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  1. John Warne and John Cardmaker stand among faggots.

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    Description: Cardmaker ("I. Cardmaker." ["J. Cardmaker"]) stands barefoot before piles of faggots and addresses two richly dressed men on horseback. Chained to a stake among faggots, Warne ("Bevvare of idolatry" ["Beware of idolatry"]) addresses civilians and soldiers, who gesture in return. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/30, 11223/68. JPEG file (980 KB).
    Subject: Crowds--England--History., Executions and executioners--England--History--16th century., Cardmaker, John, d. 1555., Martyrdom--Christianity--England., Warne, John, d. 1555., and Burning at the stake--England--1550-1560.
    Language: N/A.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  2. William Flower suffers martyrdom.

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    Description: Surrounded by freshly lit faggots, Flower ("Lord receiue my spirite." ["Lord receive my spirit."]) stands against a stake and raises his arms upward. Workers add new faggots to the pyre. Flower's right hand has been cut off and impaled on a spear, and his wrist bleeds at its stump. A man on horseback supervises the execution, and a crowd of soldiers and ecclesiastical officials observes. A priest on the far left raises his hand towards Flower. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/29, 11223/67. JPEG file (1.07 MB).
    Subject: Crowds--England--History., Burning at the stake--England--1550-1560., Flower, William, d. 1555., Hand--Wounds and injuries., Martyrdom--Christianity--England., and Executions and executioners--England--History--16th century.
    Language: N/A.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  3. Thomas Haukes suffers martyrdom at Coxehall in Essex.

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    Description: Flames engulf Haukes ("O Lord, Receiue my spirite." ["O Lord, receive my spirit"]), who burns outside Coxehall in Essex. Haukes raises his arms above his head and gazes upward as he slumps against his chain. A man on horseback supervises the execution, and a crowd of soldiers and alarmed civilians observes. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/31, 11223/69. JPEG file (1.05 MB).
    Subject: Crowds--England--History., Haukes, Thomas, d. 1555., Burning at the stake--England--1550-1560., Martyrdom--Christianity--England., Executions and executioners--England--History--16th century., and Coxehall (England)--History.
    Language: N/A.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  4. Martin Bucer's and Paul Fagius's bones and books burn at the stake.

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    Description: Martin Bucer and Paul Fagius were continental Protestant theologians who migrated to England during the reign of Edward VI in order to escape Catholic persecution in Europe. Both died during the period of Edward's rule, at Cambridge, but religious authorities under Queen Mary exhumed their remains and burned them, along with their books, in order to combat their alleged heresies. This full-page woodcut insert records these events. In the upper center of this illustration, smoke rises from a burning pyre ("How M. Bucers and Paulus Phagius bones, were put into two new Coffins, and so bound to a Stake." ["How Martin Bucer's and Paul Fagius's bones were put into two new coffins and so bound to a stake"]). These coffins burn in a fire fueled by the books. A ring of civilians and officials surrounds the burning pyre, and a procession circles the event. A priest or friar carries a consecrated host under a canopy, in the lower right corner of the image, in a manner similar to the procession illustrated by the title page woodcut in this collection. Individuals carry banners and tapers at the front of the train. Friars ("Salue festa dies" / ["Hail, festival day"]) follow, carrying liturgical books that would likely have been written in Latin, a language inaccessible to most lay people at the time. The use of these sanctioned books affords a contrast to the heterodox books of Bucer and Fagius that burn nearby. Xylographic labels ("On afore, On afore," and "Hold up your torches for [i.e., from] dropping") convey orders given to the front of the procession. In an expression of conservative religious devotion, many individuals follow behind, and some kneel beside. The scene occurs in the town square at Cambridge. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/47, 11223/94. JPEG file (3.11 MB).
    Subject: Bucer, Martin, 1491-1551., Fagius, Paul, 1504-1549., Book burning--Cambridge (England)--History., Martyrdom--Christianity--England., Catholic Church--Doctrines--History--16th century., and Reformation--England--Cambridge.
    Language: N/A.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  5. Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley suffer martyrdom at Oxford.

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    Description: This full-page woodcut insert depicts the execution of Hugh Latimer, the former Bishop of Worcester, and Nicholas Ridley, the Edwardian Bishop of London. Richard Smith ("Smith.") preaches at a portable pulpit from I Corinthians 13:3 ("Si corp[us] meu[m] tradam igni caritate[m] aute[m] non habea[m] nihil vtilitatis &c." ["If I should surrender my body to the fire and have not charity, however, nothing of usefulness, etc"]). "Ridley" ("In man[us] tuas domine" [In your hand, O Lord]) and "Latimer" ("Father of heue[n] receue my soule" ["Father of heaven, receive my soul"]) stand back to back, chained against a stake, while workers prepare to light the pyre that will consume them. Latimer gestures toward a large crowd of civilians, who are restrained by soldiers, and Ridley motions toward the priest who stands before him and the richly dressed individuals who are seated beyond. One of these ("L. Willia[m]s." ["L[ord] Williams"]) reads from a scroll ("M. Ridley I wil remember your suite." ["M[aster] Ridley, I will remember your suit"]), while others, including Thomas Cranmer, the recently deprived Archbishop of Canterbury ("Cranmar.") ("O Lord strengthen them"), watch from above. The execution occurs outside Oxford. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/38, 11223/81. JPEG file (2.57 MB).
    Subject: Ridley, Nicholas, 1500?-1555., Latimer, Hugh, 1485?-1555., Burning at the stake--England--1550-1560., Reformation--England--Oxford., Martyrdom--Christianity--England., and Executions and executioners--England--History--16th century.
    Language: N/A.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  6. Pope Alexander III treads on the neck of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa.

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    Description: Pope Alexander III stands with his right foot pressed down upon the emperor's neck. A serpentine tongue extends from his mouth, while a bishop and cardinal look on. A cartouche in the lower right displays a conversation between the emperor ("Non tibi, sed Petro." ["Not to you, but to Peter"]) and the pope ("Et mihi, & Petro." ["Both to me and to Peter"]). A second cartouche sarcastically records the comments of the observers ("Super aspidem & basiliscum ambulabis, & conculcabis leonem & draconem." ["You will walk over the asp and basilisk and trample the lion and the dragon."]). This statement, which derives from Psalm 91:13, functions as a key to Foxe's text. The woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583) and is based on an illustration from Robert Barnes, Bapsttrew Hadriani iiii. und Alexanders iii. gegen keyser Friderichen Barbarossa geübt (Wittenberg, 1545). It appears in the first edition (1563) as a paste-in. Luborsky and Ingram 11222/2, 11223/2. JPEG file (3.52 MB).
    Subject: Alexander III, Pope, d. 1181., Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, ca. 1123-1190., Catholic Church--Clergy., Satire--Religious aspects--Christianity., Assault and battery--History., and Papacy--History--12th century.
    Language: N/A.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  7. Robert Barnes, Thomas Garret, and William Jerome suffer martyrdom in Smithfield.

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    Description: Soldiers prepare to light the fire that will consume Barnes, Garret, and Jerome, who stand among faggots. This execution transpires at Smithfield, a location outside London wall that witnessed heresy executions during the reigns of Henry VIII and Mary I. A richly dressed man supervises from horseback, and some among a large crowd observe in alarm. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/20, 11223/52. JPEG file (1.05 MB).
    Subject: Garret, Thomas, d. 1540., Executions and executioners--England--History--16th century., Burning at the stake--England--London--1540-1550., Smithfield (London, England)--History., Martyrdom--Christianity--England., and Barnes, Robert, 1495-1540.
    Language: N/A.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  8. Edmund Bonner, Bishop of London, burns the hand of Thomas Tomkins with a candle.

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    Description: Bishop Bonner (identified xylographically as "Bonner.") sits with three other priests and burns Tomkins's hand. A fourth man observes, and a fifth glances away. In the OSU copy of the 1563 version of the illustration (pictured here), someone has torn out Bonner's face in an apparent act of defacement. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Tomkins suffers martyrdom in "Martyr burns at the stake (5)" in this collection. Luborsky and Ingram 11222/28, 11223/63. JPEG file (1 MB).
    Subject: Bonner, Edmund, 1500?-1569., Catholic Church--Clergy., Books--Mutilation, defacement, etc., Hand--Wounds and injuries., Tomkins, Thomas, d. 1555., and Martyrdom--Christianity--England.
    Language: N/A.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  9. Sir John Oldcastle suffers martyrdom.

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    Description: Oldcastle hangs chained from a gallows and suspended over a burning pyre. Workers tend the fire, and a supervisor leads his horse nearby. A large crowd of civilians, clerics, and monks observes; some of these figures express alarm, and others express mockery. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/10, 11223/13. JPEG file (1.06 MB).
    Subject: Oldcastle, John, Sir, d. 1417., Crowds--England--History., Hanging--England--History--15th century., Executions and executioners--England--History--15th century., and Martyrdom--Christianity--England.
    Language: N/A.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,
  10. Doctor Rowland Taylor stands among faggots.

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    Description: Taylor ("Mercifull father for Jesus sake, receiue my soule." ["Merciful father for Jesus sake, receive my soul"]) stands among faggots and extends his arms outward. Observing spectators and soldiers anticipate Taylor's execution. Two supervisors direct the preparations from horseback. This woodcut appears in the first through fourth editions (1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583). Luborsky and Ingram 11222/26, 11223/62. JPEG file (1.13 MB).
    Subject: Crowds--England--History., Taylor, Rowland, 1509-1555., Executions and executioners--England--History--16th century., Martyrdom--Christianity--England., and Burning at the stake--England--1550-1560.
    Language: N/A.
    Publisher: The Ohio State University Libraries / Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University,