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  • Ws859n748?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: An emperor kneels and kisses the pope's right foot, while cardinals, clerics, a monk, and others observe. The pope carries the keys of his office in his right hand. In an insert at the pope's right, a jester kneels and points upward at the pope with one hand and downward at a chained monkey with the other. The damage to the OSU copy of this illustration (pictured here) results from a reader having defaced the woodcut in an apparent act of censorship. The image is the fourth in the "Proud Primacy of Popes" series and appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/27. JPEG file (4.49 MB).
  • Pz50h3388?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Emperor Henry VI kneels before Pope Celestine III, who crowns the emperor with his foot. Cardinals, bishops, monks, and others observe. The pope carries the keys of his office in his left hand. The title of this image inaccurately identifies the pope as Celestine IV, who died in 1241, just fifteen days after becoming pope. Celestine III reigned from 1191-98 and crowned Emperor Henry VI, whose reign spanned the same dates. This woodcut is the fifth in the "Proud Primacy of Popes" series and appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/28. JPEG file (4.32 MB).
  • 1544bw07c?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: King John of England kneels and yields his crown to Pandulphus, the papal legate, who sits in a presence chamber on a slightly raised dais. Bishops and monks observe with approval, but others (presumably laity) do so with suspicion. A cityscape is visible beyond a colonnade. This woodcut is the eighth in the "Proud Primacy of Popes" series and appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/30. JPEG file (4.4 MB).
  • Hd76s5678?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: In this iconoclastic woodcut allegory of the English Reformation, King Henry VIII sits enthroned on a raised dais over Pope Clement VII ("P. Clem" [Pope Clement]), whose tiara lies discarded before him. John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester ("B. Fisher" [Bishop Fisher]) bends over the pope, while Cardinal Reginald Pole ("Pole D" [Doctor Pole]) looks up at Henry from the king's left. Thomas Cromwell ("Cromwe" [Cromwell]), Henry's vicegerent for religious affairs, and Thomas Cranmer ("Cranmer"), Archbishop of Canterbury, receive the English Bible from Henry, who holds a sword that symbolizes his temporal authority over the church. The presence of the sword and the book in this image echoes similar designs that appear on title pages of vernacular English Bibles, which were published with crown approval in the 1530s. Alarmed, the Catholic clergy mourn Clement's fall, while other courtiers observe from both sides of the throne. The Royal Arms above Henry's head accentuates the king's newfound primacy over the Church of Rome. This woodcut appears in the second (1570) and third (1576) editions at Foxe's discussion of the Act of Supremacy (1534), which legalized Henry's authority as Supreme Head of the Church of England. The image appears in the fourth edition (1583) at the opening of Foxe's discussion of Henry's entire reign, replacing "King Henry VIII sits in his council chamber with advisers" in that location. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/48. JPEG file (3.98 MB).
  • 8w32rc41z?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Nightingall, whom Foxe identifies as a Roman Catholic parson at Crondall in Kent, falls from his pulpit and into his congregation. The death supposedly occurs while the tonsured Nightingall had preached that the pope has authority to pardon sins. According to Foxe, his death demonstrates providential disapproval of papal authority. Individual members of Nightingall's congregation hold rosary beads. (See also the lower right panel on the title page woodcut in this collection.) This woodcut appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/65. JPEG file (4.05 MB).
  • 3484zp92f?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: This woodcut image depicts selected reforms of the English church that transpired during the reign of King Edward VI. Priests and tonsured friars carry censing bells, mass books, crucifixes, and other allegedly dangerous objects of Roman Catholic devotion from a church ("The Temple well purged") and load them onto a waiting ship ("The ship of the Romish Church" ["The ship of the Roman Church"]; "Shippe ouer your trinkets and be packing ye Papistes" ["Ship over your trinkets and be packing you papists"]; "The Papistes packing away their paultrye" ["The papists packing away their paltry"]). Iconoclasts burn images ("Burning of Images") and pull statues from the church wall in the background. In the lower left, King Edward carries a sword that symbolizes his authority as Supreme Head of the Church of England, a title first assumed by Henry VIII. Edward delivers a Bible ("Biblia" [Bible]) to his attendants, an action which alludes to the royal support of vernacular Bible reading that appears in "King Edward VI receives a book" and "King Henry VIII sits enthroned over Pope Clement VII" in this collection. The initials "E[dwardus] 6. R[ex]" ["King Edward VI"] appear on Edward's throne. In the lower right, a preacher delivers a sermon to a congregation of men and women, who read from open Bibles. Nearby rest a communion table ("The Co[m]munion Table") and a baptismal font, which is in use. These objects symbolize the Edwardian church's rejection of the other five Roman Catholic sacraments. This portion of the image echoes a similar portrayal on the title page woodcut of the Book of Martyrs. "English Reformation under King Edward VI" introduces Foxe's discussion of Edward's reign in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/57. JPEG file (3.78 MB).
  • X633f689z?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: James Bainham stands barefoot on a raised platform and undergoes penance before a congregation at St. Paul's Cathedral in London. He carries a bundle of wood and a lit candle, and a tonsured priest gestures to the congregants from behind him. This woodcut appears once in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/45. JPEG file (3.84 MB).
  • 8g84mt362?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: An ecclesiastical official ("Officiall" ["Official"]) removes Wycliffe's bones from his coffin [identified xylographically as "Wycklyfes Bons" ["Wycliffe's bones"], and a "Sum[m]oner" ["Summoner"] and an archdeacon ("Arch. De." ["Archdeacon"]) burn them. A second official ("Comissari." ["Commissary"]) pours the ashes into the River Swift ("The ashes of Wickleffe cast into the riuer." ["The ashes of Wycliffe cast into the river"]), while a crowd observes. The scene transpires before the church at Lutterworth (identified xylographically), where Wycliffe was rector. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/4, 11223/4. JPEG file (992 KB).
  • Xs55mj51m?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: As Burton sits backward on an ass, soldiers lead him through a town and a friar gestures at him. Burton wears garments that are decorated with devils. He burns at the stake in an upper insert, where soldiers supervise the execution and a crowd observes. Burton receives martyrdom at the hands of Spaniards. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/53, 11223/104. JPEG file (1.03 MB).
  • K3569997n?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: "The description of ye [the] poysoning [poisoning] of King Iohn [John] by a Monke of Swinsted Abby [Swinstead Abbey] in Lincolne Shiere [Lincolnshire]." Six scenes tell the story: upper left -- "The Monke absolved to poyson [poison] King John. Ego absolvo te & c [I absolve you];" upper right -- "The Monke tempereth [tempers] his poyson [poison] into a Cup to give ye [the] King;" middle left--“The Monke presenteth King John with his cup of poyson [poison] begining [beginning] himselfse [himself] to ye [the] King" as he says, “Wassail my liege;" middle right-- "King John lieth here dead of poyson [poison];" lower left-- "The Monke lieth here dead of ye [the] poyson [poison] that he dranke to ye [the] King;" lower right--"A perpetuall Masse [mass] sung daily in Swinsted [Swinstead] for ye [the] Monke that Poysoned [poisoned] King John." The single-page insert is tipped in vertically with the scenes moving left to right, which differs from the double-page presentation and sequencing of scenes of the woodcut in the early editions. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/3 and 11223/3. JPEG file (1.46 MB).
  • Xp68kp45f?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: "The order and manner of taking up ye [the] body of John Wycliffe, and burning his bones 41. years after his death." Wycliffe's bones are removed from his coffin by an “officiall [official]"; a “somner [summoner]" and “arch de [archdeacon]" cast the bones into the burning fire; and a “commissari [commissary]" disposes of the ashes into the river while a crowd of people observe. The burning of Wycliffe's bones takes place near Lutterworth and is a revised version of the woodcuts that appear in all four early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/4, 11223/4. JPEG file (433 KB).
  • Vq27zt76m?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Pope Alexander III treads on the neck of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. A conversation takes place between them in Latin in which the Pope says: "Super aspidem & basiliscum ambulabis, & conculcabis leonem & draconem [You will walk over the asp and basilisk and trample underfoot the lion and the dragon]". (This statement is derived from Psalm 91:13.) A cartouche in the lower right gives Frederick’s response: "Non tibi, sed Petro [Not to you, but Peter]", and the Pope’s reply: “Et Mihi & Petro" [Both me and Peter]." Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/2 and 11223/2, which appear in all four of the early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). JPEG file (483 KB).
  • Gq67jz11k?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: “The order and manner of the burning of the constant Martyr of Christ, John Lambert.” John Lambert, naked and chained to a stake, stands with both arms outstretched upward and says "None but Christ, none but Christ." Men from either side of Lambert poke the fire while a richly dressed man sits and watches on horseback and a crowd of clergy and soldiers stand nearby. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/19 and 11223/50, which appear in all four early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). JPEG file (460 KB).
  • 6q182s19p?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: John Bradford (“Bradford”), holding a book in his hand, is watched closely by the jailer (“Iailor”) as he talks with three Spanish friars. The one closest to Bradford (“Alphonsus”) is speaking as the men behind him (“Confessor” and one un-named man) listen. Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/33 and 11223/71 which appear in all four early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). JPEG file (469 KB).
  • Xk81js01v?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Three separate scenes portray selected events of the Reformation under Edward VI and the elimination of Roman Catholic traditions; in the first one, "The temple purged," men are carrying various Roman Catholic icons out of the temple to a burning pile, labeled "Burning of Images." The scene in the lower left-hand corner of the image depicts Edward VI (Ed 6) on his throne presenting a Bible to various prelates that surround him. In the final scene, appearing in the bottom right-hand corner of the image, a preacher is delivering a sermon to a congregation and stands next to a Communion table, labeled "The Communion Table." Heavily revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/57, which first appears in the second (1570) early English edition and continues into the third (1576) and fourth (1583) editions. JPEG file (321 KB).
  • Z603r453f?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Flanked by angels, Christ the Judge presides at the top of this title page woodcut. The lower panels depict the opposition between the "true" Protestant and "false" Roman Catholic churches. The lower left illustrates a Protestant preacher delivering a sermon to a congregation, the members of which read open books that symbolize Bibles. Protestants worship God, who appears as the Hebrew Tetragrammaton. In the next panel, Protestant martyrs burn and ascend to heaven in an upward movement, carrying palm fronds that signify their martyrdoms. The lower right depicts a Roman Catholic priest instructing a congregation. Members of this audience hold beads, which symbolize the Catholic devotional practices attacked by Foxe and other English Protestants. A procession progresses behind, evoking celebrations such as the Feast of Corpus Christi that Foxe and his co-religionists rejected. In an upper panel, monks and priests honor the elevated host and demons are driven from heaven in a downward movement that indicates divine disapproval for Roman Catholic doctrine and devotion. The complete title reads, "Actes and Monuments of these latter and perillous dayes, touching matters of the Church, wherein ar comprehended and described the great persecutions & horrible troubles, that have bene wrought and practiced by the Romishe Prelates, speciallye in this Realme of England and Scotlande, from the yeare of our Lorde a thousande, unto the tyme nowe present. Gathered and collected according to the true copies & wrytinges certificatorie, as wel of the parties them selves that suffered, as also out of the Bishops Registers, which wer the doers therof, by John Foxe, Imprinted at London by John Day, dwellyng over Aldersgate. Cum privilegio Regi[a]e Majestatis [i.e., With the prerogative of the Queen's majesty]." This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). In the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions, it illustrates the opening of volumes one and two of the work. The phrase "Come ye blessed, Go ye cursed" appears on the image in the second edition (1570), where it corresponds to "The Image of the persecuted Church" and "The Image of the persecuting Church." No Luborsky and Ingram #. JPEG file (2.7 MB).
  • Pz50h323n?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Foxe replaces the traditional Saints' calendar with this iconoclastic calendar, which celebrates the deaths of Protestant and proto-Protestant martyrs. He includes columns for the year and day of each martyr's death. The calendar is printed in red and black ink and appears only in the first (1563) and fourth (1583) editions. No Luborsky and Ingram #. JPEG file (1.38 MB).
  • 6q182s11g?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: An executioner lowers Gardiner by chain from a gallows into a blaze. A crowd of soldiers and civilians observes, and a friar and a priest on horseback jeer. The stumps of Gardiner's bleeding wrists indicate that his hands have been cut off. According to Foxe, the execution occurs in Lisbon at the hands of Spaniards. The OSU copy of the 1563 version of the illustration (pictured here) contains the manuscript inscription, "I Suffer for the Truth," written in the blank banderole extending from Gardiner's mouth. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/22, 11223/58. JPEG file (981 KB).