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  • Ws859n748?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: An emperor kneels and kisses the pope's right foot, while cardinals, clerics, a monk, and others observe. The pope carries the keys of his office in his right hand. In an insert at the pope's right, a jester kneels and points upward at the pope with one hand and downward at a chained monkey with the other. The damage to the OSU copy of this illustration (pictured here) results from a reader having defaced the woodcut in an apparent act of censorship. The image is the fourth in the "Proud Primacy of Popes" series and appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/27. JPEG file (4.49 MB).
  • Pz50h3388?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Emperor Henry VI kneels before Pope Celestine III, who crowns the emperor with his foot. Cardinals, bishops, monks, and others observe. The pope carries the keys of his office in his left hand. The title of this image inaccurately identifies the pope as Celestine IV, who died in 1241, just fifteen days after becoming pope. Celestine III reigned from 1191-98 and crowned Emperor Henry VI, whose reign spanned the same dates. This woodcut is the fifth in the "Proud Primacy of Popes" series and appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/28. JPEG file (4.32 MB).
  • 1544bw07c?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: King John of England kneels and yields his crown to Pandulphus, the papal legate, who sits in a presence chamber on a slightly raised dais. Bishops and monks observe with approval, but others (presumably laity) do so with suspicion. A cityscape is visible beyond a colonnade. This woodcut is the eighth in the "Proud Primacy of Popes" series and appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/30. JPEG file (4.4 MB).
  • Hd76s5678?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: In this iconoclastic woodcut allegory of the English Reformation, King Henry VIII sits enthroned on a raised dais over Pope Clement VII ("P. Clem" [Pope Clement]), whose tiara lies discarded before him. John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester ("B. Fisher" [Bishop Fisher]) bends over the pope, while Cardinal Reginald Pole ("Pole D" [Doctor Pole]) looks up at Henry from the king's left. Thomas Cromwell ("Cromwe" [Cromwell]), Henry's vicegerent for religious affairs, and Thomas Cranmer ("Cranmer"), Archbishop of Canterbury, receive the English Bible from Henry, who holds a sword that symbolizes his temporal authority over the church. The presence of the sword and the book in this image echoes similar designs that appear on title pages of vernacular English Bibles, which were published with crown approval in the 1530s. Alarmed, the Catholic clergy mourn Clement's fall, while other courtiers observe from both sides of the throne. The Royal Arms above Henry's head accentuates the king's newfound primacy over the Church of Rome. This woodcut appears in the second (1570) and third (1576) editions at Foxe's discussion of the Act of Supremacy (1534), which legalized Henry's authority as Supreme Head of the Church of England. The image appears in the fourth edition (1583) at the opening of Foxe's discussion of Henry's entire reign, replacing "King Henry VIII sits in his council chamber with advisers" in that location. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/48. JPEG file (3.98 MB).
  • B2774267n?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: In the backdrop behind this ornamental capital "E," an enthroned King Edward VI holds a sword in his right hand as a symbol of his authority. As attendants observe, the king receives a book from a kneeling courtier. The image echoes portrayals of King Henry VIII delivering the vernacular Bible to his subjects on the title pages of works such as the Coverdale (1535) and Great (1539) Bibles, as well as "King Henry VIII sits enthroned over Pope Clement VII" in this collection. The illustration also evokes the figure of John Bale, a radical English Protestant antiquarian and polemicist who oversaw the placement of a similar picture in his bibliography of British writers, the Illustrium Maioris Britanniae Scriptorum . . . Summarium [Summary of Illustrious Writers of Great Britain] (1548). Bale hoped that the image would earn him patronage under Edward. He shared exile with Foxe during the reign of Mary I. This woodcut appears only in the first edition (1563); "English Reformation under King Edward VI" replaces it in subsequent editions, beginning with the second (1570). The image also appears in folio Bibles that John Day published during Edward's reign. No Luborsky and Ingram #. JPEG file (185 KB).
  • Rb68xj68s?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: “The description of the Popes Councell holden [held] at Rome, in which appeared a monstrous Owle, to the utter defacing of the Pope, and all his Clergie [Clergy].” The Pope, bishops, friars, and other clergy gather for the Pope's Council in Rome and are struck with awe at the sight of a giant owl sitting in the rafters. Others in the crowd try to remove the owl by throwing sticks and poking at it. This engraving is slightly revised from the woodcut that appears in the second, third, and fourth early English editions (1570, 1576, 1583). Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/9. JPEG file (464 KB).
  • 3n204473n?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: In these Arms of Pope Julius II, the papal tiara rests behind two crossed papal keys of office. A shield sits before these keys and contains an oak tree bearing acorns. The shield also displays tassels. This woodcut appears in the fourth edition (1583) to illustrate Foxe's printing of Pope Clement VII's bull of sentence against Henry VIII, who had tried to obtain from the papacy a divorce from his wife, Catharine of Aragon. Pope Julius II reigned from 1503-13. At the time of Henry's marriage to Catharine, English and Spanish authorities sought a dispensation from Julius that would allow the match, since Catharine had previously been married to Henry's older brother, Arthur. In the 1583 edition, these Arms replace "Coat of Arms of Pope Clement VII," which appears in this location in 1570. Neither woodcut appears in the first (1563) or third (1576) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11225/1. JPEG file (843 KB).
  • X346db38f?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: The cartouche surrounding these crowned Arms contains the motto of the Order of the Garter and English Arms, "Honi soit qui mal y pence" ["Shame to him who thinks evil of it"]. "Vivat Re[gina]." ["Long live the queen"] in flag above; "E.R." ["Elizabetha Regina" / "Elizabeth, queen"] flanking beside; "I.D." ["John Day"] on the shields on the pillars. This woodcut underwent modification for use in publications during the reigns of Edward VI, Mary I, and Elizabeth I. The woodcut appears in certain copies of the second edition (1570) of the Book of Martyrs. No Luborsky and Ingram #. JPEG file (4.11 MB).
  • 1544bv94h?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: This tipped-in fold-out illustrates five separate scenes that took place at Windsor Castle. A cartouche spanning the top of the foldout states: "The description of Windsor Castle. The condemning of Anthony Person, Marbecke, Testwood, and Filmer; with y [the] burning of the said Person Testwood, and Filmer, under the Castle of Windsor, here lively described. Marbecke saved by the Kings [King's] Pardon." Images of the Royal Arms flank this title and above it is a directive to the printer to “Place this between Fol. 468 and 469 in the 2d Volume.” Below the heading is a panoramic view of the castle itself which includes a scene in the far left in which a boy sits in a tree and observes the burning of three men. A scene in the lower left-hand corner has the heading: "Anthony Person, Marbecke, Testwood and Filmer, condemned by Doctor Capon, Bishop of Sarnum: Facel giving judgment." The heading for the scene in the lower center states: "D. London and Simons riding about the Market place with papers on their heads, for perjury, and secret practising [practicing] against certaine [certain] of the privy Chamber." And in the lower right-hand scene: "Robert Ockam standing in the Pillory in the Towne of Newberry, where he was borne for the licke offence [like offense]." Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11224/4, which appears in the third (1576) and fourth (1583) early English editions. JPEG file (1.54 MB).
  • St74cx55s?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: The pope and an emperor (whom Foxe identifies generically as "Constantine, Theodosius, etc.") sit side by side on a wide throne, and their attendants observe. The pope holds a book in his right hand, and the emperor holds the rod of his office in his right hand. The damage to the OSU copy of this illustration (pictured here) results from a reader having defaced the woodcut that appears on the verso side of this leaf. This woodcut is the third in the "Proud Primacy of Popes" series and appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/26. JPEG file (4.21 MB).