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  • 1j92gf23r?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Robert Barnes, Thomas Garret, and William Jerome in Smithfield, a district of London which was the scene of over 200 martyrdoms during the reign of Mary I, are chained together to the stake; high flames and large dark clouds of smoke surround them. A few soldiers surround the men and two of them stoke the fire. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/20 and 11223/52, which appear in all four early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). However, in the earlier editions, a large and alarmed crowd is present whereas in the 1684 edition, only a few soldiers stand by. JPEG file (443 KB).
  • 6q182s16v?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: “The manner of burning Anne Askew, Iohn [John] Lacels, Iohn [John] Adams, & Nicolas Beleman, with certane [certain] of y [the] counsel [council] sitting in Smithfield.” This aerial view of Smithfield shows the martyrs tied to the stake. All four have their hands clasped in prayer while soldiers are carrying bundles of wood and placing them around the feet of the four martyrs. A large crowd encircles the arena surrounding the martyrs and soldiers on foot and horseback stand outside of the large circle. Several buildings are in the background with onlookers peering through the windows. Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/21 and 11223/54, which appear in all four of the early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). JPEG file (421 KB).
  • G732dg774?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: In this overhead view of Smithfield, Askew and two companions stand chained to stakes and await martyrdom. Workers prepare faggots, and a very large crowd observes, some from windows and surrounding roofs. Nicholas Shaxton, the one-time Bishop of Salisbury who resigned his bishopric following the passage of the Act of Six Articles (1539), preaches from a portable pulpit. Shaxton recanted his Protestant belief prior to this scene in order to avoid the fate of Askew and her companions. Religious authorities had illegally tortured Askew, prior to this execution, in an attempt to extract information from her concerning the identity of Protestant sympathizers at the royal court. In the center of the image, observers view the execution from a platform, which has been raised outside the church of St. Bartholomew the Great. Thunder descends from a cloud above, and soldiers on horseback manage spectators on the fringe of the crowd. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583) but first appears in Robert Crowley, The confutation of xiii. articles, wherunto N. Shaxton, late byshop subscribed (1548). Luborsky and Ingram 6083/1, 11222/21, 11223/54. JPEG file (1.23 MB).
  • 05741z44n?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: John Denley, fully clothed and chained to the stake, leans forward with arms extended toward a solider who is about to throw a bundle of faggots into the fire. Four other soldiers stand nearby and appear to be in conversation with each other rather than watching Denley's burning. Four ecclesiastical commissioners stand in the foreground of the image and appear to be administering this martyrdom and also instructing the soldier to throw the bundle of faggots. Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/74, which appears in each of the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) early English editions. JPEG file (521 KB).
  • J3860d86g?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: “Seven Godly and constant Martyrs, suffering at one fire together in Smithfield.” Encircled by bundles of faggots, the seven martyrs, including at least one woman, stand back-to-back and chained to three stakes. Each of the martyrs is fully clothed and is identified as (from the top, clockwise): “B. Green,” "Whittle," "Went," "Isab," "Foster," "I. Warne," and "T. Brown.” A richly dressed man sits atop a horse at the right of the image and appears to be administering the execution. A group of observers consisting of both soldiers and civilians surrounds the pyre. Unlike earlier woodcut editions of this illustration, the names of the martyrs are included. Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/42 and 11223/85, which appear in all four early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). JPEG file (541 KB).
  • Ns064c73j?file=thumbnail
    Contributing Institution: Southern Methodist University Bridwell Library and Ohio State University Libraries
    Description: Soldiers prepare to light the fire that will consume Barnes, Garret, and Jerome, who stand among faggots. This execution transpires at Smithfield, a location outside London wall that witnessed heresy executions during the reigns of Henry VIII and Mary I. A richly dressed man supervises from horseback, and some among a large crowd observe in alarm. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/20, 11223/52. JPEG file (1.05 MB).