at the guard's right knee. [Cartouche: "The rosting of Christians at a low fire, with vineger and salt poured upo[n] their members.78." / "The roasting of Christians at a low fire, with vinegar and salt poured upon their members. 78."]. This woodcut appears on the "Table of the Ten First Persecutions of the Primitive Church" foldout illustration in the second (1570) and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/1A (detail). JPEG file (622 KB). and "MD" (see "Soldiers drag two Christians by ropes" in this collection).
  • Xp68kp381?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: "MD" (see "Soldiers drag two Christians by ropes" in this collection). and Two men hang by the waist from a gallows. The man on the left is clothed in loincloth and hangs facing upward, while the man on the right hangs facing downward. (Cartouche: "Some ha[n]ged by the middles. &c.79." ["Some hanged by the middles, etc. 79."]). This woodcut appears on the "Table of the Ten First Persecutions of the Primitive Church" foldout illustration in the second (1570) and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/1A (detail). JPEG file (211 KB).
  • H989r969s?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Oldcastle hangs chained from a gallows and suspended over a burning pyre. Workers tend the fire, and a supervisor leads his horse nearby. A large crowd of civilians, clerics, and monks observes; some of these figures express alarm, and others express mockery. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/10, 11223/13. JPEG file (1.06 MB).
  • 8p58pk70x?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Four men and three women--John Fishcocke, Nicolas Whyte, Nicolas Pardue, Barbara Fynal widow, Wilson’s wife, and Alice Benden--are chained to three stakes and are engulfed by large flames. All seven martyrs are fully clothed. The three men are all chained to the stake at the far left of the image. The four women are chained to two separate stakes and one of them has her arms extended above her head. A crowd of soldiers, gathers below the burning martyrs, some of whom are on horseback, two soldiers tend the fire and faggots. The martyrdom takes place at Canterbury. Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/96, which appears twice in the second (1570) early English edition. JPEG file (1.21 MB).
  • 6q182s16v?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: “The manner of burning Anne Askew, Iohn [John] Lacels, Iohn [John] Adams, & Nicolas Beleman, with certane [certain] of y [the] counsel [council] sitting in Smithfield.” This aerial view of Smithfield shows the martyrs tied to the stake. All four have their hands clasped in prayer while soldiers are carrying bundles of wood and placing them around the feet of the four martyrs. A large crowd encircles the arena surrounding the martyrs and soldiers on foot and horseback stand outside of the large circle. Several buildings are in the background with onlookers peering through the windows. Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/21 and 11223/54, which appear in all four of the early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). JPEG file (421 KB).
  • Gm80j250x?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Laurence Saunders, fully clothed with hands clasped as in prayer, is tied to the stake at Coventry. Saunders is facing the left of the image. The executioner nails the chain to the stake while Saunders proclaims: “Welcome life." He is surrounded by a rowdy crowd of soldiers and civilians, a few of whom appear to be arguing with each other at the right hand side of the image. A richly dressed man in a fur-lined coat sits atop a horse and appears to be supervising the burning. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/24 and 11223/60, which appear in all four early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583); in the woodcut illustrations, Saunders is facing the right of the image and, in the OSU Libraries’ copy, the banderole from his mouth says: “"o lord resi[e]ve my soule [O lord receive my soul]." JPEG file (35.1 KB)
  • Vt150q999?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: George Wisehart, hands tied behind his back, hangs from the gallows by rope from his neck and by chain from his waist in St. Andrews, Scotland. Beneath his feet are a burning flame and bundles of wood. A moderate sized crowd surrounds Wisehart to watch him burn. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/55, which appears in each of the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) early English editions. JPEG file (482 KB).
  • 8s45qg75j?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: An enthroned emperor observes the suffering and martyrdom of Christian bishops. The emperor holds a sword, which symbolizes his authority, and soldiers attend him. The woodcut contains six scenes of torture: flames engulf a martyr (upper left); lions devour a naked man (upper center); two workers crucify a man upside-down (upper right) (see "St. Peter undergoes crucifixion upside-down" in this collection); two guards flog a man, who is dressed in loincloth, tied to a stake, and bleeding (right foreground); a torturer stands on and drills out the eye of a bound bishop (center foreground) (see "Martyrs suffer branding and the removal of their eyes" in this collection); and a man kneels, about to be beheaded (center). Beginning with the second edition (1570), this woodcut and the eleven that follow it comprise an appendix to volume one of the work, under the title "The Proud Primacy of Popes." This appendix details the alleged decline of relations between Christian monarchs and the papacy during the medieval period, a decline which Foxe traces from its beginning at the time of the primitive Church. The damage to the OSU copy of this illustration (pictured here) results from a reader having defaced the woodcut that appears on the verso side of the next leaf. The "Proud Primacy" series appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/24. JPEG file (4.72 MB).
  • Dz010w880?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Lawrence ("This side is now rosted inough,turne up O tyrant great. &c. 72." ["This side is now roasted enough, turn up (i.e., over) o tyrant great, etc. 72."]) lies naked on his left side on a grid iron. A man operates a bellows that fuels the flames. Lawrence raises his right arm above his head, and another man places an additional log on the fire. Soldiers and an emperor observe. (Cartouche: "Laurence layd upon the Gridyron, by Galienus, or Decius. 72." ["Laurence laid upon the grid iron by Galienus or Decius. 72."]). This woodcut appears on the "Table of the Ten First Persecutions of the Primitive Church" foldout illustration in the second (1570) and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/1A (detail). JPEG file (1.26 MB). and "MD" (see "Soldiers drag two Christians by ropes" in this collection).
  • Rj430b07p?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Two bearded men burn at the stake. Both men wear loincloth, gaze upward, and pray. This woodcut appears four times in the second edition (1570) to illustrate the burning of Henry Voes and John Esch, friars Augustine (sig. GGg6r, p. 1005); John Bland and Joh. Frankesh, ministers, with Nicholas Sheterden and Umfrey Middleton (at Canterbury) (sig. KKKK1v, p. 1856); William Wolsey and Robert Pygot (at Ely) (sig. NNNN2v, p. 1894); and Richard Sharpe and Tho. Hale (at Bristow) (sig. XXXXx1v [right], p. 2252). Luborsky and Ingram 11223/37. JPEG file (4.22 MB).
  • 8g84mt43g?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Girolamo Savonarola, the zealous Dominican friar and Italian proto-reformer, and two others hang barefoot from a gallows. The martyrs are suspended from the neck by ropes and from the waist by chains. A fire burns beneath them. This woodcut appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/21. JPEG file (3.62 MB).
  • 6395wd52r?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: An elderly woman, whom Foxe identifies as "Prest's wife," burns at the stake. She gazes upward and extends her hands outward in prayer. The martyrdom occurs near Exeter. This woodcut appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/103. JPEG file (3.96 MB).
  • Th83m511r?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Five out of these six burning martyrs fold their hands in prayer or raise them outward. This woodcut appears five times in the third edition (1576) to illustrate the burning of William Coker, William Hopper, Henry Laurence, Rich. Colliar, Rich. Wright and Wil. Stere (at Canterbury) (sig. GGGG4r, p. 1599); Christopher Lister, John Mace, John Spenser, Simon Joyne, Richard Nichols, and John Hammond (at Colchester) (sig. BBBBb4r, p. 1803); W. Waterer, Stephen Kempe, W. Haye, Thomas Hudson, W. Lowicke, and W. Prowtyng (at Canterbury) (sig. GGGGg3r, p. 1861); Henry Ponde, Rainold Eastlande, Robert Southam, Matthew Ricarby, John Floyd, John Holyday, and Roger Holland (at Smithfield) (sig. NNNNn2v, p. 1932); and Robert Milles, Stephen Cotton, Robert Dynes, Stephen Wight, John Slade, and William Pikes (at Brainford) (sig. NNNNn4v [top], p. 1936). The image first appears in Henry Bull's edition of Certain most godly, fruitful, and comfortable letters of such true saints and holy martyrs as in the late bloody persecution gave their lives (London: John Day, 1564). Luborsky and Ingram 5886/1, 11223/75. JPEG file (3.86 MB).
  • Cf95jj637?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: In anticipation of his imminent execution, Laurence raises his arms. Soldiers bring faggots for the fire and children observe, while other soldiers observe from the rear. The martyrdom occurs at Colchester in Essex. Foxe praises the children for praying for Laurence and attributes such a response to the "godly" instruction of their parents. See also "Martyr burns in an iron chair" in this collection. This woodcut appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/64. JPEG file (3.95 MB).
  • K930c365v?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Five out of these six burning martyrs fold their hands in prayer or raise them outward. This woodcut appears five times in the fourth edition (1583) to illustrate the burning of W. Coker. W. Hoopper, Henry Laurence, Rich. Colliar, R. Wright, and W. Stere (at Canterbury) (sig. LLLL6r, p. 1688); Christopher Lister, John Mace, John Spencer, Symon Joyne, Richard Nicols, and John Hamond (at Colchester) (sig. HHHHh2v, p. 1909); [W.] Waterer, [Stephen] Kempe, W. Hay, [Thomas] Hudson, [W.] Lowicke, and W. Prowting (at Canterbury) (sig. NNNNn3r, p. 1970); Henry Ponde, Raynold Eastland, Robert Southam, Mathew Ricarby, John Floyd, John Holyday, and Roger Holland (at Smithfield) (sig. TTTTt1v, p. 2039); and Robert Milles, Stephen Cotton, Robert Dynes, Stephen Wight, John Slade, and William Pikes (at Brainford) (sig. TTTTt3r, p. 2042). The image first appears in Henry Bull's edition of Certain most godly, fruitful, and comfortable letters of such true saints and holy martyrs as in the late bloody persecution gave their lives (London: John Day, 1564). Luborsky and Ingram 5886/1, 11223/75. JPEG file (3.86 MB).
  • R494vs113?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: A clothed woman and three clothed men burn at two stakes. The woman folds her hands before her in prayer. One of the men, at the right, faces forward and displays his palm. A second man stands in profile on the left and raises both arms above his head, while a third man, at the rear, raises his left arm. This woodcut appears twice in the fourth edition (1583) to illustrate the burning of Rafe Allerton, James Austoo, Margery Austoo, and Richard Roth (at Islington) (sig. RRRRr3v, p. 2019) and John Cooke, Rob. Myles alias Plummer, Alexander Lane, and James Ashley (at St. Edmundsbury) (sig. TTTTt5v [right], p. 2047). Luborsky and Ingram 11223/100. JPEG file (3.78 MB).
  • N296x5296?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Two clothed women fold their hands in prayer as they burn. This woodcut appears twice in the fourth edition (1583) to illustrate the burning of Agnes Pote[n] and Jone Trunchfeld (at Ipswich) (sig. FFFFf6v, p. 1893) and Margaret Thurston and Agnes Bongeor (at Colchester) (sig. RRRRr4r, p. 2020). Luborsky and Ingram 11223/89. JPEG file (3.66 MB).
  • Ns064c59q?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: In anticipation of his execution, Philpot (identified xylographically as "Filpot") ("I will pay my vowes in thee, O Smithfield" ["I will pay my vows in thee, O Smithfield"]) kneels before a stake and faggots. A crowd of soldiers, priests, and civilians observes, some of whom clasp their hands in prayer. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/41, 11223/84. JPEG file (1.02 MB).
  • Cz30q050f?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: An unclothed man and woman burn back to back at a stake. This woodcut appears in the first (1563) and second (1570) editions to illustrate the burning of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper at Norwich. It appears in the fourth edition (1583) to illustrate the burning of Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver at Ipswich. It does not appear in the third edition (1576). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/49, 11223/98. JPEG file (593 KB).
  • Tb09jc55c?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: On a platform outside Vilvorde Castle, near modern-day Brussels, Tyndale ("Lord ope[n] the king of Englands eies." ["Lord, open the king of England's eyes"]) stands chained to a stake. An executioner strangles Tyndale, who is dressed in loincloth. A crowd of soldiers, monks, and civilians observes the execution. Desiring to increase knowledge of the scriptures among common English people, Tyndale achieved notoriety for illegally producing the first printed translation of the Bible into the English language. He also wrote other controversial religious works. The translator had completed the New Testament and a portion of the Old Testament prior to his death. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/18, 11223/49. JPEG file (1.03 MB).
  • 3r0751867?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Chained and consumed by flames, Rogers ("Lord receiue my spirite." ["Lord receive my spirit."]) points directly at a richly dressed man, who supervises the execution from horseback. Another man lights the fire, and a watching priest applauds. Protesters surround the execution scene and join a large crowd of spectators. Rogers was the first English Protestant to be burned for heresy during the reign of Queen Mary I (1553-58). During the 1530s, he adopted the pseudonym of "Thomas Matthew" in his editions of the English Bible in order to disguise his identity. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/23, 11223/59. JPEG file (1.07 MB).
  • 70795f34k?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: In anticipation of martyrdom, Saunders stands among faggots and raises his arms upward. An executioner nails Saunders's chain to the stake, and a richly dressed man supervises the execution from horseback. Protesting civilians and others join a group of soldiers in observing the execution. A soldier pushes one protester back, while another prepares the pyre. The OSU copy of the 1563 version of the illustration (pictured here) contains the manuscript inscription, "o lord resi[e]ve my soule" ["O lord receive my soul]," written in the blank banderole extending from Saunders' mouth. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/24, 11223/60. JPEG file (956 KB).
  • 6q182s11g?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: An executioner lowers Gardiner by chain from a gallows into a blaze. A crowd of soldiers and civilians observes, and a friar and a priest on horseback jeer. The stumps of Gardiner's bleeding wrists indicate that his hands have been cut off. According to Foxe, the execution occurs in Lisbon at the hands of Spaniards. The OSU copy of the 1563 version of the illustration (pictured here) contains the manuscript inscription, "I Suffer for the Truth," written in the blank banderole extending from Gardiner's mouth. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/22, 11223/58. JPEG file (981 KB).
  • 8p58pk64s?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Two sets of Lollard martyrs hang over flames, from two separate gallows, while soldiers tend the fire under each gallows. A man on horseback directs the execution, which occurs during the first year of the reign of King Henry V (1413). This woodcut appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/8. JPEG file (3.94 MB).
  • Mg74qt00f?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: An elderly man stands at a stake among faggots and gestures at a surrounding crowd of civilians and soldiers. This woodcut appears nine times in the fourth edition (1583) to illustrate the burning of William Tailour, Priest (sig. LL6r [left], p. 659); Thomas Man (sig. BBb5r, p. 817); Richard Feurus (sig. KKk5v, p. 914); Richard Bayfield (sig. TTt6v, p. 1024); Thomas Wattes (sig. DDDD2r, p. 1596); Thomas Jueson (sig. LLLL3v, p. 1683); Robert Samuel (sig. NNNN2r, p. 1704); John Kurde (at Northampton) (sig. RRRRr4v, p. 2021); and Richard Yeoman (sig. TTTTt4v, p. 2045). Luborsky and Ingram 11223/14. JPEG file (3.72 MB).
  • 4b29bc806?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: A bearded man stands among faggots and gestures with upraised arms. Some among the crowd kneel before the man, and soldiers observe from behind. This woodcut appears three times in the second edition (1570) to illustrate the burning of William White (sig. Yy3r, p. 785); John Goose (EE5r, p. 849); and William Haile (LLLL6r, p. 1877). Luborsky and Ingram 11223/16. JPEG file (3.83 MB).
  • Tt44pt70j?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: A chained man burns at the stake. He faces toward the left of the image and clasps his hands in prayer. This woodcut appears fifteen times in the second edition (1570) to illustrate the burning of Richard Houeden (sig. Yy5r, p. 789); Babram (at Northfolk) (sig. GG1v [right], p. 866); Christopher Shomaker (sig. BBb6r, p. 945); Gyles (sig. IIi2r, p. 1021); Thomas Hytten (sig. SSs4v, p. 1134); James Baynham (sig. XXx5v [left], p. 1172); N. Peke (at Ipswich) (sig. III5v, p. 1292); Adam Wallace (sig. YYY6v, p. 1450); Thomas Tomkins (sig. UUUu1v, p. 1712); Nicholas Halle (sig. KKKK3r, p. 1859); James Abbes (sig. KKKK5v, p. 1864); John Noyes (sig. SSSSs2v, p. 2218); William Nicole (at Herefordwest, Wales) (sig. TTTTt3v, p. 2232); Thomas Benbrige, Gentleman (sig. UUUUu4v, p. 2246); and Thomas Benion (at Bristow) (sig. XXXXx2r [left], p. 2253). Luborsky and Ingram 11223/18. JPEG file (3.57 MB).
  • Hd76s549b?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: A chained man burns at the stake. He faces toward the left of the image and clasps his hands in prayer. This woodcut appears eleven times in the fourth edition (1583) to illustrate the burning of Rich. Houeden (sig. MM3v, p. 666); Babram (sig. RR6r, p. 731); Christopher Shoomaker (sig. BBb6r, p. 819); Gyles (sig. HHh5r, p. 889); N. Peke (at Ipswich) (sig. FFF6v, p. 1132); Kerby (sig. PPP2r, p. 1232); Adam Wallace (sig. SSS4v, p. 1273); Thomas Tomkyns (sig. XXXx1v, p. 1535); John Noyes (sig. RRRRr5r, p. 2022); W. Nicole (at Herefordwest, Wales) (sig. SSSSs5r [right], p. 2034); and Thomas Benion (at Bristow) (sig. UUUUu2v [left], p. 2053). Luborsky and Ingram 11223/18. JPEG file (3.57 MB).
  • 794084196?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: A balding, bearded man burns at the stake. He faces toward the left of the image and clasps his hands in prayer. This woodcut appears nine times in the second edition (1570) to illustrate the burning of Tho. Rhedonensis (at Rome) (sig. Yy6r, p. 791); Richard Wyche priest (sig. DD1v, p. 830); John Stilman (sig. BBb4r, p. 941); Tho. Benet (sig. YYy5v, p. 1184); Kerby (sig. TTT5r, p. 1411); Walter Mill (sig. ZZZ2r, p. 1453); M. Farrar (at Carmarthen) (sig. XXXx1v, p. 1724); Diricke Carver (sig. KKKK4v, p. 1861); and Richard Yeoman (sig. UUUUu4r, p. 2245). This woodcut first appears in John Day's edition of R. González de Montes, De heylighe Spaensche inquisitie (1569). Luborsky and Ingram 11223/19, 12000/1. JPEG file (3.75 MB).
  • 0r967979h?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: A balding, bearded man burns at the stake. He faces toward the left of the image and clasps his hands in prayer. This woodcut appears nine times in the fourth edition (1583) to illustrate the burning of Tho. Rhedonensis (sig. MM4v, p. 668); R. Wiche Priest (sig. PP3r, p. 701); John Stilman (sig. BBb4r, p. 815); Thomas Hytten (sig. RRr5v, p. 998); James Baynham (sig. UUu3v [left], p. 1030); Thomas Benet (sig. XXx2v, p. 1040); Walter Mille (sig. SSS5v, p. 1275); Master [Robert] Farrar (sig. YYYy5v, p. 1555); and Diricke Carver (sig. LLLL3r, p. 1682). This woodcut first appears in John Day's edition of R. González de Montes, De heylighe Spaensche inquisitie (1569). Luborsky and Ingram 11223/19, 12000/1. JPEG file (3.75 MB).
  • 8336h7913?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: "The burning of 3 Godly Martyrs at Norwich, (viz.) William Seaman, Tho[mas] Carman, and Tho[mas] Hudson, Anno 1558, May 6." The man in the center has his right hand drawn to his chest; the two other men are facing the right and left sides of the image and have their arms extended toward the crowd of soldiers that surrounds them. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/79, which appears multiple times in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) early English editions. In the earlier woodcut versions of this image, only two men are pictured rather than the three shown here. JPEG file (502 KB).
  • 1v53k363h?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: “The burning of master Ierome [Jerome] of Prage [Prague].” During the Council of Constance in Bohemia (1416), Jerome is chained to a stake naked while others (some on horseback) look on and two men tend the fire. This engraving is a slightly revised version of the woodcut depicting Jerome's martyrdom that appears in all four early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/9 and 11223/11. JPEG file (411 KB).
  • H702qc536?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Seven Coventry martyrs—two women and five men--are chained to three stakes and burned. Some of them extend their arms upward, others clasp their hands in prayer, and one crosses her hands over her chest. They appear to be elevated above the large crowd of civilians and soldiers that stand below them. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223,42, which appears in the second, third, and fourth early English editions (1570, 1576, 1583). JPEG file (441 KB).
  • 4j03d524b?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Thomas Hitten [Hitton], who stands fully clothed with a long mustache and short beard, stands chained to the stake while flames and smoke engulf him. Several men stoke the fire beneath him while a large crowd of onlookers, including some in ecclesiastical garb, surround him. To the left of Hitten is a man sitting on top of a horse who seems to be orchestrating Hitten’s executions. Several buildings, which look like small houses, are in the background. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/18, which appears in the second, third, and fourth early English editions (1570, 1576, 1583). This revision, however, differs from "The martyrdom of Giles Tilleman." JPEG file (458 KB)
  • Q811kr30q?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Richard Bayfield, fully clothed and with hands clasped in prayer, stands chained to the stake and surrounded by flames and smoke. A crowd of soldiers looks on while one man stokes the fire. In earlier editions this martyrdom is illustrated by Luborsky and Ingram 11223/14 and appears in the second early English edition (1570) to specifically represent the burning of Bayfield. Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/18, identical to the engraving used to illustrate "The martyrdom of Giles Tilleman." JPEG file (487 KB).
  • 6m311v94h?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: John Hooper, Bishop of Gloucester, burning at the stake. The caption of the image indicates that this martyrdom took place on February 9, 1555. In this illustration, Hooper stands naked, wrapped only in a loincloth and tied to the stake by a band around his waist. With his right hand draped across his chest he cries, "Lord Iesus [Jesus] receive my Soule [Soul]." Hooper is surrounded by several civilians, both men and women, who are weeping and pleading for his life, and by soldiers who are administering the martyrdom and an official on a horse who is supervising. A dark cloud hovers above Hooper while the flames rage at his feet. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/25 and 11223/61, which appear in all four of the early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). JPEG file (35.9 KB).
  • F7623k93v?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: “The cruell [cruel] handling of William Gardiner an English Merchant, in Portugall [Portugal].” Gardiner hangs from the gallows with his arms flailing. His hands have been cut off and the blood from his severed hands and arms pours out into the fire. A sword, presumably the one used to cut off Gardiner’s hands, lies at the foot of the executioner. Who lowers Gardiner by a chain into an open flame below him while a large crowd gathers around the gallows. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/22 and 11223/58, which appears in all four of the early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). JPEG file (416 KB).
  • 1831cr58w?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: “The burning of the blessed Martyr Thomas Tomkins.” Tomkins, fully clothed and with arms outstretched, stands chained to the stake and surrounded by flames. A dark cloud of smoke hovers above him. Tomkins is facing the left side of the image; in the foreground a several civilians have their arms extended toward Tomkins and appear to be pleading for his life. A crowd of soldiers stands behind Tomkins and silently observes his burning. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/18, which appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) early English editions. JPEG file (52.2 KB).
  • 4m90f233h?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: George Marsh, barefoot, stands chained to a stake beneath a barrel of hot tar while a man lights the bundles of faggots piled around him. He holds an open book, presumably a Bible, while declaring "Not upon y [the] Condition." Marsh is surrounded by a large group of soldiers; a man on horseback holds out a paper. According to the text that surrounds the image, the horseman is the Deputy Chamberlain of Chester, who carries with him a “Writing under a Great Seal” that is being offered to Marsh as a pardon if he would recant. Marsh, however, rejects the pardon. Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/66, which appears in each of the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) early English editions. JPEG file (434 KB).
  • 2v23w1509?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: William Flower, fully clothed and with hands upraised, stands at a stake where he is chained at the waist. His left hand has been cut off and blood gushes from its stump. Flower declares, "Lord receive my Spirit," while soldiers pile bundles of faggots around him. The caption of the image indicates that this martyrdom took place on April 24th, 1555. Heavily revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/29 and 11223/67, which appear in all four of the early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). JPEG file (450 KB).
  • 9c67wt801?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: John Warne, upholsterer, stands chained at the waist to a stake which has been surrounded with bundles of faggots. Arms extended, he addresses the crowd: "Bewar[e] of Idolatry." John Cardmaker [Mr. Cardmaker], on the other hand, appears to be conversing with a richly dressed men on a horse. The caption of the image indicates that this martyrdom took place on May 30th, 1555. Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/30 and 11223/68, which appear in all four early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). JPEG file (433 KB).
  • Xg94hw46z?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: “The burning of Dr. Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, in y [the] Towne ditch at Oxford, with his hand first thrust into y [the] fire, wherewith he subscribed before.” Cranmer is fully clothed and chained to the stake. The execution takes placed outside of Oxford. Cranmer, ("Lord receive my Spirit") has both arms outstretched and has his right hand placed in the fire that engulfs him. Cranmer is surrounded by a large group of onlookers that mostly consists of soldiers. Several of the soldiers tend to the fire and adjust the faggots below Cranmer. In the foreground of the image is a man who appears to be a civilian and has his arms outstretched toward Cranmer. Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/44 and 11223/88, which appear in all four early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). JPEG file (519 KB).
  • X920g4086?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: “The martyrdome [martyrdom] of Master Iohn [John] Philpot Archdeacon, with the manner of his kneeling and praying at the Stake.” Philpot, marked "Philpot" in the image, appears at the right of the image and is kneeling before the stake and bundles of faggots. With his arms outstretched, Philpot says, "I will pay my vows in thee o Smithfield." He is surrounded by a crowd of soldiers and civilians; several of the civilians appear to be clasping their hands in prayer while the soldiers look on. Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/41 and 11223/84, which appears in all four early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). JPEG file (494 KB).
  • Hh63t268s?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Six men--Christopher Lyster, John Mace, John Spencer, Symon Joyne, Richard Nichols, and John Hammond--are chained together at two stakes. All are fully clothed and either have their arms outstretched above them or toward the crowd surrounding them. They are surrounded by a group of soldiers who are administering the execution. Several of the soldiers are on horseback while several more appear at the foreground of the image and are tending the fire. Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/75, which appears five times in the second early English edition (1570) to illustrate the execution of five separate groups of martyrs. JPEG file (466 KB).
  • Jh344072c?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: A balding, bearded man burns at the stake. He faces toward the left of the image and clasps his hands in prayer. This woodcut appears nine times in the third edition (1576) to illustrate the burning of Thomas Rhedonensis (at Rome) (sig. KK5r, p. 645); Richard Wiche priest (sig. NN2v, p. 676); John Stilman (sig. BBb3r, p. 789); Thomas Hytten (sig. RRr4r, p. 971); James Baynham (sig. UUu1v [top], p. 1002); Thomas Benet (at Exeter) (sig. UUu6v, p. 1012); Walter Mille (sig. RRR6r, p. 1239); Robert Farrar bishop (at Carmarthen) (sig. SSSs6v, p. 1472); and Diricke Carver (at Lewes) (sig. GGGG1v, p. 1594). This woodcut first appears in John Day's edition of R. González de Montes, De heylighe Spaensche inquisitie (1569). Luborsky and Ingram 11223/19, 12000/1. JPEG file (3.75 MB).
  • 2v23w145f?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: A clothed woman and three clothed men burn at two stakes. The woman folds her hands before her in prayer. One of the men, at the right, faces forward and displays his palm. A second man stands in profile on the left and raises both arms above his head, while a third man, at the rear, raises his left arm. This woodcut appears twice in the third edition (1576) to illustrate the burning of Rafe Allerton, James Austoo, Margery Austoo, and Richard Roth (at Islington) (sig. LLLLl4v, p. 1912) and John Corneford, Christopher Browne, John Herst, Alyce Snoth, and Katherine Knight (otherwise called Katherine Tynley) (at Canterbury) (sig. OOOOo3v [right], p. 1946). Luborsky and Ingram 11223/100. JPEG file (3.78 MB).
  • 1g05fj94h?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Thomas Haukes, bare-chested and with arms raised above his head (possibly grasping the stake or clasped together in prayer), burns at the stake at Coxehall in Essex. As he is engulfed in flames he cries "Lord receive my Spirit." He is surrounded by a rowdy crowd of soldiers on foot and on horseback. A black cloud hovers above Haukes. The caption of the image indicates that this martyrdom took place on June 10th, 1555. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/31 and 11223/69, which appear in all four early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). JPEG file (412 KB).
  • 2v23w1488?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Doctor Rowland Taylor, clothed in a robe and with hands raised and outstretched as in blessing, is burned at the stake at Hadley “for Testimony of the Gospell [Gospel]” on February 9, 1555. As flames engulf him and a dark cloud of smoke hovers above him, he says, “Mercifull [Merciful] father for Iesus [Jesus] sake receive my soule [soul].” A crowd of soldiers and civilians observes—some on foot and others on horseback. Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/26 and 11223/62, which appear in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). JPEG file (357 KB).
  • Wd376301x?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Rawlins White, fully clothed with a cloth tied around his head, hands upraised, and with a chain across his chest, stands amidst a large fire while a dark cloud hovers above him. To the large crowd gathered to watch, or perhaps to a monk standing on a platform in the front of the crowd, he says: “Ah thou Naughty Hypocrite." In the foreground of the picture several men plead for White’s life with arms outstretched. This is a completely new design based very loosely on Luborsky and Ingram 11223/38 but differing from the martyrdoms illustrated by "The burning of Richard Ffeurus," "The burning of James Bainham," "The burning of Thomas Bilney," "The burning of Adam Wallace," and "The burning of Doctor Farrar." JPEG file (382 KB).
  • Bk128h53d?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Margery Polley, fully clothed with hands upraised and tears streaming down her face, stands chained to the stake at Tonbridge. While the flames engulf her and a large black cloud of smoke hovers above her, a crowd of soldiers surrounds her and watches her burn. Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/73 which appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) early English editions. In the earlier woodcut editions, Polley's arms are folded across her chest rather than extended upward. JPEG file (52.7 KB).
  • 9306t5286?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Dressed in loincloth, St. Peter is crucified upside-down. A soldier raises him to the cross and holds him in place with his right knee. The soldier's ladder leans against the cross. (Cartouche: "Peter the Apostlehanged upon the Crosse. 34." ["Peter the apostle hanged upon the cross. 34."]). This woodcut appears on the "Table of the Ten First Persecutions of the Primitive Church" foldout illustration in the second (1570) and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/1A (detail). JPEG file (272 KB). and "MD" (see "Soldiers drag two Christians by ropes" in this collection).
  • Df65vf32w?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Following his arrest, Thomas Cranmer ("L. Receiue my spirit" ["Lord receive my spirit"]) burns at the stake outside Oxford. Cranmer punishes his right hand in the fire because it had signed a statement that recanted his Protestant belief prior to his execution. A friar (identified xylographically as "Frier Iohn" ["Friar John"]) gestures at the worker who lights the pyre. A crowd of soldiers and civilians joins three richly dressed figures, seated at the right of the image, in observing the execution. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/44, 11223/88. JPEG file (1.03 MB).
  • R207tw11w?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Surrounded by faggots, eleven martyrs stand back to back against three stakes. Two women stand untied among them. Some martyrs gesture in prayer, and others extend their arms outward from their bodies. Workers prepare the pyre, and a soldier attempts to keep an active crowd, some of whom observe from behind a ledge, at bay. A man on horseback supervises the execution, which transpires at Stratford the Bowe near London. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/45, 11223/92. JPEG file (995 KB).
  • 2n49t781t?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: "MD" (see "Soldiers drag two Christians by ropes" in this collection). and A man and a woman dressed in loincloth burn at the stake. Wielding a sharp hook, a soldier prepares to strike the man. Armed with a pike, a second soldier places the man’s entrails into the fire. The man looks down at the burning. (Cartouche: "Some burnt with their entrals torne out. 34." ["Some burnt with their entrails torn out. 34."]). This woodcut appears on the "Table of the Ten First Persecutions of the Primitive Church" foldout illustration in the second (1570) and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/1A (detail). JPEG file (527 KB).