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  1. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: John Kurde stands chained to a stake amidst burning faggots. He is fully clothed and has both arms flailing about him. He is surrounded by a crowd of soldiers who observe the martyrdom. The soldier standing to the right of Kurde seems to be gesturing something by pointing his finger toward the right of the image. Another soldier stands at the forefront of the image and appears to be keeping a sympathetic man and woman at bay, who seem to be pleading for Kurde’s life. In earlier editions this martyrdom is illustrated by Luborsky and Ingram 11223/14, which appears multiple times in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) early English editions. It appears here apparently as a new design, with faint hints at the original. JPEG file (1.28 MB).
    Subject: Martyrdom--Christianity., Kurde, John, d. 1557?, Executions and executioners--History., Burning at the stake., Crowds--England--History., and Women in a crowd.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  2. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: "The Martyrdom of Six men burned at Brainford An. 1558 Iuly [July] 14." Robert Milles, Stephen Cotton, Robert Dynes, Stephen Wight, John Slade, and William Pikes stand fully clothed and chained to two stakes as they burn in the flames that surround them. Two men have their hands clasped in prayer while the other four either have their arms extended outward toward the crowd that surrounds them or raised above their head. A crowd of soldiers observes. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 5886/1 and 11223/75, which appear multiple times in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) editions and the same image used to represent “The martyrdom of W. Waterer, Steph. Kemp, W. Haye, T. Hudson, W. Lowick, and W. Prowting.” JPEG file (529 KB).
    Subject: Brainford (England)--History., Burning at the stake--England--16th century., Executions and executioners--England--History. , and Martyrdom--Christianity--England.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  3. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: "Thomas Benion burnt at Bristoll. Aug 27 1557." A bearded man, eyes closed and arms up-raised, stands fully clothed and chained to the stake while flames engulf him. A crowd of soldiers observes. A soldier to the right of the image sits on a horse and appears to be administering the martyrdom. Another crowd gathers at the forefront of the engraving and appears to be sympathetic to the martyr’s plight. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/18, which appears multiple times in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) early English editions. JPEG file (515 KB).
    Subject: Martyrdom--Christianity., Benion, Thomas, d. 1557., Bristoll (England)--History., Burning at the stake--England. , Prayer--Christianity--History., and Executions and executioners--History.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  4. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: Five men stand fully clothed and chained to two separate stakes. Four of the men are bearded and all of the men appear to be clasping their hands in prayer. A crowd of soldiers observes. The caption of the engraving indicates that the martyrdom took place at Canterbury on November 10th of 1558. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/78, which appears multiple times in the fourth (1583) early English edition. JPEG file (503 KB).
    Subject: Burning at the stake. , Prayer--Christianity-History, Canterbury (England)--History., Executions and executioners--England--History., and Martyrdom--Christianity--England.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  5. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: William Sawtre, a priest, is fully-clothed and with arms outstretched and chained to a stake. Two men stoke the fire surrounding him. The crowd looking on includes a man on horseback, a man clothed in ecclesiastical garb, many soldiers, other men, and at least one woman. This image may be a redesign of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/5 and 11223/5, which portray an unnamed martyr alone chained to a post amidst flames, saying “Jesu haue mercy [Jesus have mercy]." JPEG file (469 KB).
    Subject: Martyrdom--Christianity., Executions and executioners--History., Sawtre, William, d. 1400?, Women in a crowd--England., and Burning at the stake.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  6. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: “Divers Persons counted for Lollards, hanged and burned in the first year of the Reign of King Henry the V (1413).” Two groups of Lollards hang on separate sets of gallows. Four men stoke the fire beneath the hanging men while a fifth man sits on a horse and directs the action. This design is very similar to the original woodcut that appears in the second, third, and fourth early English editions (1570, 1576, 1583). However, the woodcut depicts the burning and hanging of martyrs under the reign of Henry I. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/8. JPEG file (483 KB).
    Subject: Hanging--England--History--15th century., Henry V, King of England, 1387-1422., Lollards -- England -- History., Martyrdom--Christianity--England., and Burning--England--15th century.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  7. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: Priest William Tailor [Taylor?] is tied and chained to the stake to be burned; bundles of faggots surround him but no flame or torch is portrayed in the scene. He seems to be fully clothed and has his arms outstretched above him as in prayer. Five men (or four men and one woman) kneel around him with their arms reaching out in supplication. Other men with axes stand around Tailor. This martyrdom is depicted in earlier editions of Actes and Monuments by Luborsky and Ingram 11223/14, which is also used in the second edition (1570) to depict other martyrdoms. However, in this edition, the martyrdom is a revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/16. JPEG file (424 KB).
    Subject: Martyrdom--Christianity., Taylor, William, d. 1423., Burning at the stake--England., and Priests--England.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  8. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: “A description of [the] Lollards Tower, where Mr. Richard Hunne was murthered [murdered].” Richard Hunne (Hun), a merchant-tailor who resided in London, hangs in the corner of the prison cell in Lollards Tower in St. Paul's Cathedral while the three men allegedly responsible for Hunne's death exit. One of the men, who holds the keys to the prison cell, blows out the candle in the cell before he exits. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/12 and 11223/36, which appear in all four of the early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). JPEG file (273 KB).
    Subject: St. Paul's Cathedral (London, England)--History--16th century., Hanging--England--History--16th century., Imprisonment--Religious aspects--Christianity., Hunne, Richard, d. 1514., Martyrdom--Christianity--England., and Executions and executoners--England--History--16th century.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  9. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: Thomas Man, bald and with a long beard, stands fully clothed chained to the stake. His head is bowed and his hands are clasped in prayer. He is the only figure in the image and is surrounded by flames and clouds of smoke. In earlier editions, the burning of Thomas Man only appears in the third early English edition (1576) and is represented by Luborsky and Ingram 11223/14, which is the same woodcut used to represent various other martyrdoms and includes other people in the scene. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/19. JPEG file (289 KB).
    Subject: Martyrdom--Christianity., Executions and executioners--History., Prayer--Christianity--History., and Burning at the stake.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  10. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: Seven Coventry martyrs—two women and five men--are chained to three stakes and burned. Some of them extend their arms upward, others clasp their hands in prayer, and one crosses her hands over her chest. They appear to be elevated above the large crowd of civilians and soldiers that stand below them. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223,42, which appears in the second, third, and fourth early English editions (1570, 1576, 1583). JPEG file (441 KB).
    Subject: Burning at the stake--England--1510-1520., Executions and executioners--History., Prayer--Christianity--History--16th century., Martyrdom--Christianity--England., Women martyrs--England--16th century., and Coventry (England)--History.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  11. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: Thomas Hitten [Hitton], who stands fully clothed with a long mustache and short beard, stands chained to the stake while flames and smoke engulf him. Several men stoke the fire beneath him while a large crowd of onlookers, including some in ecclesiastical garb, surround him. To the left of Hitten is a man sitting on top of a horse who seems to be orchestrating Hitten’s executions. Several buildings, which look like small houses, are in the background. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/18, which appears in the second, third, and fourth early English editions (1570, 1576, 1583). This revision, however, differs from "The martyrdom of Giles Tilleman." JPEG file (458 KB)
    Subject: Martyrdom--Christianity., Executions and executioners--History., Burning at the stake., and Hitten, Thomas, d. 1530?
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  12. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: Collins, fully dressed and chained to a stake, is burned in Smithfield for holding his dog aloft in mockery of the consecrated host. The dog is held by its tail as the executioner prepares to throw it into the fire. It appears as though Collins is speaking to the man holding his dog. A crowd gathers to witness the martyrdom. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/51, which appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) early English editions. JPEG file (452 KB).
    Subject: Executions and executioners--England--History--16th century., Animal welfare--England--History., Collins, d. 1538?, Smithfield (London, England)--History., Burning at the stake--England--1530-1540., and Martyrdom--Christianity--England.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  13. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: This engraving depicts the coat of arms of Pope Clement VII, who reigned from 1523 to 1534; he denied King Henry VIII a legal divorce from his wife, Catharine of Aragon. The papal tiara rests behind two crossed papal keys of office. Sitting in front of the keys is a shield displaying an oak tree bearing acorns; tassels are on both sides of the shield. This engraving is a revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11225/1 and first appears in the fourth early English edition (1583) as the coat of arms of Pope Julius II, who reigned from 1503-1513. JPEG file (1.65 MB).
    Subject: Henry VIII, King of England, 1491-1547--Marriage., Popes--Heraldry., Clement VII, Pope, 1478-1534., and Authority--Religious aspects--Christianity--History--16th century.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  14. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: "THE THIRD VOLUME OF THE ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY CONTAINING THE Acts and Monuments OF MARTYRS: WITH A General Discourse of these later Persecutions, horrible Troubles, and Tumults, stirred up by ROMISH PRELATES IN THE CHURCH. WITH Divers other Things incident, especially to this Realm of England and Scotland, as partly also to all other Forein [Foreign] Nations appertaining; From the Time of Queen MARIES entring [entering] upon the Crown, to the Reign of our late Gracious Sovereign Queen ELIZABETH, of Blessed Memory. Recognized and Enlarged by the Author, MR. JOHN FOX. Whereunto are annexed certain Additions, unto the time of our late Sovereign Lord King CHARLES of Blessed Memory. LONDON, Printed for the Company of STATIONERS, MDCLXXXIV." Printed, original illustrated page border has vanished. JPEG file (306 KB).
    Subject: Protestant churches--Doctrines--History., Catholic Church--Doctrines--History., Catholic Church--Customs and practices. , Reformation--Europe--History., Martyrdom--Christianity., and Foxe, John, 1516-1587--Actes and monuments.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  15. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: Three separate scenes portray selected events of the Reformation under Edward VI and the elimination of Roman Catholic traditions; in the first one, "The temple purged," men are carrying various Roman Catholic icons out of the temple to a burning pile, labeled "Burning of Images." The scene in the lower left-hand corner of the image depicts Edward VI (Ed 6) on his throne presenting a Bible to various prelates that surround him. In the final scene, appearing in the bottom right-hand corner of the image, a preacher is delivering a sermon to a congregation and stands next to a Communion table, labeled "The Communion Table." Heavily revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/57, which first appears in the second (1570) early English edition and continues into the third (1576) and fourth (1583) editions. JPEG file (321 KB).
    Subject: Great Britain--Politics and government--1547-1553., Protestant churches--Doctrines--History--16th century., England--Church history--16th century., Edward VI, King of England, 1537-1553., Iconoclasm--England--History--16th century., and Catholic Church--Doctrines--History--16th century.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  16. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: Thomas Haukes, bare-chested and with arms raised above his head (possibly grasping the stake or clasped together in prayer), burns at the stake at Coxehall in Essex. As he is engulfed in flames he cries "Lord receive my Spirit." He is surrounded by a rowdy crowd of soldiers on foot and on horseback. A black cloud hovers above Haukes. The caption of the image indicates that this martyrdom took place on June 10th, 1555. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/31 and 11223/69, which appear in all four early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). JPEG file (412 KB).
    Subject: Crowds--England--History., Haukes, Thomas, d. 1555., Burning at the stake--England--1550-1560., Martyrdom--Christianity--England., Executions and executioners--England--History--16th century., and Coxehall (England)--History.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  17. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: Four martyrs-- John Bland, John Frankesh, Nicholas Sheterden, and Humfrey Middleton--are chained to two stakes. All four are fully clothed. A group of soldiers surrounds the burning martyrs and several soldiers tend the fire in the foreground of the image. In earlier editions this martyrdom is illustrated by Luborsky and Ingram 11223/37, which appears in each of the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) early English editions. This version is illustrated by a completely new design. JPEG file (369 KB).
    Subject: Martyrdom--Christianity., Ely (England)--History., Executions and executioners--History., Prayer--Christianity--History., Burning at the stake., and Canterbury (England)--History.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  18. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: Five martyrs -- George Catmer, Robert Streater, Anthony Burward, George Brodbridge, and James Tutty – are chained about the waist to two stakes at Canterbury. All are fully clothed and four of the five men have their hands clasped in prayer. The fifth man appears to be conversing with the soldier directly at his right who is pointing in the martyr's direction. A large group of soldiers gathers around the martyrs to watch the burning. Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/78, which appears in each of the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) early English editions. JPEG file (507 KB).
    Subject: Burning at the stake--England. , Prayer--Christianity--History., Smithfield (London, England)--History., Executions and executioners--England--History., Martyrdom--Christianity--England., and Canterbury (England)--History.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  19. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: Anne Albright, Joane Catmer, John Lomas, Agnes Snoth, and Joane Sole are chained together to two stakes at Canterbury. They are surrounded by faggots and engulfed by very large flames. A small man in the foreground of the image is tending the pyre while a large crowd gathers around the burning martyrs. Several men on horses appear to the right of the image while the man standing to the left of the image appears to be administering the martyrdom. Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/86, which appears in each of the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) early English editions. JPEG file (547 KB).
    Subject: Burning at the stake--England--1550-1560., Prayer--Christianity--History--16th century., Canterbury (England)--History., Martyrdom--Christianity--England., Women martyrs--England--16th century., and Executions and executioners--England--History--16th century.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  20. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: The burning of three "godly saints," including Julins Palmer, I. Gwin, and Thomas Askine. The three men stand tied together and are fully clothed. The martyr to the farthest right has his arms outstretched while the other two have their arms pulled close to their bodies and their hands clasped in prayer. The three martyrs are surrounded by large flames and large clouds of black smoke hover above their heads. The men are surrounded by a group of soldiers, several of whom attend to the fire and faggots. In earlier editions, this martyrdom is illustrated by Luborsky and Ingram 11223/37. This engraving, however, appears as a new design. JPEG file (521 KB).
    Subject: Martyrdom--Christianity., Executions and executioners--History., Prayer--Christianity--History., Burning at the stake., and Canterbury (England)--History.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  21. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: "The martyrdome of Cicely Ormes at Norwich. An. 1557 September 1557." Cicely [Cicelie] Ormes(“Welcome y [the] Cross of Christ”) stands chained and burning at the stake; large clouds of smoke hover above her head. Fully clothed and with both arms raised above her head, she looks out to the large crowd of soldiers that surrounds her. At the far left a soldier on horseback appears to be administering the martyrdom, while two soldiers at the bottom right of the image are tending the faggots and the fire. Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/20, which appears twice in the second (1570) and once in the third (1576) and fourth (1583) early English editions. JPEG file (488 KB).
    Subject: Burning at the stake--England--16th century., Norwich (England)--History., Ormes, Cicely, d. 1557?, and Women martyrs--England--16th century.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  22. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: John Noyes of Laxfield stands chained to the stake and burning. Noyes is bearded and fully clothed and appears to be making a shrugging motion with this arms and shoulders. Two men are in the forefront of the image--one on his knees appears to be tending the fire and adjusting a faggot and another man, who does not appear to be a soldier, is possibly pleading for Noyes’ life. The caption of the engraving disputes the year of this martyrdom and is unclear about whether it took place in 1556 or 1557. This depiction of Noyes' martyrdom is a new design for this edition; in earlier editions it is illustrated by Luborsky and Ingram 11223/18, which appears multiple times in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) early English editions. JPEG file (1.18 MB).
    Subject: Martyrdom--Christianity., Executions and executioners--History., Prayer--Christianity--History., and Burning at the stake.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  23. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: “A TABLE OF All the Persons and Things contained in the Three Volumes and the Continuation of the last Edition of the Book of Martyrs, set forth 1632. Made by N. Holmes, D.D. and corrected and enlarged by the Author.” The table (index) lists alphabetically all those mentioned within the three volumes. JPEG file (367 KB).
    Subject: Martyrs--Indexes. and Martyrdom--Christianity--History.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  24. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: Continuation of "THE TABLE," which includes "A Direction to the Peruser of this Index." JPEG file (380 KB ).
    Subject: Martyrs--Indexes. and Martyrdom--Christianity--History.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  25. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: "A TABLE of the Saxon Kings, which ruled alone from King Egbert unto William Conqueror." This genealogical diagram illustrates the succession of Saxon kings from King Egbert to King Edward the Confessor. Crown-topped orbs indicate the length of the reign of each king; the orb for King Ethelwulfus also includes the name of his wife Osburga. The diagram first appeared in the 1583 early English edition. No Luborsky and Ingram #. JPEG file (394 KB).
    Subject: Anglo-Saxons--Politics and government. , Edward, King of England, ca. 1003-1066. , Egbert, King of Mercia, d. 839., and Anglo-Saxons--Kings and rulers--Genealogy.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  26. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: “The description of the Popes Councell holden [held] at Rome, in which appeared a monstrous Owle, to the utter defacing of the Pope, and all his Clergie [Clergy].” The Pope, bishops, friars, and other clergy gather for the Pope's Council in Rome and are struck with awe at the sight of a giant owl sitting in the rafters. Others in the crowd try to remove the owl by throwing sticks and poking at it. This engraving is slightly revised from the woodcut that appears in the second, third, and fourth early English editions (1570, 1576, 1583). Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/9. JPEG file (464 KB).
    Subject: Catholic Church--Clergy., Papacy--History., Authority--Religious aspects--Christianity--History., Satire--Religious aspects--Christianity., and Owls in art.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  27. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: Five bearded, barefoot men carry straw on their backs as a form of penance. The caption beneath the image reads, "This bag full of straw I beare [bear] on my back, Because my lords horse his litter did lack, If ye be not good to my lords graces horse, ye are like to goe [go] barefoot before the crosse [cross]." The penitents are followed by men dressed in robes carrying long staffs topped with symbols of the church. A similar design of a single penitent, described as a pauper, appears in the second, third, and fourth editions (1570, 1576, 1583). Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/7. JPEG file (430 KB).
    Subject: Poverty--Religious aspects--Christianity. and Penance--History--15th century.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  28. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: Babram, head raised to the sky and hands clasped in prayer, is chained to the stake and engulfed in flames. In the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) early English editions, this martyrdom is illustrated by Luborsky and Ingram 11223/18. However, in this edition, the martyrdom is a revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/19 and 11223/39. JPEG file (511 KB).
    Subject: Martyrdom--Christianity., Executions and executioners--History., Prayer--Christianity--History., Burning at the stake., Ipswich (England)--History., and Herefordwest (Wales)--History.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  29. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: Wolfgangus Schuch stands fully clothed and chained to the stake, hands clasped and arms extended upward. He is surrounded by a crowd of civilians and soldiers; two men kneel in front of him with their arms extended toward him. In earlier editions, this martyrdom is illustrated by Luborsky and Ingram 11223/39, which appears only in the second early English edition (1570) to represent the burning of Wolfgangus. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/16, which is the same engraving used for "The burning of John Goose." JPEG file (430 KB).
    Subject: Martyrdom--Christianity., Executions and executioners--History., Prayer--Christianity--History., and Burning at the stake.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  30. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: An unnamed Christian Jew is discovered by turbaned Turks in Constantinople lying on the ground, clothed only with a loin cloth, with extensive lacerations over his body. In an insert at the top of the image, the Turks bury him. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/41, which appears in the second (1570), third (1576) and fourth (1583) early English editions. JPEG file (411 KB).
    Subject: Conversion--Christianity--History., Martyrdom--Christianity--Constantinople., Turkey--History--Ottoman Empire, 1288-1918., Burial--Ottoman Empire--History., Turkey--History., and Judaism--History--Medieval and Early Modern Period, 425-1789.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  31. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: Richard Ffeurus, fully clothed with arms extended and upward as though in blessing, stands chained to the stake while flames and smoke engulf him. He is surrounded by a crowd of civilians and soldiers. In earlier editions this martyrdom is illustrated by Luborsky and Ingram 11223/14 and appears only in the fourth early English edition (1583) to specifically depict the burning of Ffeurus. Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/38. JPEG file (449 KB).
    Subject: Martyrdom--Christianity., Executions and executioners--History., and Burning at the stake.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  32. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: “Robert King, Robert Debnam, and Nicholas Marsh hanged for taking downe the Rood of Dovercourt.” These three men hang by the chest from separate gallows while a crowd of onlookers, mostly soldiers, stand behind them and three men, including a man of the church, stand is front of them. The destroyed rood and crucifix also burn in a fire in the lower left-hand corner of the image. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/16 and 11223/46, which appear in all four early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). JPEG file (469 KB).
    Subject: Crosses--England., Executions and executioners--England--History--16th century., Hanging--England--History--16th century., Martyrdom--Christianity--England., and Crowds--England--History. 
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  33. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: Robert Barnes, Thomas Garret, and William Jerome in Smithfield, a district of London which was the scene of over 200 martyrdoms during the reign of Mary I, are chained together to the stake; high flames and large dark clouds of smoke surround them. A few soldiers surround the men and two of them stoke the fire. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/20 and 11223/52, which appear in all four early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). However, in the earlier editions, a large and alarmed crowd is present whereas in the 1684 edition, only a few soldiers stand by. JPEG file (443 KB).
    Subject: Garret, Thomas, d. 1540. , Burning at the stake--England--London, 1540-1550., Executions and executioners--England--History--16th century., Barnes, Robert, 1495-1540., Smithfield (London, England)--History., and Martyrdom--Christianity--England.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  34. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: A single man, known as “Peake,” is chained to the stake at Ipswich. Fully clothed, he extends his arms out toward the crowd that is gathered beneath him. In earlier editions this martyrdom is illustrated by Luborsky and Ingram 11223/18, which appears in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) early English editions. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/14, but differs from the revision used to illustrate "The burning of John Castellane." JPEG file (435 KB).
    Subject: Executions and executioners--History., Prayer--Christianity--History., Burning at the stake--England., Ipswich (England)--History., Peake, d. 1512?, and Martyrdom--Christianity--England.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  35. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: William Hunter, naked and with hands clasped and raised as in prayer, stands chained to the stake. A “false prophet,” dressed in a hooded robe, is holding an open book in front of Hunter; Hunter speaks to him: "Away thou False Prophet." Other soldiers tend the fire that is engulfing Hunter while a crowd of civilians and soldiers observes from behind. In earlier editions this martyrdom is illustrated by Luborsky and Ingram 11223/39, which appears three times in the second (1570) early English edition. This is a completely new design not seen in earlier editions. JPEG file (441 KB).
    Subject: Martyrdom--Christianity., Executions and executioners--History., Hunter, William, d. 1555., Prayer--Christianity--History., and Burning at the stake.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  36. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: Doctor Robert Farrar, the Bishop of St. David's, burns at the stake while a hostile crowd of soldiers surrounds him. One of the soldiers wields a wooden stick at Farrar. Farrar is fully clothed and chained to a stake while clouds of smoke and flames engulf him. In the first edition (1563) this martyrdom is illustrated by Luborsky and Ingram 11222/27. In the second through fourth editions (1570, 1576, 1583) it is illustrated by Luborsky and Ingram 11223/19 and 12000/01. However, this engraving is a new design, based very loosely on Luborsky and Ingram 11223/38 but differs from the martyrdoms illustrated by "The burning of Richard Ffeurus," "The burning of James Bainham," "The burning of Thomas Bilney," and "The burning of Adam Wallace." JPEG file (452 KB).
    Subject: Martyrdom--Christianity., Farrar, Robert, d. 1555., Executions and executioners--History--16th century., and Burning at the stake--16th century.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  37. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: John Bradford ["Repent England]" and an apprentice, John Lease ("Jesus receive us)," stand chained to a stake in the midst of a large fire while a black cloud of smoke hovers above them. A crowd of soldiers, a few of whom tend the fire, surround them. Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/34 and 11223/72, which appear in all four of the early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). JPEG file (431 KB).
    Subject: Lease, John, d. 1555., Crowds--England--History., Executions and executioners--England--History--16th century., Bradford, John, 1510?-1555., Martyrdom--Christianity--England., and Burning at the stake--England--1550-1560.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  38. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: John Bradford, holding a book in his hand, is interrogated in prison by four bishops while the "Keper [Keeper]" looks on. Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/32 and 11223/70, which appear in all four early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). JPEG file (468 KB).
    Subject: Catholic Church--Clergy., Imprisonment--Religious aspects--Christianity., and Bradford, John, 1510?-1555.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  39. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: Six martyrs--M. Coker, W. Hopper, Hen. Laurence, Rich. Colliar, Rich. Wright, and Wil. Stere—are chained at the waist to three stakes. Some have their arms extended and some have their hands clasped as in prayer. Large flames engulf the men while a black cloud hovers above them. The martyrs are surrounded by a crowd of soldiers observing the burning. Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/75, which appears in each of the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) early English editions. JPEG file (516 KB).
    Subject: Colchester (England)--History., Burning at the stake--England. , Canterbury (England)--History., Executions and executioners--England--History., Martyrdom--Christianity--England., and Smithfield (London, England)--History.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  40. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: John Philpot and Thomas Whytell sit in the Colehouse Prison in St. Paul's Cathedral. Philpot is seated at the right side of the image and is holding a book, presumably the Bible, in his left hand. Thomas Whytell sits in the stocks and is chained to the wall by the neck. A third figure stands between Philpot and Whytell. A richly dressed priest holds a ring of keys in his right hand and a staff in his left and stands at the left side of the image. In the foreground, the priest's dog chews a bone. Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/40 and 11223/83, which appear in all four early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). JPEG file (451 KB).
    Subject: St. Paul's Cathedral (London, England)--History--16th century. , Philpot, John, d. 1555., Bible reading--England--History. , Whytell, Thomas, d. 1555?, Stocks (Punishment)--England., and Imprisonment--Religious aspects--Christianity. 
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  41. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: John Apprice, who is blind, and the lame Hugh Laverocke are martyred at Stratford the Bowe, near London. Both Apprice and Laverocke are chained to the stake and are surrounded by faggots and flames. Laverocke holds two crutches in his hands while Apprice has his eyes closed and his hands outstretched toward the crowd surrounding them. Both men are fully clothed and are surrounded by a fairly large group of ambivalent soldiers. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/90 and appears in each of the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) early English editions. JPEG file (541 KB).
    Subject: People with disabilities--England--History., Stratford the Bowe (England)--History., Burning at the stake--England--1550-1560., Martyrdom--Christianity--England., and Executions and executioners--England--History--16th century.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  42. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: Three women-- Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thackvel, and Joan Horns, are burned at the stake. All three women are fully clothed and have their hands clasped in prayer. The execution takes place at Smithfield and the women are surrounded by a group of soldiers, several of whom are on horseback. Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11223/91, which appears in each of the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) early English editions. JPEG file (535 KB).
    Subject: Executions and executioners--England--History--16th century., Prayer--Christianity--History--16th century., Smithfield (London, England)--History., Martyrdom--Christianity--England., Women martyrs--England--16th century., and Burning at the stake--England--1550-1560.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  43. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: "A true description of the racking and cruell [cruel] handling of Cutbert [Cuthbert] Symson [Simson] in the Tower." The illustration depicts three separate scenes. Center: “Cutbert Simson upon ye [the] rack”; upper left:“The description how Cutbert Simson stood in an engine of Iron 3 houres [hours], within the Tower, Commonly called Skevingtons gyves [gives];” upper right: “The grating of an arrow thorow [through] Cutbert Simsons fingers." Revised design of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/50 and 11223/101, which appear in all four of the early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). JPEG file (1.22 MB).
    Subject: Torture--Religious aspects--Christianity., Tower of London (London, England)--History., Imprisonment--Religious aspects--Christianity., Simson, Cuthbert, d. 1558. , and Martyrdom--Christianity--England.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  44. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: "The Martyrdome of Thomas Benbridge, Anno 1558 July 19." Thomas Benbridge, fully clothed with arms lifted upward, and chained, burning at the stake. He is bearded and has both hands lifted upward. He gazes down at the crowd of soldiers that surrounds him. One soldier at the bottom right of the image tends the fire. Another soldier who stands at the left of the image appears to be administering the martyrdom. The caption of the image indicates that this martyrdom took place on July 19th of 1558. In earlier editions, this martyrdom is represented by Luborsky and Ingram 11223/16 and appears only in the fourth (1583) early English edition. However, it is a completely new design here. JPEG file (509 KB).
    Subject: Executions and executioners--History., Benbridge, Thomas, d. 1558., Burning at the stake--England. , and Martyrdom--Christianity--England.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  45. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: "The burning of Richard Yeoman Minister at Norwich 1558 July 10." Richard Yeoman, arms extended toward the crowd that surrounds him, stands fully clothed, bearded and chained burning at the stake. A crowd of soldiers observes. In earlier versions this martyrdom is represented by Luborsky and Ingram 11223/19 and 12000/1, which appear multiple times in the second (1570), third (1576), and fourth (1583) early English editions. It appears here as a completely new design. JPEG file (525 KB).
    Subject: Executions and executioners--History., Burning at the stake., Norwich (England)--History., Martyrdom-Christianity., and Yeoman, Richard, d. 1558?.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  46. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: "The manner of the popish Spaniards in carrying Nicholas Burton a blessed martyr of Christ, after most spitefull sort to the burning" Nicholas Burton sits backward on an ass and is wearing garments that depict devils. He also wears a hat that is similar to a bishop’s which is also decorated with Satanic figures. According to the text surrounding the image, Burton is wearing a "Canvas coat and hat decorated with three Divels [Devils] that are used to commit his sould [soul] unto the Devil." The text also indicates that Burton’s tongue was forced out with a cloven stick fastened upon it so he could not utter his conscience and faith to the people. The ass is led by a group of soldiers who are identified as “Popish Spaniards” in the caption. A friar follows Burton and appears to be gesturing toward him and possibly having a conversation with the condemned martyr. In the upper right hand corner of the image is a depiction of the burning of Burton while a crowd of soldiers observes. Revised version of Luborsky and Ingram 11222/53 and 11223/104, which appear in all four early English editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). JPEG file (497 KB).
    Subject: Martyrdom--Christianity--Spain., Humiliation--Spain., Burning at the stake--Spain--1560-1570., Burton, Nicholas, d. 1560., Catholic church--Spain--History., and Executions and executioners--Spain--History--16th century.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  47. Images from the John Foxe"s Acts and Monuments (the "Book of Martyrs"), Ninth Edition (1684)

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    Description: "A most exact Table of the first ten Persecutions of the Primitiue [Primitive] Church vnder the Heathen Tyrants of Rome," followed in smaller type by: "continuing the space of allmost [almost] three hundred years after Christ from ye time of Tiberius unto Constantius Emperors of the said Empire with the sundry kinds of torments devised against the Christians and executed upon them.” This tipped-in insert illustrates thirty-four scenes of torture of early Christians under the Roman empire. Headings for the scenes with page number on which the scene is described include (from left to right) : "Christians brains beaten out with Maulls 49; Hanged by the middle 87; Tormented with trees 87; Their hands and feet cut off 37; Forced to thrust their hands in the fyre [fire] 85; Stoned to death 42; Torso on bull hornes 53; Hang’d by the neck and heels 87; Cast to swine to be devoured 109; Scraped with shells 87; Stab’d with forks 38; Thrust through with swords 87; Marturns and Sanctus burned with an iron chaire 52; Hanging by one hand and stretching out their joints 88; Their bones broken with batts [bats] 65; Searing of womens breasts 69; Some burnt with their entralls torne out 46; Christians left hamms Seared 89; Christians roasted pouring vinegar and salt on their members 86; Christians torne in pieces with wild horses 65; Christians burnt in furnace 42; Christians beaten with cudgels for not worshipping 105; St. Peter hang’d on the cross 38; Here they are flead [flayed] alive 38; Here their tongues are cut out 138; Christians most cruelly thrust through 50; Christians right eyes being burned out 92; Christians drag’d through the streets 109; Christians thrust under the nailes [nails] with sharp tacks 88; With an Engyne [engine] they are beheaded 88; Christians burned in their temple men, women and children 87; St. Lawrence ("This side is now roasted, turne me O tyrant great") laid on the gridiron 79; Christians driven up the mountain and thrown down on sharp tacks 45; Christians put in vessel to boil 39." The text at the bottom of the page details Foxe's interpretation of the Book of Revelations: "The 42 Monthes in the Revelation of St. John Expounded." This image is significantly redesigned and reduced in scope from the similar woodcut (Luborsky and Ingram 11223/1A) which appeared in the first (1570) and fourth (1583) early English editions. JPEG file (1.62 MB).
    Subject: Torture--Religious aspects--Christianity., Emperors--Rome--Religious aspects--Christianity., Martyrdom--Christianity--Roman empire., Bible. N.T. Revelations., and Church history--Primitive and early church, ca. 30-600.
    Language: English.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,