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Filtering by: Place Italy--Rome Remove constraint Place: Italy--Rome Subject Emperors--Religious aspects Remove constraint Subject: Emperors--Religious aspects
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  • Wp988s020?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: "MD" (see "Soldiers drag two Christians by ropes" in this collection). and This three-page woodcut insert illustrates thirty-five distinct scenes of torture and suffering. Foxe titles the composite image, "A Table of the X. first Persecutions of the Primitiue Church vnder the Heathen Tyrannes of Rome" ["A table of the ten first persecutions of the primitive church under the heathen tyrants of Rome"]. Workers at John Day's printing house employed just three woodblocks to create the image, which contains three segments pasted together. Speeches attributed to martyrs in individual scenes are keyed to locations in Foxe's text. The longer passage that runs across the bottom of the image explains Foxe's apocalyptic perspective on Christian history. The composite image illustrates martyrdoms spanned by the reigns of emperors Tiberius and Constantine I. The greatly expanded second edition (1570) of the Book of Martyrs, in which this insert first appears, begins its account with these martyrs, in a deliberate act of historical appropriation whereby Foxe reconstructs the deaths of early Christians as proto-Protestant martyrdoms. This woodcut also appears in the fourth edition (1583), but it does not appear in the first (1563) or third (1576) editions. Because it could easily be removed and posted on walls or posts, the illustration is frequently missing in surviving copies of the work. Of all Foxe illustrations, it is perhaps the scarcest to survive to the present day. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/1A. JPEG file (17.9 MB).
  • 8s45qg75j?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: An enthroned emperor observes the suffering and martyrdom of Christian bishops. The emperor holds a sword, which symbolizes his authority, and soldiers attend him. The woodcut contains six scenes of torture: flames engulf a martyr (upper left); lions devour a naked man (upper center); two workers crucify a man upside-down (upper right) (see "St. Peter undergoes crucifixion upside-down" in this collection); two guards flog a man, who is dressed in loincloth, tied to a stake, and bleeding (right foreground); a torturer stands on and drills out the eye of a bound bishop (center foreground) (see "Martyrs suffer branding and the removal of their eyes" in this collection); and a man kneels, about to be beheaded (center). Beginning with the second edition (1570), this woodcut and the eleven that follow it comprise an appendix to volume one of the work, under the title "The Proud Primacy of Popes." This appendix details the alleged decline of relations between Christian monarchs and the papacy during the medieval period, a decline which Foxe traces from its beginning at the time of the primitive Church. The damage to the OSU copy of this illustration (pictured here) results from a reader having defaced the woodcut that appears on the verso side of the next leaf. The "Proud Primacy" series appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/24. JPEG file (4.72 MB).
  • Dz010w880?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Lawrence ("This side is now rosted inough,turne up O tyrant great. &c. 72." ["This side is now roasted enough, turn up (i.e., over) o tyrant great, etc. 72."]) lies naked on his left side on a grid iron. A man operates a bellows that fuels the flames. Lawrence raises his right arm above his head, and another man places an additional log on the fire. Soldiers and an emperor observe. (Cartouche: "Laurence layd upon the Gridyron, by Galienus, or Decius. 72." ["Laurence laid upon the grid iron by Galienus or Decius. 72."]). This woodcut appears on the "Table of the Ten First Persecutions of the Primitive Church" foldout illustration in the second (1570) and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/1A (detail). JPEG file (1.26 MB). and "MD" (see "Soldiers drag two Christians by ropes" in this collection).
  • 1c18dn74s?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: "MD" (see "Soldiers drag two Christians by ropes" in this collection). and Four martyrs sit back to back in a vat of hot oil, two of them gazing upward in prayer. A soldier pours a ladle of heated oil over the martyrs, and a second soldier pumps a bellows beneath the vat. A turbaned emperor speaks to a richly dressed man at his left, while a group of soldiers and others observes (one of whom gazes upward). (Cartouche: "Christians put in a vessellofboylyngoyle. 36." ["Christians put in a vessel of boiling oil. 36."]). This woodcut appears on the "Table of the Ten First Persecutions of the Primitive Church" foldout illustration in the second (1570) and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/1A (detail). JPEG file (1.32 MB).
  • Ns064c621?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Emperor Constantine I stands at his throne and embraces a bishop. The emperor holds the rod of his office in his left hand, and other bishops observe with approval. The damage to the OSU copy of this illustration (pictured here) results from a reader having defaced the woodcut that appears on the verso side of the next leaf. This woodcut is the second in the "Proud Primacy of Popes" series and appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/25. JPEG file (3.93 MB).
  • St74cx55s?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: The pope and an emperor (whom Foxe identifies generically as "Constantine, Theodosius, etc.") sit side by side on a wide throne, and their attendants observe. The pope holds a book in his right hand, and the emperor holds the rod of his office in his right hand. The damage to the OSU copy of this illustration (pictured here) results from a reader having defaced the woodcut that appears on the verso side of this leaf. This woodcut is the third in the "Proud Primacy of Popes" series and appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions. Luborsky and Ingram 11223/26. JPEG file (4.21 MB).